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JLc^T<=\l^.'8 5.^:i? 

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3 2044 097 057 814 

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B. L. GILDERSLEEVE, Ph.D. (G«lliilg»n), LL.D., 

Professor of Oreek in the Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore. 




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SBMred aoooidlng to Afit off Concrcn, 111 tiw year 1867, by 
IV the Clirk*! Oflcc of the Dlctrict Court of the United fltatM. tor i 
Sottthern District of Kevr York. 

Entered according to Act of Congress, in tne year 1879, br tho 
In the OOoe of the Ubmten of OongreM. at Waahli«w>a. 

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IH tnis new edition of my Latin Grammar, I have not made any eteen 
Hal change in tlie Inflections, as I am tlioroughly in accord witn tue wise 
Bclf-restraiot of tlie (German autliors. Professors LAmcAior and MOllbb, 
who have presented simply the results and not the processes of Compara- 
tive Grammar. A few sections and a few notes have been added, and 
here and there I haye allowed myself to vary from the original, but in the 
main I have kept to the translation, as made by Professor Thomas R. 
Price, of Randolph Macon College, a scholar whose attainments need no 
testimonial from me, a man whose friendship I count among my most 
valued possessions. 

To the revision of the Syntax, which was originally based on Ebitz, 
and largely indebted iat its practieal features to Lattkann and MOllbb, 
Bipeciftl attea^on has been given ; and, whilst I have not deviated from 
the ^neral arrangement, which was dictated by the design of writing a 
parallel Greek Grammar, the variations in detail are so numerous that 
this part of the book may be considered a new work. 

The orthography has been brought nearer to recent results, but I have 
not aimed at a painful consistency. 

In the treatment of the metres I have had regard to the system of 
EEnnucH Schmidt. 

It would be pedantry to enumerate all the grammars that I have con* 
salted, worse than pedantry to acknowledge my obligations to the great 

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masters of the department, without whose aid no tolerable Latin grammar 

can be written, and unworthy of the aims of my life to advertise my own 

efforts or to call attention to the supposed excellences of my own methods. 

fP^ «ii ^i,« i^nyg encouraged me by their sympathy, or aided me by 

suggestions, I am truly grateful. To none do 1 owe 

ncouragcment and for aid, than to my tried friend and 

ic, Professor Peters, whose acute criticism and practical 

been of great service to me in the prosecution of my 


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The references are to tlio paragraphs. 

IlTFIBCnONS 1--191 

Alphabet 1 

Vowels 2 

Consonants 6 

Syllables 8 

Quantity 10 

Accentuation.... 14 

Parts of Speech 15 

Inflection 16 

8ubstantiTe 17 

Gender 18 

Oases 21 

Declensions.. 25 

First 27 

Second 29 

Third 80 

Fourth 67 

Fifth 69 

Greek Nouns 71 

Irregular Nouns 74 

Adjectives 81 

Comparison 86 

Adverbs 90 

Numerals 92 

Pronouns 97 

Verb 100 

Conjugation of Sum 112 

Systems of Conjugation 116 

First Conjugation 119 

Second Conjugation 123 

Third Conjugation 131 

Fourth Conjugation 135 

Appendix to Third Conj 139 

Deponents of FlrHt Conj 141 

Deponents of Second Conj 143 

Deponente of Thu*d Conj 145 

Dei)ouents of Fourth Conj 147 

Periphrastic Conjugation..... 149 

Abbreviations 151 

Present Stem 152 

Perfect " 153 

Supine " 154 

Euphonic Laws 155 

Change of Conjngation 156 

Stems in a P-mute 157 

Stems in a K-mute 15t 

Aspirate Stems in H and V . . . 163 

Stems in a T-mute 164 

Liquid Stems 169 

Stems in S 172 

Stems in U 173 

Deponents 175 

Change of Conjugation 176 

Inchoative Verbs 181 

Irregular Verbs 183 

Obsolete forms of the Verb.. 191 

Syntax. 192—697 

Syntax of Simple Sentence 192 

Nominative and Vocative 193 

Concord 201 

Voices 203 

Tenses 213 

Present Tense 218 

Imperfect 222 

Perfect 226 

Pluperfect 233 

Future 234 

Future Perfect 236 

Periphrastic Tenses 238 

Tenses in Letters 244 

Moods 245 

Indicative 246 

Subjunctive 247 

Imperative 259 

Tenses of Moous and Verbal 

Nouns 270 

Simple Sentence Expanded 280 

Multiplication of Subject 281 

Qualification of Subject 284 

Attribute 285 

Demonstrative Pronouns 290 

Determinative and Reflexive 

Pronouns 293 

Possessive Pronouns. 299 

Indefinite Pronouns 800 

Numerals 307 

Comparatives and Superla- 
tives 811 

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Predicatire Attribatioo, and 


Malt! plication cf Predicate. . • . 

Qualification of Predicate 





Names of Towns and Islands. . 

With Accosatire 

With Ablative 

With Ace. and Abl 

Infinitiye as a Sabstantive .... 

Gkrund and Gemndive 




IncampUte Sentence 

Interroji^ative Sentences 

Syntax of Compound Sentence. . 


Ck>palative Sentences 

Adversative Sentences 

Disjunctive Sentences 

Causal and Illative Sentences. 


Sequence of Tenses 


Object Sentences 

With Quod 

With Ace. and Inf 


318 Object Sentences with l^uli- 





Sentences 53S 

Sentences of Design and Ten- 
dency 543 

Final Sentences 541 

Consecutive Sentences 558 

Temporal Sentences 501 

Antecedent Action 56S 

Contemporaneous Action. 570 

Prior Action 576 

Cnm(Qunm) 580 

Conditional Sentences 590 

Logical 597 

Ideal 598 

Unreal 599 

Incomplete 600 

Of Comparison 604 

Concessive Sentences 605 

Relative Sentences 613 

Comparative Sentences 641 

Correlative 645 

With atque 646 

Withquam 647 

Abridged SenUnce 648 

Infinitive 649 

Oratio Obllqua 651 

Participle .... 669 

Arrangement of Words 671 

ArranffemerU of Claueee 682 

Figures of Syntax 685 

Prosody • 696 

Versification 738 



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1. The Latin alphabet is the same as the English, except that 
it has no W. 

Hbmakk. — ^E IS used chiefly ia abbreviations — K. (Oaeso), Kal. (Ka- 
lendae). Y and Z occur in Grcclc words only. Originally, there was no 
difference in character between I and J, between Y and U. In the olden 
time U did not come after V : servos (lemii) equot or ecus (eqnus) 
qnom (cum). 


2. The vowels are a, e, i» o, u; and are divided : 

1. According to their qitalUy^ into 

open, a, e, o 
eloM, i, v. 

3. According to their quantity, into 

Bluyrt, '^ 

common^ i, e., sometimes short, and sometimes long, 3 

The fullowing distinction is made : 

commoD : by preference thort, 9 
common : by preference lonff, ~ 

' In tldt grammar, erery long rowel loand ti marked. Bat lee TOO B. 8. 

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8. Sounds of the Vowels. 

S = a in father. 5 = o in bone, 

i =s • in pr^. fi = oo in moon, 

X = i in capn'ce. ^ z^ u in sCtr (Frencli). 

Rbxark.— The short foaods arc only less prolonged In pronnncUitSiHi than the long 
sonnds, and have no exact English equivalents. 


4. There are hut few dipJUhongs or double sounds in Latin. The theory 
of tlie diphthong requires that both elements be heard in a slur. The tend- 
ency in Latin was to reduce diphthongs to simple sonnds ; hence frequent 
variatiuus in spelling : so glaeba and glSba, sod; oboedire and obedlrei 
cbej/; faennm (foennin) and fSnum, 7tay. 

M and 



ae in 




ou in 




ei in 

feint (drawled). 



en in 

Spanish dwda. 



oui in 

French ouC 

Rrxaiik.— llie republican pr-^nnnciation of ae and 09 is much diaputed. Many 
scholars contend for ao as English 1, oe as English oL 

5. Tlie sign •• {Diarisis — Greek = separation) over the second vowel 
shows that each souud is to be pronounced separately : &«r, air; Oono- 
maiia, aloS. 


6. Consonants are divided: 

1. According to the principal organs by which they aro pronounced 

Labials (lip-sounds): b, p, (ph), ^ ▼, m. 

Dentals (tooth-sounds) : d, t, (th), ]^ n, r, a. 

(Tti^^uroZs (throat-sounds): g, o, k, qn, (ch), h. 

2. According to their ^v^^n^a^n, into 

A. Semi-vowels: of which 

1, m, n, r, are liquids^ (m and n being nas(ds), 
h, J, and ▼, are hreatliings, and 
8 is a sibilant. 

B. Mutes : to which belong 

P-mutes, p, b, (ph), ^ labials, 

T-mutes, t, d, (th), dentals. 

K-mutes, k, o^ qn, g, (ch), gutturals. 

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Those on the same line are said to bo of the mum organ, 
liutes arc furtlier divided into 

TenuSs (thin) : Pi t, k, c, qn, hard (surd). 

Mediae (middle): b, di, g, ^// (sonanl) 

[Asplratae (aspirate) : ph, th, oh,] aspirate. 

The aspirates occur chiefly in Greek words. 
Tho3e on the same line are said to be of tJie same order, 
8. Double consonants are : b = dz in ndze ; z = cs (ks) ; J between two 
Towels is a double sound, half vowel, half consonant, and always length- 
ens the preceding vowel ; J^iJtUiiui, hungry. 

Sounds op the Consonants. 

7. The consonants are sounded as in English, with the following 
exceptions : 

O is hard throughout = k. 

Ch is not a genuine Latin sound. In Latin words it is a k ; in Greek 
words a kh ; commonly pronounced as ch in German. 

O is hard throughout, as in get, give. 

J has the sound of a broad y j much fuller than y in your. 

M has a guttural nasal sound before c, g, q, as in anchor, anguish. 

Qn = kw (nearly) ; before u, qn = c ; quum s=: com $ equin = torn 
Quum is a late spelling, retained for convenience' sake. 

R must be trilled. 

8 and X are always hard, as in hiss, oxe. 

T is hard throughout 

V was nearer our w than our ▼ ; still nearer the French ou in oui. 


8. The syllable is the unit of pronunciation, and consists of a 
vowel, or a vowel and one or more consonants. 

A consonant, between two vowels, belongs to the second 
t-mo, / love. 

Two or more consonants belong to the following rowel: 
a-^r, rough; feu-atus, lucky ; li-brl, boohs. 

Exceptions. — 1. Liquids, 1, m, n, r, join the preceding vowel : al-mus, 
fosUring ; am-bo, both; an-gnis, snake; ar-bor, tree; mn follows the 
general rule : a-mnls, ri'wr, 

2. When the consonant is doubled, the first belongs to the firsU the 

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second to tlie second syllable: OBtHdM^hdma; aUiiin, ^orife/ map-pa 
napkin; Bn-nvu^ year ; miUio^ I send. 

3. Compounds are treated as if their parts were separate words : ab-*f o, 
r drive off; rSs-publica, eomnumtoealth, 

9. The last syllable of a word is called the ultima; the next 
to the last, the penult ; the one before the penult, the ani^- 

10. Quantity. — ^A syllable is said to be long by nature^ 
when it contains a long vowel or diphthong; by position^ wlien 
a short vowel is followed by two or more consonants, or a dou- 
ble consonant: ors, art; coUimi, nech; ahnunpo, I break off; 
pCT mare, through the sea ; n^ murder. 

Remark. — N^ns, and J make a preceding vowel sound long, not merely 
tlie syllable. 

ExcETTiON. — J in the compounds of Jugum, yoke; bl-Jugos, two-horse. 

11. A syllable ending in a short vowel, followed by a mute 
with 1 or r, is common (anceps) : tenibrae, darkness. 

12. Every diphthong, and every vowel derived from a diph- 
thong, or conti-acted from other vowels, is long: saevus, cruel; 
eondtldo, / shut up (from daudo, / shuf) ; cOgo (from oo-igo), 
/ drive together, 

13. One simple vowel before another vowel-sound makes a 
short syllable: deus, Ood; puer, boy. 

Hemarks. — 1. h docs not count : rXt^ nothing, 

2. Exceptions will be noted as tlicy occur. 

8. On the quantity of final syllables see Prosody. 

14. Accentuation. — 1. Dissyllabic words have the accent 
or stress on the penult: equus, horse. 

2. Polysyllabic words have the accent on the penult, when 
the penult is long; on the antepenult, when the penult is short 
or common: mand&re, to commit ; manddre, to chew ; int^gnmi^ 

Remarks.—!. The little appendages (enclitics), que, ve, ne, add an 
accent to the ultimate of words accented on the antepenult : lOminaqae^ 
und lights ; fluminive, or rivers ; v6merene,/rom a j^ghsliare ? * 

2. Other exceptions will be noted as they occur. In the older language 
the accent was not bounded by the antepenult : aocipio (accipio)^ oon- 
cutio (ooncutio). 

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16. The parts of speech are: 
I. The Xoun^ embracing : 

1. The Substantive, which giyes a name : Hi, a man ; Codei^ 
Codes; dOnmn, a gift, 

2. The Adjective, which adds a quality to the substantive. 
11. The ProiiouHy which jwiuts out 

in. The Verb, which says. 

IV. The Particles, which are mainly mutilated forms of the 
noun, and embrace: 

1. The AdtJcri, which shows circumstances. 

2. The Preposition, which shows local relation. 

3. The Conjunction, which shows connection. 

Rbmarks.— 1. Noun and pronoun have essentially the same inflec- 
tion ; but they are commonly separated, partly on account of the differ- 
ence in signification, partly on account of the greater antiquity of the 
pronominal forms. The pronominal clement is the formative element of 

2. The Interjection is either a mere cry of feeling: ih! oA/ and does 
not belong to language, or &lls under one of the above-mentioned classes. 


16. Inflection is that tending or cliange, chiefly in the end of 
a word, which shows a change in the relations of that word. 
The noun, pronoun, and verb are inflected; the particles are not 
capable of further inflection. 

The inflection of nouns and pronouns is called declension, 
and nouns and pronouns are said to be declined. 

The inflection of verbs is called conjugation, and verbs are 
said to be conjugated. 


17. The substantive gives the name of a person or thing 
(concrete), or of a quality (abstract). 

Concrete substantives are cither ;?roj3cr or commotu 

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The proper noun is proper^ or peculiar ^ to certain persons or 
things: Horfttiiu, Horace; Hel^lis, Naples; Fftdns, Po. 

Common nouns are common to a whole class: dominiu, a lord; 
orbs, a city ; amnis, a river. 


18. For the names of animate beings, the gender is deter- 
mined by the signification; for things and qualitiejf, by the 

Males are masculine ; Females, feminine. Masculine : AOmn- 
tes; Jupiter; vir, man; eqnuB, horse. Feminine: Comtiia; Jtlno; 
ftmina, woman; equa, mare, 

19. Some classes of words, without natural gender, have their 
gender determined by the signification : 

1. Names of moiiths (niensds, masc), winds (venti, masc), 
rivers (fluvil, masc), and mountains (mont^, masc), are mascu- 
line: Apnlis, the opening month, April; Aqoilo, the north wind ; 
Albis, the River Elbe; AthOs, Mount Athos. 

Exceptions.—!. Feminine are the riyers AUiaj Albulaj Matr6na, 
Vie Mame ; Styx j IjethS. 

2. Of the mountains, the Alps, AlpSs, five feminine, and sundry (Greek) 
names in a (Gen. ae), § (Gen. es) : Aetna, OyU§n§; S5racte, and PSUon 
are neuter, and so are names of mountains in a (Gen. 5rum): Blaenala, 

II. Names of countries (terrae, fern,), islands (insulae, /?w..), 
cities (urbes, fem,)y plants (plantae, fern.), and trees (arbores, 
fem.), are feminine : Aegyptus, Egypt ; Ehodus, Rhodes ; pirns, 
a pear 'tree; sbi^ afa'-tree. 

Exceptions. — The exceptions, which are numerous, are chiefly Greek, 
and follow the termination, instead of the signification. 

III. All indeclinable nouns, and all Avords and phrases treated 
as indeclinable nouns, are neuter: fts, right; ft longum, a long ; 
scire tunm, thy knotving ; triste vale, a sad ^^farexoelV^ 

20. 1. Nouns Avhich have but one form for masculine and 
feminine are said to be of common gender : civis, citizen (male 
or female) ; comes, companion ; judex, judge. 

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2. SnlMtanttva molrifia are words of the same origin, whose 
different terminations designate difference of gender: magister, 
mastery teacher ; magistra, mistress; senms, senra, slave (m. and 
f.) ; victor, victrlz, conqueror {m. and f.) 

3. If the male and female of animals have but one designa- 
tion, mas, male, and t^moA, female, are added, when it is neces* 
sary to be exact : p&YO m&s {maaeahis), peacock, pivo ftmina, pea* 
hen. These noans are called epicene. 


21. The Latin nonn has six cases: 

1. Nominative (Case of the Subject). 

Answers: wJiot wliatf 

2. Genitive (Case of the Complement). 

Answers : w/iose t whereof? 

3. Dative (Case of Indirect Object or Personal Interest). 

Answers : F*ir or To tolunn t 
4 Accusative (Case of Direct Object). 

Answers : w!iom t wluitt 
6. Vocative (Case of Direct Address). 
6. Ablative (Case of Adverbial Relation). 

Answers: wlieref whence f wherewith? 

22. According to their syntactical use, the cases are divided 
Into Casas BectI, or Independent Cases, and CftsOs Obllqal, or De< 
pendent Cases. Nominative and Vocative are CcUitls Bectl, the 
rest CasOs ObllqnI. 

23. According to their form, the cases are divided into 
strong and weak : The strong cases are Nominative, Accusative, 
and Vocative. The weak cases are Genitive, Dative, and Ablative. 

Hkm ARKS.— Thc^e six capcs are the remains of a larger nnmbcr. Tlie Locative, which 
bakin to the Dative, and coincident wiih it in the Ist and 8d Dcclen^iono, is lotit in thd 
(icniiive of the 2d Declension, and oltcn blended with the Ablative in form, regiilarly io 
Byntaz. The Instmmental, which is found in other members of the family, is likewiso 
merged in the Ablative. 

24. The case-forms arise from the combination of the enduig 
frith the stem. 

The stem is that which is common to a class of formations. 

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BsMABKf.— 1. The stem It often lo much altered by contact with the ending, the end 
In^ so much altered by the wearing away of vowela and consonants, that they can be de- 
termined only by scientific analysis. So in the panidi<;m menuu the stem is not meni, 
DQt mania, the final a having been absorbed by the ending in the Dative and Ablative 
Plnral menals. So -d« the characteristic of the Ablative Sin<rular, has disappeared, and 
the locative ending has undergone many changes (0, SI, I, ft). The *' crude form '' it is 
often Impossible to ascertain. 

S. Tlie root is an altimate stem, and the determination of the root belongs to companu 
tlve etymology. The stem may be of any length, the root must be a monot*y]lable. In 
ptnna the stem is penna- ; in pennula, pemitila- ; in pennStvloi, peimStnlo- ; the 
not is psT (petnai pesna, penna). and is found in pet«re, iofaU upon^ iofiy at ; Qieok, 
nir-onat^ irrepov ; English, /«ifA«r. 


25. There are fiye declensions in Latin, which are character- 
ized by the final sound of their respective stems: 

The steins of llie First Declension end in . . . S 

Tlie stems of tlie Second Declension end in 
Tlie stems of the Tliird Declension end in 
or tlie close vowels .... 
Tlie stems of the Fourth Declension end in 
The stems of the Fifth Declension end in 


a consonant, 




26. 1. The First, Second, and Fifth Declensions are called Vowel De« 
clensions ; the Third and Fourth, which really form but one, the Conso- 
nant Declension, i and u being semi-consonants. 

2. General Rules of Declension, 

I. For the strong cases : 

Neuter nouns have Nominative and Vocative like the Accusative ; in 
the Plural the strong cases always end in S. 

In tlie Third, Fourth, and Fifth Declensions the strong cases are alike 
in the Plural. 

The Vocative is like the Nominative, except in the Second Declension, 
when the Nom. ends in -tuu 

II. For the weak cases: 

Dative and Ablative Plural have a co mmon form. 

KiXABXs.— In declining neater nonne, follow the order of strong cases and weak 
cases. It sayes thne, and shows connection. 

First Declension. 

27. The stem ends in &, which disappears in the ending -Is 
of the Dative and Ablative plural. 

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»N. mensa, the, or a, tablB, 

G. mensae, of Vu, ov a, taJbk. 

D. mensae, to^for the, or a, (a^ 

Ac. menaa-n^ the, or a, to^. 

Y. mensa, taJble ! or tcAle ! 

Abl. mensS, /rom, mUi^ by, t/ie, or a, taii$» 
PLUR.^N. mexuae, t7t« toM^ or table$, 

G. mensSmm, ^ t?ie tables, or to^^. 

D. mensis, to,fortfie tables, or tabUi, 

Ac. mensSs, ^ tables, or to^M^. 

y. mensae, tables ! 

Abl. mensis, p^m, wWi, by, the tables, or toM^. 
KzMABKB.— 1. The Gen. 4k' is found in poeiiy. Tlie Gen. in -As occun 
In the word femilia, family, when combined with ^tex^faiher, mftter, 
mother, fUios, san, filia, dauglUer, yiz. : paterfamilias, mftterfamlligfi, 
fOios families, filia families. 

The Gen. PI. sometimes takes the form -nm instead of -Ibmm, chiefly in 
the Greek words amphora {amphora, measure of tonnage), and draduna, 
frane— {Greek coin). The poets make frequent use of this form in patro- 
nymics and compounds of -cola (from colo^ linhabit) and -gena(from gen, 

2. The Locative Dative case singular is like the Genitive R5mae, 
at Borne, 

3. J^si^ goddess, filia, daughter, ambae,5(7fA, and dnae, two, have the form 
•Sbiu in the Dative and Ablative Plural, viz.; deibos, fUiSbos, ambSbos, 

28. Rule of Oender. — The gender is feminine, except when 
males are meant 

Hadria, the Adriatic, is masculine. 

Second Declension. 

29. The stem ends in -6, which appears in the older forms of 
the Nom. and Ace. singular, servo-s, servo-m. In the ordinary 
forms it is changed into tl, 6, lengthened into 0, or disappears 


snro.— N. hortus, garden. 


— hortI, gardonM. 

G. horti, 


D. hortd, 


Ac. hortum, 


V. horta, 


Abl hortS, 


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aiKG. — ^N. Ac V. beUum, toar, fluii.— bella, tpan, 

G. belli, belldnim. 

D.AbL bells, * bellis. 

Remauks. — 1. In the Genitive Sin<::tilar, ii is often contracted into i 
the accent remaining unclianged : ingenil, ofgeniM^ into ing^nL 

2. In the Vocative Singular, ie (Je) is commonly contracted into I in 
proper names in -iua, -^os (SJas), -Sins (^Uoa), the accent remaining un- 
changed ; as, AntfinT, TnlU, QSL VergilL TViivmyBon, genius, genius, and 
meus, fny, form their Vocatives in like manner: fill,geoI, mL 

8. In the Gknitive Plural, •am for -5nim is found in words denoting 
coins and measures ; as, nummom {of moneys) = adstertiam, cf sesterces ^ 
modium, of measures. Faber, workman, has both £abnim and €abr5nim ; 
Uberl, cMdren, both Uberum and UberSmm ; «and vir, man, in compounds 
has triumvirum, of Oie triumvirs, and the like. 

4. The Locaiive Singular, which has a restricted use, ends in I (Appa- 
rent Genitive), as RhodI, at Rhodes^ Tarenti, at Tarentum, 

5. Deus, Oo(f, is irregular. Singular Vocative, deus. Plural Nomina- 
tive (del), diX, dl; Genitive, dedrum, deom; Accusative, deSs; Dative 
and Ablative (dela), dils, dis. 

30. liiile of Oender. — ^Nouns in -ub are masculine; in -tun, 



ExcEPTTONS. — ^Feminine are: 1st. Cities and islands, as, Oorinthos, 
Samns. 2d. Most trees, as, fiigns, heeeh ; pirns, pear-tree. 3d. Alany Greek 
nouus, as, atomus, atom ; paragraphos, paragraph ; methodus, method ; 
periodos, period; dialectos, dialect 4th. Alvus, beUy ; colas, distaff ; 
humu4, ground; vannus, wlieat-fan. 

Neuters are : Tiros, venom; pelagos, sea; ▼nlgos, Vu rabble (sometimes 

31. Most masculines in r drop -us in the Nominative and e 
in the Vocative Singular : 

N. puer, hoy. 


ager, field. 


G. puerl, 




D. puerd, 




Ac puenuD, 




V. puer, 




Abl puerd. 




Digitized by LjOOQ IC 


82. The e belongs to the stem, and is retained tlirougli all the cuses In 
adulter, adulterer; alter, </<« otiier; wmpmr^ rough; dexter, «;i ike righi 
(wliicli lias either dextri or dezterl); vxUir^ outMe ; g&amr^ ettn-in^lato ; 
gibber, hump4faeked ; laoer, torn; Ub^tx^free; Uber, god of wine ; miaer, 
wrekked; prosper, lueky ; puer, hoy ; socer, fatlier-in-lato ; tener, soft; 
TeQ>er, evening; and in words ending in -fer and -ger, from fero, I bear ^ 
and gero, I carry ^ as, sign! f e r, standard-bearer^ armi g e r, ajinor-bearer. 

Iber and Oeltiber (names of nations) have in the Plural Ibfel and 

In other words, the e is inserted only in the Nominative and Vocatirs 

83. Decleksioj^ op Adjectives in -ns, -a, -um. 

Bonus, bona, bonum, good. 

M. F. K. M. F. K. 

sme.— >N. bonus, bona, bonnm. flub.— boni, bonae, bona. 

O. boni, bonae. Inml. bonOnun, bonfimm, bonOmm. 

D. bono, bonae, bonO. bonis, bonis, bonis. 

Ac. bonnm, bonam, bonom. bonSs, bonis, bona, 

y. bone, bona, bonum. bonI, bonae, bona. 

Ab). bono, bonft, bonO. bonis, bonis, bonis. 

84. Miser, misera, misemm, wretched. 


N. miser, misera, misemm. miserl, mlserae, misera. 

O. miserl, mlserae, miserl. miserOmm, mlserftmm, miserOmm 

D. miserO, mlserae, mlserO. miserls, mlserls, mlserls. 

Ac. misemm, miseram, misemm. mlserOs, mlserSs, misera. 

V. miser, misera, misemm. miserl, miserae, misera, 

AbL mlserO, mlserS, mlserO. mlserls, mlserls, mlserls, 

Flger, plgra, plgmm, Oow. 

one.— K. piger, pigra, pigmm. plur.— pigri, plgrae, pigra. 

O. pigrI, plgrae, pigrl. plgrOmm,pigrfimm,pigrOmm. 

D. plgrO, plgrae, pigrO. pigrls, plgrls, pigrls. 

Ac. pigmm, pigram, pigmm. pigrOs, plgrSs, pigra. 

V. jrfger, pigra, pigmm. pigrl, pigrae, pigra. 

AbLplgrO, pigrfi, pigrO. pigrls, pigrls, pigrls. 

86. The following have Genitive Singular in -Xus, and Dativo. 
Singular in 1 : 

fume, alius, 

nullns, one^ any, none. 

851nji, tStos, 

alios, sole, whole, other. 

uter, alter, 

neuter, tohieh of the two^ one of the tioo, neither. 

Remark. — In poetiy, the X of the Qenitiye ending -Ins is often shortened^ 
except in aUua (rare), sdlXus, utrlos, neutiius. Foi alius use aliSnus (a4i.) 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 


■mo.— N. nnllni, nulla, nnllnm, n^n«. alios, alia, aliud, otAer. 

G. nnlUiu, nulUna, nullltis. alXtis, alXiu, alius. 

D. noUl, nulU, nnllL alii, alii, aliL 

Ac. nullmn, nallam, nnllom. aliumi aliam, aliud. 

Abl. nnll0^ nnllS, nnlld. ali5, alifi, aliG. 

The Plural is regular. Regular forms of the O. and D. sing, occur, Imt 

Third Declension. 

86. The stem ends in a consonant, or the close vowels i andn. 

87. The stems are divided according to their last letter, called 
the stem-characteristic, following the subdivisions of the letters 
of the alphabet: 

h^OoMonant Stemt. - TL—Vowii SUmt, 

A. Liquid stems, ending in 1, m, n, r. 1. Ending in L 

B. Sibilant stems, ending in s. 2. Ending in n. - 

C 1. Ending in a P-mute, b, p. (Compare the Fourtb 

C. Mute stems, J 2. Ending in a E-mute, g, c Declension.) 

( 3. Ending in a T-mute, d, t. 

88. The sign of the Nominative Singular, masculine and 
feminine, is 8, Avhich, however, is dropped after 1, n, r, 8. 

The Nominative Singular undergoes various changes. 
The Vocative is like the Nominative. In the other cases, the 
endings are added to the unchanged stem. 

' the Nominative without the case- 
ending 8. 
the Accusative and Vocative cases 
in both numbers like the 
the Nominative Plural in &. 

89. Neuters always form -^ 

Rbxark.— Originally coincident with the Batiye, the Locative of the Third Declensloo 
rag Anally blended with Ablative, both in form and in syntax. In the Dames of nonnfl 
the old form is frequently retained : KarthS^nl, at Carthage, SnlmOnl, at Sulmo. hsy 
nrding to some, rflrl, in the country , is an Ablative. 

L— Consonant Stems. 
1. liquid stems in L 
40. Nominative without 8, as, consnl, the consul, 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



nKew--N. coasnl, eoMuL 
G. consul-is, 
D. consul-I, 
Ac consQl-em, 
Y. consul, 

PLim.— K. co n sol-ii, the ixnmik. 
G. consul-mil. 
D. coiisul4bas« 
Ac consul-is. 
y. consul-4s. 
Abl consuHbns. 

Bule of Gender. — Stems in 1 are masculine : 151, tJie sun. Mm , 
891, saU, sUis. 

ExcEpnoKS.— Neuters are : mel, honejf, mollis | fal, gatlf fellis. 

2. Liquid denu in m. 

41. Nominatiye with s. One example only: li]em(p)s, winter; 
Genitive, Mem-is f fem.). 

8. Liquid stenu in n. 

42. The Nominative Singular of masculine aiid feminine stems 
is formed without s, drops the n of the stem, and ends in S. 

The Genitive Singular has, in some nouns, -Onis; in others, 

The Nominative Singular of the neuter stems retains the n, 
and terminates in -6n.^ 

The Genitive Singular of neuters ends in -Inis. 


fiiKG. — ^N. leS, (ion, imSgS, likeness, ndmen, name, 


PLim — ;iC. le0n-€8, imfigin-Ss, n5min-a, 


Reicauks. — 1. Nouns in -do and -go Lave in the (lenitive -Xnis, whilst 
the rest hi -o have -5nisj as, grando, haU^ grandinis; virgo, maid. 

BzosFTioN8.->Fra6do, robber ; harpago, grappling-hodt; Hgo, matioek^ bave Onlg : 
homOi man ; turbo* wMrlwindt haTe Inis. 


































Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



2. To the stems iu n belong aangnii, Mood, sangoin-is ; polli8,^tf r, poZlia 
•is (both masc.). In these, n of tlie stem is dropped before ■ of the Nom 

8. Masculmes in -en, Genitive Inis, are : pectan, comb, and the persona] 
designations: tibloan, fluter; tabicen, trumpeter; oomicon, hom-Uower; 
and flSmen, prietL 

Masculines in -5n, -Snis, are only : spKn and liSn, spleen, and the Plural 
rinSs, kidneys, 

44. Bules of Gender: — 

1. Masculine are nouns in -o, save those in -do, -go, and -io, 
With caro, flesh: but ordo, cardo, are masculine, withligo, 

Addharpago, and in -io, all concrete nouns like pUgio. 

ordo, rank; oardo, hlntie; ligo, mattock; margo, border; harpago, ^rappUn^- 
hook; ptlgio, dagger; Tespertllio, 6a^ ; titio^Jlrebrand, 

2. Nouns in -en (men) are neuter. See exceptions 43, 3. 

4. Liquid stems in r. 

45. Nominative without^ 

Remark. — ^In several words in -6r and -tlr, the r has arisen from a. 
Hence, labds, as well as lab5r, toU; rSbus and rSbur, octk; vdmiaand 
v^5mer, plouglisliare. 


passer, sparroto, 

labor, toil, 

u, fOr, 


pater, father, 

5rator, speaker, 

▼nltur, vulture, 


oadSver, dead body, 



46. Stems in -tr insert e in Nom. and Voc. 
the stem. 

In later, brick^ e belongs to 














Abl. labor-e, 








pater, father. 







47. Rules of Oender, — ^Words in -er and -or are masculine 
those in -ur, neuter. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


JBzcEPTiOKS. -The only feminine Is arbor. 

Neuters are : fSr, nectar, marmor, 
Aequor, iter, acer, piper, 
Verber, nber, vSr, cadaver. 
Ador, tfiber, and papiver. 

aear, vuQife ; ador, gpdt ; aequor, tea ; arbor, tree ; eadSTor, dead body ; llr, tpek , 
aarmor, marUe; nectar, nedar; piper, pepper; papiTor, popp¥; tftber. imnm" 
&ber, teat; ySr, epring, 

Fnzfor, hran^ Is masculine, and so are names of animals In •«; 


48. The Nominative has no additional s. 

In the other cases, the s of the stem passes over, between two 
vowels, into r. 

Instead of the final stem-vowel e, the Nominative of Mascu- 
lines has i. 

Instead of the final stem-vowels e and o, the Nominative of 
neuters has n. 

Rei[aiik.~S is retained tliroughout in the neuter : vSs, dish, ▼Ssia. 
SS occurs in Ss, a copper, genitive asaia (masa), and oi, bone, osais (neat). 
Gen. Plur. assium, osaium (originally i^tcms). 


N. A. y. genns, kind. gener-a. corpus, bodjf, corpor.a. 

G. gener-is, gener-nm. oorpor4i. oorpor-um. 

D. gener.X, gener4ba8. coxpor.!, corpor-ibua. 

AbL gener-«^ gener4bu8. oorpor-e^ oorpor-ibna. 

50. Rtile of Oender. — ^Masculine are nouns in -is (-eris), and 
-68, -Oris: except Os, mouth; genitive Oris, neuter. 

Neuter are nouns in -ns, genitive -eris, -oris, and in -tls, -Oris; 
except telltls, earthy tellllris, Avhich is feminine ; and the mascu- 
lines, lepos, hare, leporis; mils, mousey maris. G. PI. murium. 


51. All masculines and feminines of mute stems have s in the 

Most polysyllabic mute stems change their final vowel i into 
e in the Nominative. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 


A K-mute, combining with f, becomes x, as, pio-t = i^kK^peacc, 
rtg-i = rex, king. 
A T-mute before s is dropped, as> aet&t-s = aetfts, age ; ped-s = 


52. Stems in a P-mute. 

▲ ■ I o u 

trab-i, Ampa. plib-s, «ommon«. ttip-s,A»ic pri]ieep-f,<Ai<A (op-f),iiorMr. — 
trab-ii (fern.) plfib-U (fem.) itip-ii (fom.) prinolp-ii, op-ii (fom.) «— 

With consonant preceding the stem-characteristic : 

Urb-i, o^y, urb-is (fem.) ; stirp-i, stock, stirp-ii (fem.). 

53. Stems in a K-mute, 

pCz. ptiaee, r9x« Unff, rSdIz, root TOZ, voiet, lis, AffML 

pfio-is (fem.) rSg-is (mas.) ridlo-is (rem.) TOo>is (fom.) Ifto-is (fem.) 

fax, torcA. grex, A^rtf. saUz. triAbuf.jOdez, Ji«f^ dnz, tetnltr. gr6g-ii(raa8.) talio-ifl (fem.) jadio-if. duo-ii. 

54. With consonant preceding the stem-characteristic : 
Arz, citadel, arc-is (fem.) ; falz, sickle, falc-is (fem.). 

Smo.— N. 




















8ma.— N. 




















Bbhark. — All monosyllabic muto stems, with the characteristic pre- 
ceded by a consonant, have the Grenitive Plural in -iom, as, nrbium, of 
cities, • arcium, of citadels; montium, of mountains/ partium, of parts; 
noctium, of tlie nigJUs. The polysyllabic stems also in -nt and -rt have 
more frequently •ium, as, clientium, of clients; cohortium, of companies. 
Btems in -St have sometimes botli •um and -inm, as, clvitStmn and clvitS- 
ttum. See 59, R. 8. Some monosyllabic stems preceded by a long vowel 
have -iam in the Gen. PL, some both -nm and 4iim. Notice Iiiiic4iim, 
frand^mn (-iuii)i land-nm (4iim), IXt-ium and dSt-ium (55), Some hare no 
Gen. PL at all. 7G,D. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Stewu In a T-mmtt, 
56. A. Characteristic preceded by a ToweL 

V. IK 

aetftt-lt. (fea.) anU-is, (fern.) yidii. (mMe.) 

«. qnita, fvsit pariM, tfoflL lilrit, kOr. pii, /oot 

qnidtii, (fern.) pail«t-ii, (nu»e.) hiridis, (m«ae.) pftd^ (nafM^) 

1.111, fvU. Upis, JtftnML 

Ut-is. (fern.) a P. Inm. UpU-ii, (mMe.) 

mllat, sekOer, 
A laoerdOt, prietL enitOt. keeper. 

MMrdOt-ii. enstOd-ii. 

«. Tints. tnanlbim. palfts. &v- Iavb, #f«iM. 

▼irtdt-is, (fern.) palfld-is, (fom.) Undif . (km,) 

p6eat, M09». 
peoftd-ii. (fesL) 

56. B. Characteristic preceded by a consonant 

nt. liroEi, brow. 

firont-if, (rem.) 
rt pars, parL U. 

part-is, (fern.) 
€L BOX, night. 

noctis, (fern.) 

nd. frons, Ue^bmn€^ 
frond-is, tfem.) 
puis, pomidge. rd. eor, hearL 
polt-is, (fern.) cordis, (neut) 
lae, fiUlk. 
laet-is, (neat) 

6iNo.— N. aetSe, age. 
O. aaUt-is, 
B. aetSt-i, 
Ac. aeUt-em. 
V. aetss, 



SiNo.— pM, fooL PLnu-pod-ti. 
ped-is, podum, 
pod-I, pod-ibns. 
ped-em, ped-<s, 
pes, ped-6s, 
ped-e, pod-ibns. 

57. Hule of Gender. — ^All mute stems, with Nominative in 8, 
are feminine. See 18. 

Exceptions in a K-mute. 

Masculines are -nnx and -ox, 

Saving forfoz, forpez, noZ| 

Xaoz, Tlbez, faez, and forms of prex. 

&ez, dregs^ loz. law. 

Ibrta, ehean. nez, elaughter. 

forpez, tonge. proot. with prai/er. 

donas, Wot* Ylbdz, weal (better ylblx.) 

OaUz, eup, and fornix, arch, are masculine. Oabc, heel, and calz^ chalk 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 

'^^ THIHD DBOLBireiOir. 

Mbteepiwtu in a T-nttfte.— Nouns in -tfs, -Itii, are mascnline, as, < 
imft osMipitis { as are also p€s,/09^, and its compounds ; pariSs, teaU ; and, 
of the nouns in -is, lapis, atone. Marges, -itis, s/teaf, is feminine. 

Masculines in -ns are : mens, mountain/ pom^ bridge/ fona, iprings 
dens, tooVi; torrens, torrent; rudens, rope. 

Neuters are only: oor, heart, and lac, mUk^ wliicli drop tlio chaMCter- 
tstic ; and caput, head, capitis. 

IL— Vowel Stims. 

68. Masculines and feminines form their NomiDative in 8. 

Some feminines change^ in the NomiuativOy the stem-yowel i 

Neuters change, in the Nominative, the stem-vowel i into e. 
This e is generally dropped by polysyllabic neuters after 1 and r. 

All stems in i have Genitive Plural in -ium. 

All neuter stems in i have the Ablative Singular in I, and 
Nominative Plural in -ia. 

Remarks. — The stems of Nomi natives in -is and -ea are easily distin- 

Consonant stems in -is and -es increase in the Genitive ; but vowci steint 
in i do not increase in the Genitive, as : 

Consonant : lapis, ftont ; Genitive, lapid-is. miles, toldier; GenitlTe, mlUt-ia^ 
Vowel : olvis, ci/i^A. elvis. nVMH^doud. nftUs. 


X. y. y. v. 

BiNG.— N. eolli-t, Aiff. tnrri-s, ^oiMT. Tiilp6s,yto. man»t mo. animal, ttvln^ Mfi^ 

G. oollls, turris, valpis, maris, animSlis, 

D. colli, tnrrl, vnlpl, marl, animill, 

Ac ooUem, torrem (tturri-m), vnlpem, mare, animal, 

V. oollis, turris, vnlpM, mare, animal, 

Abl.ooUe, tnrre (tnrrl), vnlpe, marl, animftll, 

Plvb.— N. ooU68, tnrrfis, vnlpes, mari-a, animfili-a, 

G. oolU-nm, tnrri-um, vnlpi-am, mari-nm, animfili-om, 

n. coUi-bns, turri-bns, vnlpi-bos, marl-bus, animUi-bus, 

Ac ooUfis, turrfis, vulpM, maria, amim&U-a, 

V. ooU68, turrSs, TulpSs, mari-a, animftU-a, 

AbLoolU-bos. turri-bus. yuipi-bus. mari-bus. animfili-bns. 

Remarks.— 1. In Genitive Plural, -nm instead of -ium. 
Always in: Jnvenis, young/ senez, old/ canis, dog/ v&tiSi bard^ 
stmis, Jieap / pSnis, bread. 

Usually in: apis, ^; sddis, eeat; Toluoris, bird. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 


9. The Genitive Plural in -ium oocun in the appwentlj comonant 
stems : imber, rainstann ; ftter, hcMA ; ▼enter, h6lly ; Unt«r, Mff ; which 
form the Nominative without i, dropping the i, and innerting ^i Oenitiye, 
imfaris, utris, Tentriji, liniris. All are masculine, except Unter, which 
is feminine. As, oi, hom^ mfiB (48) are properlj i-etemi. (G. PL -imn.) 

8. Under the vowel stems in 4 are sometimes classed those mute stems 
which take -ium in the (}en. Plural ; nrfal-iini, montJ^iim. See 54, K. 

60. Observations. — Several stems in i, with Nominative in 
•is, have Accusative and Ablative Singular and Accusative 
Plural in -im, I, Is, respectively: 

1. The Accusative Plural in -Is occurs, side by side with -fii: 
In all Yowel stems in i, which have Nominative Singular in -is ; 
In mute stems, which have Genitive Plural in -inm. 

2. The Accusative Singular in -Im is used : 

a. Always in names of towns and rivers in Is, as, NeftpoUs, Accusative, 
NeSpoIim; Tiberis, Accusative, Tiberim| and in yIb, force; sttls, thirit; 
\xaiiMj cough, 

b. Umally in secnris, axe; {tibria^ fever; pupplMfpoop; tonis, Unoer. 

3. The Ablative Singular in I is used: 

a. In all nouns which have Accusative Singular invariably in >Im, and 
in ignis, fire, in the phrases, ferr5 ignlqae, aqnS et ignl interdlcere. Nouns 
which have Accusative in -Im or -^m have Ablative in I or S. 

b. In the neuter vowel stems, which have Nominative in S, fil, Xr. Names 
of cities in -^ have Ablative also in -e, as, Praeneste, Genitive, Praenestis. 

c In the adjective vowel stems of the Third Declension, as, fecilis, easy; 
Ablative, £acill; Soer, sharp; Ablative, SorL 

KsMABX.-- So also the adjectives of this class, when used as sabstantiyes by ellipsis : 
annfilis (sc. liber, book), chronicle; nStSUs (sc diOs, day\ birthday; Aprllis (sc. men 
•if, month), and all the other months of the Third Detiension : AblatJye, annfill, nfitSll 
Aprfll, Septembrl, eta 

Exceptions.— Juvenis, young man; and SLedXIiu, aedile ; Ablative, Juvene, aedlle 
i^djecttves used as proper noons have generally Ablative in -e, as, Jnvenfilis ; Ablativd, 

61. Bule of Oender. — 1. Of stems in i, Nominative in 'ia, 
Borne are mascnline, some feminine. 

Masculine are : 

Amnis, axis, callis, crlnis, Postis, scrobis, buris, collia, 

Oassis, caulis, fascis, finis, Sentis, torquis, atqne foUJs, 

Filnia, fustis, ignis, ensis, Tarzia^ unguis et a nn filis, 

Orbis, pfinis, pisois, mensis, Vectis, ▼«rmia et canfilia. 

Digit^ed by Google 



axil, ascU, 
btlrii, plough-taU. 
eallis, Jbotpaih. 
eaaSlis, eanai. 
eassM, (pi.) UfUe. 
caoliflt ftalM, 

erlnii, hair, 

ensifl, glaitfe. 

fMCds, /b^. 

finis, 0Mf. 

follis, 6e/^o«M. 

ftnis, ntfM. 

ftlftiit eudffeL 

ignis, >». 

mensis, month, 

orbis, drc^ 

pSnii. dTMKl. 

pifciii Jlsh, 

p<wtiB, doorpost. 

Nntit, drambU, 

lorobis^ di^eA. 

torqnis, necklace, 

torris, Jlre-hrand 

nngoit, notf. 

vectii* tever. 

vermii, worm. 

Oallis, finis, sorotj^i torqnis, are used also as feminines. 

Other nouns in -is, and all in -€s, are feminine. Vepres, bramble, la 
usually masculine. 

2. Vowel stems, with Nominative in -e, -al, -ar, are neuter. 

Rbmabk.— Of the names of animals in -is, some are masculine ; tigris, tiffer ; eaniSi 
dOff ; pi80is,/«A ; others feminine : apis, Am; avis, Mref ; oris, ah^ ; f61is, cat (asa 


62. Of stems in n, only the monosyllabic belong to the Third 

SmG.— N. grfa 
G. gniis 
D. gmi 
Ac, gra-em 
V. grus 
Abl, gru-e 

grus, crane (fem.). 

Plub. — gm-Ss 

Sfis, twine, commonly fem., usually snbus, in D. and Abl. Plural. 

Tabls or NoxiNATiTB AND Oenititie Bndikos or THE TuiRD Dbclshbiow. 
A * before the ending denotes that it occurs only in the one word cited. 


. Qbw. 










Hannibal, proper name. 






* X1S. 














Lil, proper name. 



























Digitized by LjOOQ IC 

miju> DscSfSKnov* 












frant, ehMtery, Gen 




Fl. fraadium. 






pnlt, porridge. 






hieintt winter. 

-&t *-sdiB 





front, kqf^ branch. 





front, fcs^thfod. 







oonoort, concordant 



brasi, . 


part, paH, 







nrbt, dty. 






ttirpt, stalk. 





princept, <Mef. 





aucept. fowfsr. 






pax, peace. 







fax, torch. 






judex, Judsfe. 





nex, dtiaih. 






grex, Jtock. 





r&nex, rower. 






filex. pUMe. 


langaii, bloodL 






syUatlaw, Oen. 


rex, king. 




cervix, neck. 



dormouss. Gen. 



calix, cup. 






nix, snow. Gen 



PI. nivinm 






vCx, voice. 






praecox, early-ripe. 




possessed (ff. 







nox, night 




oattU, sheep. 



cmx, cross. 


: nterons, vnder th$ Mn, 


ooxgnx, spouse. 






Wx, light. 





(frtbc) /hiit. 






faex, dregs. 







faux, throat. Gt-n 
PI. fkaciam 






falx, sickle. 






lanx, dish. 






arx, citadeL 








lac mi/A:, 
fiiec, pickle. 
wpat, head. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



-% -is mare, «m. 

-X -Onis pftvo, pMCodt, 

•onis Saxo, Saxon, 

-inii homo, man, 

*-nii oaro,.^MA. 

FouBTH Declension. 

67. The Fourth Declension embraces only dissyllabic and 
polysyllabic stems in u. 

The endings are those of the Third Declension. 

In the Genitive and Ablative Singular, and the Nominative, 
Accusative, and Vocative Plural (sometimes, too, in the Dative 
Singular), the n of the stem absorbs the vowel of the ending, 
and becomes long, as fraotu-is becomes fracttUf, of frmt; fracta-e 
becomes fractH, from fruit ; fiructu-es becomes fractfis, fruits. 
This u, on the contrary, is lost before the ending -ibus in the 
Dative and Ablative Plural. 

The Accusative Singular, as always in vowel stems, has the 
ending m, without a connecting vowel (compare the Accusative 
in -im of the stems in 1), hence n-m. 


oornll, horn, Pu eomn-ft, 

eornlls, oomn-nm, 

oomfU oorxiibiu, 

eorna, oornn-a, 

comll, cornn-a, 

oomlU eornibns. 

Bemabks. — 1. Datives and Ablatives Plural in -ubus occur in nouns 
in -cus, except porticus, piazza; and in tribus, tribe; artus, joint ; 
partus, childbirth; portus, harbor; sinus, /o/rf. 

2. Domus, houw^ Ablative Singular, dom5 ; Gknitive Plural, domniini 
Plural, domos and domds. DomX (a locative 



PL. fructtli. 





fractii-I (frucUL), 








Abl. fructtl, 


-Nouns in -ns are masculine ; those in 

are Idas, pi., the \^th day of the months tribua, 
needle^ maniu, hand^ domiui, house. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 


Fifth Deolbnsioh. 

69* The stem ends in e. Nominadve in •• 








SmQ. x&-§, thing. 



























Remarks.— 1. The Plural is used throughout in three words only : rdii, 
thing; dies, day; and in later Latin, upeciis, appearance. In some words, 
only Nominative, Accusative, and Vocative Plural occur ; others have no 
Plural at alL 

2. The stem-characteristic e, in the Genitive and Dative Singular, Is 
long after a vowel and sTiort after a consonant, as speoids, Genitive speoiSI ; 
rSa, thing, G. reL Contraction into -9 sometimes occurs : diel, G. D. diS. 

3. Some nouns of the Fifth Declension have a seoondar}' form, which 
follows the First Declension, as mollitiSs, softness, and mollitia. Where 
the double form exists, only Nominative, Accusative, and Ablative Singu- 
lar commonly follow the Fifth Declension. 

70. Rule of Oender. — ^Nouns of the Fifth Declension are 
feminine, except dies (which in the Singular is of the common 
gender, and in the Plural masculine), and the masculine men* 
diM, mid-day. 

Declbksion of Gbebk Nouns. 

71. Greek substantives, especially proper names, are com- 
monly Latinized, and declined regularly according to theif 
stem-characteristic. Many nouns, however, either retain their 
Greek form exclusively, or have the Greek and Latin forms side 
by side. 


I. IL 

N. P6nelop6, LeOnidSs, AnehlsOs, BBlos (us)* lUondun). 

0. FSnelopSs, LeOnidae, Anchlsae, Beii, Ilil. 

D. FSnelopae, LeOnidae, Anchlsae, 1)610, |liO. 

ic. PinelopBn, Le9nidaiii(Sn), AnchlsSnCam), BSlondun) Ilion(iiTn). 

V. POnelopO, LeOnidS, AnohlsS, S, &, Dfile, lUon (um.). 

4bl. PSnelonS. LeOnidS. AnoUsfi. D610. lUS. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



N. PuitlltLg, 
a PantU, 
D. PanthO, 
Ac. PanthtUi, 

V. PanthlU 
AU. PanthO. 

N. Aer, air. 
G. Aerifl, 
D. Aerl, 
Ac Aera(eiii)t 

V. A«r. 
Abl Aere. 


AndrogedB (ni), AthXi, Orpheui* 

Androgel, AthO, Onif, Orpliel (A), 
AthO, OrpheO, 

AthO, On, Onem, Orpheom (ea)« 


0, Ona, 



BolOn, BqIq, 
SolOna («Di), 


XenopliOn, AtlSt, 

XenopliOntiit Atlantis, 

XenophOntl, Atlanta 

XenophOnta Atlanta, 


XenophOn, AtlS, 

XenophOnte. Atlante. 

ThalOs, Paris.* 

Thal2^l«, is, Paridis, os 
Tlial?^, I, ParidI, t 

ThBlUa, On, em, Pari<fo, im, in 


Pari, Peril. 

BIdlls, Onis, 


BIdO, Onl, 


BIdO, One. 


N. OedipXs, AeMllOs, ens, SOcratOs, 
G. Oedipodi«.I, Achillis, el, I, SOcratis,!, 

D. OedipodI, AchiUI, SOoratI, 

Ac. Oedipt<m(oda),Acliillem, ea, BOoratOn, em. 

On, _ 

V. Oedipe, AeliillOs, 0, eu, SOcratO (es), 

AbL Oedipod0. 0. Aoliille. SOorate. 

Rrmabks. — 1. Many other forms are found, for which the dictionaries 
must be consulted. So poesis, G. poOsis, e58, D. poeiff, Ace poSsin^poetf. 
Many of them are tmnsliterations of Greek words, quoted as Greek. 

3. In transferrin^? Greek nouns into Latin, the Accusatiye Singular was 
sometimes taken as tlie stem. 

So xparifp. Ace xparijpa^ {punch) howl, 

crilter, crateria (masc.), and crStSra (creterra) orSterae (fom.) 
2aXa/ii?, Ace SaXa/iTra, ScUamis. 
Salamls, Salamluis, and SalamXna, ae. 










D. Pl. 


Ace. Pl. -as 

Plural Forms of Greek Nouns. 

: canSphoroe, basket-bearers, 
: epS, epic poetry, 

\ Arcades, Arcadians, How often in prose we can 

not tell. 

Ge5rgic5n, of the Oeorgics. In Titles of Books, so 

MetamorphSseSn, of the Metamorphoses, 
! IiOnmiaitf (rare), to the Lemnian women, 

Macedonas, Common eyen in words that are not 

Greek: Allobrogas. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



Ibbeoulab Nouvs. 



K. Different genders in the same declension ; 

baenlni, baeolnm* dtif, 

baltens, balteom, mord^OL 

oUpenSt elipeosii 
ealamiiter, calamistnun, 

B. Change of declension : 

1. l8t and 8d. eisada, ae, esiediim, t 

vesperftt m* V6spert It 

t.mand6th. dflritia, ae, dflritiSs, kardmm. 

mfiteria, ae. mSteriSs, ttt^f, 

8. Sd and 5th. dllnviiim, t daiiYiBi, /oo<L 

4. 9d and 4th. tventum, X. iventns, fts, 

ft. 8d and 4th. pl6bs, ii, pMbBi, el. 


war-ehartott §!§. 

& 8dand2d. 

tribtlnu pl9bt Mtmmqf the people. 
imbMUUs, imbeciUui. 

And a few others (adjectiyes). 



n. Devbotits NOUITB. 


A. Nouns used in Singular only : SingnlSria tantnm. 
Most abstract nouns, and names of materials : 

JUstitia, JutWse, 

B. Nouns used in Plural only : 

arma, Orurn, 
blg^, quadrigae, 
cassOs, ium, 
cenrlcSs, am, 
epulae (epalnm). 
forfis, um, f • 
Xalendae, NOnae, 
ambfigSs, -am, 
oompedSs, -ium. 
These foor have the 

PlorSlia tantnm. 



two-horee./our-hone chariot, 
toils (snare), 

neck (preferred to cervix), 

truce. • 

IdtU, CkOende, Nonet^ Idee, 

Uberl, children, 

minis, shades qf the dead 

minae, threats. 
moenla, inm, N. townrwalL 
nuptiae, toedding. 
icfilae, etairwaif. 
tenebrae, darkness. 
valvae, folfUng-doore, 

lkiio6s-iiim, f., ffulUL 
pree9i-ami t., prayer. 

Ablative Singular in -•: ambSge,oompede, fanoe, prece. 

AJcin to Pluralia tantnm are : 

C. Nouns used in Plural with a special sense : Heterologa. 

aedSs, is, tempU, (better aedis) aedSs, ium, house, palace. 



auxilia, auxiliatiee, reii^i mem m U 
castra, camp. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 





J^W9t$^ iTOtf$* 






Mter (of the alphabet) 


ipUOe, lit*ratwt 






A. Used only in Nominntive and Accusative Singular : 08, rigtU^ ii«a% 
wrong^ and Greek Nenters in -ot. 

B. In Ablative Singular: iponte, of free vMy and many verbals in ftt 
pronqitil, in readiness ; Jmso, bjf order ; monitfi, by advice, 

C. In the oblique cases the forms from : 

(daps), r., fBOtt, S. and Ft (ops), t, hdp (No Dat), S. and PL 

(dido), t, «t0oy« 8. (vix), £, e^kon^ (No Dat.), S. and PL 

(frnz), f., /HfU, 8. and PL 

D. The Genitive Plural of many monosyllabic words does not occur : 

eOt, wheUtone^ lllx, Uff^t Oi« mouth. 

vU, force : G. and D. are wanting ; Ac. vim ; Abl. vL PI. vlrSs, vXrinm.. 

nSmo, nobody: G. nalUiis hominiB; D. n&ninl; Ac. ndminem; Abi 
nulls homina 


A. HBTEROOLrTES : Different stems with the same Nominative. 

domos (domn- and domo-) ; Abl. domO ; PL G. domuum, domdnun; Ace domlls 
and domOi. 

poeus (peeud- and pooor-), peondis, $hstp ; poooris, caUU, 

Hcim, flff-tree ; Ismrua, boff-iree ; pinuB^ pine-tree ; are declined regularly 
according to the Second Declension, but have secondary forms in use 
from the Fourth Declension in the Ablative Singular, and in the Nomina- 
tive and Accusative Plural. 

senStiui, senate ; G. senfttus or senStt (rare). 

reqmSs, -€tis, f. : Ac. requiStem and requiem, rest. 

fomSs, -is ; Abl. iaoA and famS, Tktnger, 

satrapSs, G. satrapae and satrapis ; D. satrapae, «Ste., Persian governor, 

78* B. Hbtbroobneous Nouns have the same stem with different 
gender in Singular and Plural : 

SiNouu^R. Plural. 

frenum, bridle. frfini, and frfina. 

Joons, jest joci, andjoca. 

loens, plaeB, ( looa, locaUties, 

< loel, passages in books^ 
ristnun, nuUtock, rfistrl, and rfistra^ 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



79* C. METAFLA8T8 are nouns which have isolated cases from anothei 
than the Nominative stem : 

▼Si, Tlteis, n., ffessa. PI. vSsa. ySsOmm, vSsIs (»& If from viso-j. 

poGma, poBmatis, n., poem, PI. poSmata, po6matam, Ibni. 

6. poematOrum, D. po6matIs (ao If from po6mato*X 

So all Qreek hoqds in -a* -atis. 
BaeohfinSlia, -inm (-iOmm), -iXmB, feast of Bacchus, 

So Kveral other names of feasts in -ia* 


IV. Pbouliabitibs. 

Anio, G. AnlBnis, the (river) AnU>. 
aSi assis, m., a copper, 
auoeps, aucapiSf/otff/^. 
bOs (bovB), bovis, c, <xc, cow, 

G. Pl. boam. 

D. Abl.bllbtis. bObns. 
oapat, capitis, n.. head. 
So anoeps, ancipitis, two-headed. 

praeceps, -cipitis, headlong. 
earo, carnis (for oarinls), f.^, flesh. 

O. PI. carninm. 
Cer68« Cereris, Ceres, 
fSr, farris, n., spelt, 
ieh felUs, n., gaa, 
fjuniir, femoris, n., thigh, 

iter, itineris, n., toajf, romts. 
jecnr« jecorii , n., liver, 

Jllpiter (for Joy(i)piter), JotIs. 
mel, mellis. n., honey, 
nix=(i)nig(y)8, nivis, f., 'R^u'- 
OS, ossis. n., bone, 
Os, Cris, n., fnovth, 
poUis. pollinis, m.,flcwr. 
sanguis, sangainist m., Uood, 
senez, senis, old man. 
snpellex, supellectilis. UfumUure. 
Venus, Veneris, VenMS, 

Adjectives op the TmsD Deoleksiok. 

81, The declension of the adjectives of the Third Declension 
follows the rules given for the substantives. 

Most of the adjectives of the Third Declension are vowel 
stems in i. They form the masculine and feminine alike, with 
Nominative in s; but the neuter Nominative weakens the char* 
acteristic i into e. (Compare mare, sea.) 

ADjBonvBs OF Two Endings. 

82. Several stems in i, preceded by r (or, tr, br), form the 
Nominative masculine, not by affixing s, but by dropping the i 
and inserting e short before the r, as, stem 5cri, sharp, Nom 
Masc. ftoer, Nom. Fem. ftoris. (Compare 60, 3 c.) 

The e belongs to the stem only in oeler, oeleris, celere, »wift, 


Digitized by LjOOQ IC 








BiNO.-N. ftoUlHs easy. 





G. faciUs, 


D. fanilT, 


Ac. laoilem, 




V. faoilis, 





Abl. lacilL 


PLTO.— N facU««, 




G fociU-imi, 


D. lacUi-biu, 





y. facUiM, 




Abl. faoUi-bns. 


83. The consonant stems have the same forms in all the 
genders, except that in the Accusative Singular, and in the 
Nominative, Accusative, and Vocative Pluml, the neuter is 
distinguished from the masculine and feminine. 

M. andF. N. M. andF. N. 

Sma.— N. tSili^ lucky ^ fellx, prtLdeiu, tdM, prUdenf , 

O. fUIo-is. prtLdent-is, 

D. ftUc-I, pr11dent-I« 

Ac. ftUc-em, feilx, prtldent-em, prfldeni, 

V. ftllx, prfLdeni, 

prUdentl (and e). 

AbL ftUoI (and ••), 

M. and F. 
PLUR.— N. ftlie-6s« 
o. feUciuxa, 
D. ftllc-ibut, 
Ac. fSlic-68, 
v. ftUo-68, 
Abl. ftUo-ibOB, 

M. and F. N. 
YtXvAnOtd, vetns. 
vater-is, (st. Tttte 
veter-t »oe48.) 
veter-on. vatni. 
▼eter-e (or X). 

N. M. and F. N. 

fSlIcia, prfLdent-Bst prUdantia, 


fSlIeia, prUdent-Os, prtldentia, 
fSlIcia, prUdant-Os, prttdentia. 



M. and F. 
yetar-68, vetera 
vetar-68, vatar-a 

Adjiotitbs of Onk Bnoinq. 
ive stems of one ending close with 1, r, 8, or a p^t 

ior« ffAn4fitl, pauper, poor, eienr, Utme^ ptlbfis, aOutty vetna, old. 
lor-ii, pauper-it, ciour-ii, ptlber-is« veter-ia. 

1. I (e). Abl. e. Abl. e. Abl. e. 



eaeleba, unmarried^ 
oaelib-ia, Abl.e. 

duplex, dtnOU^ 


inop-i, poor. 
inop-ii, Abl. I (e>. 

trux, aa«a^ 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 


ilT6f, rich, dfiMS, dot^id, oompoi, potmaed qT* prtdtni, «0Im, eoBOon, hmrnonimuL 
dlYit-ii* dStid-is, oompot-ii, prftdent-ii, eonotird-ii, 

Abl. e. AbL e* AbL e. Abl. %. 

85. Observations. — The adjectives of one ending, including 
the present participle, follow in part the declension of vowel 

1. In the neuter Plural they have -ia; only vetns, old, has 
Vetera. Many have no neuter. 

2. In the Ablative Singular they have I and e — when used as 
adjectives commonly I; when used as substantives commonly e. ' 

The participles, as such, have e; but used as nouns or adjec- 
tives, either e or I, with tendency to I. 

3. In the Genitive Plural the cpnsonant-stems have: -imn, 
when the characteristic is preceded by a long vowel or a con- 
sonant; -mn, when the characteristic is preceded by a short 
vowel, as : 

and&z, Md, prttdeni, wise. SamnltSs, SanmUm 

aad&oinm, prUdentiom, Samnltiaiii* 

snpplez, ii^mMant, dives, rich, 

sapplicnmt dlvitum or ditum. 

eaelebs, unmarrUd, compos, poneatedqf^ memor, mMffitL 
caelibum, compotuxa, memomm. 

Exceptions occur, as : 

multiplex, manifold, mnltipliciiLm, Pboenlces, Phoenidans, Fboenleiim. 

The participles have -imn; as, amans, loving, amantium. 

Used as nouns, they have sometimes -um, as : 

sapiexis, a tag€y sapientum. parens, a parent, parentnm. 

4. Compound adjectives follow the declension of the word 

from which they are formed, as : 

coneors, harmonkme^ anceps, Awftfo, qiiadnip6s,/0Mr/w<Mi, 

eoneordasii ancipitum, qnadmpednm. 

Even these, however, have the neuter plural commonly in -ia, as, ancl. 
piUa, quadmpedia. 

CoMPABisoN OF Adjectives. 

86. The Degrees of comparison arc* : Positive, Oomparative^ 
and Superlative, 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



The Comparatiye is formed by adding to the consonant sterna 
the endings -ior for the masculine and feminine, and -ins for the 

The Superlative is formed by adding to the consonant sterna 
tlie endings -ianmns, -a, -nm. 

Vowel stems, before forming the Comparative aud Superla- 
tive, drop their characteristic vowel. 




M. and F. 



vm^Mgh, alt-ior. higher. 


alt-istimna, a, jaukigTieeL 

fortU, -€, 

brave, fort-ior, 



tltiUs. -e. 

w^ia, tttil ior. 




bold, and«c ior, 

andfto-ins, aadfto-iifimus. 


icise, prildent-ior, 

prttdent-iuB, prtidant-iiwilinm. 




Sing.— N. 
















alti5re and 


altiSre and -L 

Plto.— N. 



















88. 1* Adjectives iu -er add the Superlative ending -zimns directlj to 
the Nominative Masculine (-rimus for -simus by assimilation). 



miser, -a, -lun, wrdched, miser-ior, miser-iiis, 

celer, -ist-e, 9w\ft, celer-ior, celer-ins, 

Scer,Seris,fiore,«Aaf3), ficr-ior, fier-ins, 

veins, old, veterior, vetnstior, 

mitHrns, ripe, sometimes mfitnrrimns. 



2. Six adjectives in -ills add -limns to the stem, aAer dropping -I, tc 
form the Superlative: perhaps by assimilation. 

UMilis, etuy; difloilis, hard; sixoilis, like; dissimilis, unUke; gracilis, eUnder; 
and hnmilis, low. 


Comp. facil-ior. 

Sap. facil-limns (for faoil-simns). 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



8 The acyectives in dicui, fions, volus, borrow the Comparatfre aod 
Buperlative from the participial forms in -dioens, -ficeni, and -voleni. 

hentvoluB^ benevoUnty Comp. benevolentior, Snv benevolentiuiiBiu. 
maledicoB, tcurrilous. maledleentior, maledlcentiisimui. 

In like manner: 

prOvidns, far^hted^ 



4< Adjectives in -ua, preceded by a vowel, form the Comparative and 
Superlative by means of magis and maxima, more and most: 

idOnens, Jl<, Oomp. magis idOnenSt Snp. maximi idOneut 

Remark.— Ac^ectiTes in -qnut are not inchided under this last rule. 
antlqniu, oUL, Oomp. antlqu-ior, Snp. antlqa-itsiiiini. 


Irregular Comparison. 




melius, optimos. 




plljns, pessimos. 







minus, minimus. 



S. ' 

pins (no Dat nor Abl.), plfLrimui> 

H. pltlras, 

plfLra, G. PI. pliirium. 


eomplflra and -ia. 




nSquius, nSquissimui. 

frtlgl (Sndetii.) frugal. 



Remarks.— 1. Some Comparatives and Superlatives are in use, whilst 

the corresponding Positive is either lacking or rare. 

deterior, worse, dBterrimus. 

Qeior, twlfter, Ocissimus. 

potior, better, potissimus. 

exterior, outer, extrfimus, extimus, from exterus, on the outside, and prep, extrl, 

superior, upper, suprSmus, or summus, from superus, on the top, and prep. suprS, 

inferior, lower, infimus, from inferus, beUno, prep, infrfi, below. 
posterior, hinder, later, postrSmus and postumus, from posterns, coming after, and 

prep, post, ofter. 

2. The Positive stem of existing Comparatives is mot with only in a 
preposition or an adverb : as, ante, before; anterior, that i% before; prope, 
near ; propior, proximus; citerioTi on this side; citimus, from citrS; nl* 
iorior, further ; nltimus, from ultra, beyond; interior, inner; intimui| 
from, intns, within ; prior, former ; prJmuBy firsts from prae, before. 

3. Many adjectives lack one or botli of the degrees of comparison. 

DIversus, different, novus, new, falsus, untrue, meritus, deserved, have no Oom- 

LonginquuB, ^fat, propinquus, near, salttSris, healthful, juvenis, young (Com- 
parative junior), and senex, old (Comparative senior), have no superlative. 

**Tour»geet" and ^^oldest " are ezpressc:! by minimus, maximus (nfitU)' 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




90. Adverbs are either oblique cases or mutilated forms of 
oblique eases of the corresponding adjectives. 

1. Adjectives in -us and -er form the adverb in (mutilated 

«ltu8, lofty ^ alts, pulcher, beautiful, pulchrS. miser, wretched^ miserS. 

2. The adjectives of the Third Declension form their adverbs by adding 
•tar to the stem ; stems in -nt dropping the t, and stems in a K-mute in- 
serting the connecting vowel i before the ending. 

fortis, hracey fortiter. ferox, totZd, ier5oiter. prtldens,/<n*0«0«>n^, pradenter. 

Exceptions : 
aadix, hUd, andie-ter (seldom aadfidter). difioilis, hard to do, diffieolter and 

Bat Instead of these, generally, nOh laoile, vlx, aegrt. 

3. The Ablative of some adjectives serves as an adverb: 

tutus, safe, tutd; hJBQ^ fcUsetp ; perpetu5, ceaselessly; contiaxt^ faiik- 

mth; impr5vl85, unexpectedly ; prlm5, ai first, 

consulte and consults, purposely ; certe, at least, and oertS, certainly, 
rSr§, thinly, and rSr5, sddam ; vere, in truth, and vSr5, true but, 
recte, correctly, and rectS, straightway; dezterS or deztrft, to the rights 

and dezterS, sklUfuUy. 

■inistrfi and laevS, to the left hand. 

4 The Accusative neuter of many adjectives is used as an 
adverb. This is true of all Comparatives. 

Multum, much; paulum, a Utile; nimium, too much; o9iUsrum^for the 
rest ; primum, first ; postrimum, finally ; potissimum, chiefly ; facilfli 
dulce, sweetly ; triste, sadly ; impune, scot-free, 

9 1 • Comparison of Adve ^bs. 









































minus, less. 

minims, to 



magis, more. 

maxims, m 



pias, more. 




















satius. better 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 




NuMEBAL Adjectives. 

02 The Cardinal numerals are indeclinable^ except: Qnoi, 
one, iuOf two, trte, threey the hundreds beginning with duoentl, 
two hundred, and the plnral mllia, thousands, which fomii 
mlHiiin and mililnm, 



N. dno^ 


doae^ dvLOf 

trte, 1 

0. dndrum, 

duSmflHj dnSniiiii 


D. dnSbiu, 

dnabua, dndbna, 


A. dnSijdiio, 

duSs, duo, 

tria, 1 

Ab. da5biu, 

dllS>bl28a dUODlUa 


Like duo is declined ambo, -ae^ -o, bath. 


t. Carddtal NuvBiBa. 

% Obddtil NnOBBiU 



tiiins, tiiiai fLnimi 

primus, -a, -um (prior). 



duo, duae, duo 

aecundus (alter). 











































tertius deoimus 




quartus deoimus 




quintus deoimus 




seztus deoimus 




Septimus decimus 
















vIcSsimus primus 



vXgintI duo 

▼IcSsimus secundus 




vicesimus tertius 



vXgintI quattuor 

vlc^simus quartus 



vIgintI qulnque 

vIcSsimus quintus 




VIoSsimns seztus 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


1. Oabdutu. NvMnuis. 

t. Obdihal NuMnuiA 



iriginti teptem 

▼Xoidmus ieptlmna 










































oentom at flnns 

cantisimni prlmoa [mui 



oantnm et qidndaoim 

oentSdmus et quEntua deci- 



oentom et viginti 



oentumatTlgintXuniiioantSsimtui vXoSeimiu jnl- 



dnoentl, -ae, -a 




































milla et ilniiB 

millSsimua primus 



mille centum iinus 

millSflimufl oenlMmui pri- 



mille oantum vlgintl 



cSsimus [oisimus primus 



mille centmn vIgintI 

millSsimus centesimos ▼!• 



mille ducenti 

millSsimus duoentisimus 



duo tnTHn (millia) 
bina milia 

bis millSsimus 


bis millSsimus ducentSsi- 


mus vloSsimus seounduf 



quinque n^Qia 
quina wiTl*^ 

oninquias wifn^ffi»^^ff 



decem mIlia 
dena mIlia 

deoies millSsimus 


semel et vioias mill$simua 


centum mIlia 
oentena mIlia 

oenti§8 millSsimus 


decUt cant$na mIlia 

deoiSs centiis millSsimus 

Digitized by Google 


Rem ARK.^D Is short lor lo, M for CIo. Adding o on the right of I multiplies by 10 ; 
loo = 5000; looo = 50,000. Putting C before as ofteu as o stands after multiplies the 
right hand noml)er by 2 ;JCIo = 1000; CCIoo = 10,000; CCCloOO = 100,000. A line 
aboTc multiplies by 1000 : V = 5000. 


1. From 10 to 20, as in the tables, or separately: decern et trii. 

Z The numbers 18, 19, 28, 29, &c., are commonly expressed by subtrao* 
tioo ; occasionally, as in English. 

8 From 20 to 100, the compound numerals stand in the same order aa 
Ibe English : iwenty-oMf iriginti ilniis ; or one and twenty, ilniis et viifiaXL 

As, 21 pears old : annSs nnnm et vlgintX (vIgintX finum), onum et Tf- 
fiiitXaimo« nStns. 

4. From 100 on, et is inseiied after the first numeral, or omitted alto- 
gether : mille et oentom nnus, or mille centum ilnns = 1101. 

n-27 vlgintl tlnai or tiniii et vlgintl 

101 centum et tnoi centum tlnui 

190 centum et TigintX centum vlgintl 

121 centum et TigintI Ibiufl centum ylgintl Ibiufl 

1001 mille et tlnus mille tlnus 

1101 mille et centum tlnui mille centum Uiius 

1125 mille et centum vlgintl quinque mille centum vlgintl quinqu* 
S222 duo mllia et ducenti vlgintl duo duo milia ducenti vlgintl due 



tertiufl decimus 


decimui et tertius 



octfivus deoimufl 



nOnus decimui 


vlcSsimus prlmui 

linus et vlcSsimui 


vlcSsimus secundufl 

alter etvlcteimufl 


vXcSsimui tertius 

tertius et vIcQsimus 




■inguU, -ae, -a, one each. 


quatemi dSnX 


binl, -ae, -a, two each. 


quInI dSnX 




seni d§nl 




septeni dini 




octSnl d§nl, duod5vIc«nI 




noveni dSnl, undevIcSnX 








viceni singuU 




vIcSnl binl, bin! et viceni 

















Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



SO qtdnqnSgCiiI 

60 lezagenl 

70 taptuagSnl 

80 octdgenl 

00 ndn^gSni 

100 conteol 

aOO ducSnl 

800 trecSnl 

400 qoadxinginl 

500 qning^nl 

000 ■6Xo9nI 

700 MptingCiiI 

800 ooting«iiI 

900 nonginl 

1000 singrula mHia 

2000 bXna mlUa 

8000 trinamllia 

10,000 dSnamnia 

100,000 cenfeSnamXlU 

Bbxabxb.— 1. The distribatives are used with an exactnen, which is fbrrtgn to oac 
fdlom, whenever repetition Ib involved, as in the maltiplication table. But when aiiigmll 
is expiemed, Uie cardinal may be nsed. 

t. The distributives are osed with PlflrSlia tantum : blnae Uterae, two fpUQetk 
tat with these ftnl is used for one, trlnl for three: llnae Uttraa, trlnae IXttTMi 

lb The poets occasionally use the distributives for cardinals. 


1 aimplea:, single, 

2 duplex, double, 
8 triplex, triple, 
4 qoadruplex, 

answer the qoestion, how mainyfddt 

5 qnincuplex. 

7 ■eptemplex. 

10 decemplex. 

100 centuplex. 

6. Pbopobtional Numerals. 

1 simplus, -a, -um, dngle, 4 qnadraplaa. 

2 duplut, double, 7 teptaplQa. 
8 triplus, 8 ootnplua. 

These answer the question, how many timee as great t 
Rbxark 4. Only a few forms can be proved. 


Numeral Adtebbs. 

1 semel, onae. 

12 daodeciSs 

2 bis, twice. 

13 ter dedles, tredeoiis 

8 ter 

14 quater deciSs, quattnordedSt 

4 quater 

15 quinqui§8 deciSs, quindeciSi 

5 qtdnquiSfl, 


16 sexiei decies, sedeciet 

6 sexies 

17 septies deciSs 

7 sepUes 

18 duodevlcies, octies deci§s 

8 ootiis 

19 und5vlci§s, novies deciSt 


20 vicies 

10 deci§i 

21 semel et i^cies, viciet et 

11 imdeci§8 

semel, vIciSs semel,* 

* Not semel vIoiSs, bis ylelBSi ®tc, because tliat would be, once twenty times s 
times ; twice twenty times = 40 times. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 

FBovoum. 48 

22hla9i TloiSg, vUMt •! 400 qoadriiigentlie 

Us, vIMb bia« 000 qningenMs 

80 trlcii$8 600 tezceiitUi 

40 quadrSgiSs 700 ieptingentUi 

60 qninqnagiSs 800 ootingratiis 

60 sezSgiSs 900 nongentiSi 

70 ■eptuSgiSa 1,000 milliSs 

80 oct5gie8 2,000 bis milliSt 

90 n5nftgi&i 100,000 oentUt milltts 

100 oentiAl 1,000,000 milliSt milliSi, dadAi ceii' 

200 dnoentUfl tiSs milUAi. 
800 treoentite 


97. Pronouns designate without describing. 

RcxABK.— The pronoun ig not a word need ioetead of a nonn. The nonn taya too 
mnch, for all nouns (proper as well as common) are originally descriptive ; the pronoos 
simply pointa ont The noon sayi too little, because it cannot express person, as ego, I^ 
ttU tJUm : it cannot express local appurtenance, as hie, thU {her€\ ille, that {thtn). 

98. A. Personal Pronouns. 

L Personal PBOMOuira or ths First Pirsov. 

mens, -a, -nm, nAn» or my. 
Voc. (masc.), mX. 

nOster, nOstra, nOstrnm, mrr or cm. 

QQ n. PxBsoNAL Pronouns op the Second Person. 


Bins -N. tt, thou, 

G. till. of thee, 

n. tihX, to, for thee, tnus. a, nm, thy or thMm. 

Ac. t6, thse, 

Abl. t6, from, wUh, by thee, 

* Not eemel vIciBs, bis ▼Icies, etc., becaase that would be, once twenty timos sM 
twice twenty times = 40 times. 

Soro.— N. ego, 
O. met 
D. mnif, 
Ac m9, 
Abl. m9, 





ftom, with, by me. 

PiUB.— N. nSe, we, 
O. nCrtrl, qr^. 

D. nOhiB, to, for w, 

Ac b98, V8, 

Abl. nobis, fyom, toUh, by vs. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



T60t«r, Tettrft. Teitniiii, ycmroiyomn. 


PUn.-N. tOi. V or yon. 
Q vestrl, qf you^ 

D. T0bl8« to, for you, 
Ac Tat, |«w, 
Abl. tO))I8, /Vwn, «oi/A, &y you. 

Rbxarxb.— 1. The forme of the Genitive Fliml, nOltnim and vaftnim, are nved M 
partitive genitives in reference to number. 

8. From nOster and V6f ter and alro from et^iiSt whotef (104) are formed the Gentfle 
a4)ectives of one ending: nOstrfii, of our eowUry; TaitrSi, otycwreoumity; etyii* of 
whrnepwUryf Gen. nOatrfttia, yaftrStis, efijStia. 

in. PsnaoNAL PnoNouNa op the Thibd PnnaoM. 

100. The personal pronoun of the third person is represented 
by the determinative in the oblique cases, with special forms for 
the reflexive. 

Determikati V K. 


-N. [ia, 68, id], he, the, U, 

G. Idaa, <2^ Htn, etc, 

D. et to, for Mm, 

Ac eum, earn. Id, him, her, U, 

(rapplled by the genitlTe.) 
Cljna. hU, hars, its. 

Abl. eO, eS, eO, from, wUh, by him, etc. 

PvowL—TX, [el, or il, eaa, ea], they, 

G. eOrum, efimm, eOmrn, of them, 

D. ela, or lis, to, for them, 

Ac eOa, eSa, ea, (hem, 

Abl. ela* or lis, fixmi, wUh, by them. 

eOmxn, eSmm, eOrnnu their, 

or theirt. 



glH«.-N. — 

G. atil, 
D. sibt 
Ac aBCaSaS), 
Abl. as (86a6), 

to, for, M9n(M(f), her{mi(f), 
himisdf), her(8etf), 
fivm, with, by himitelf). 


•nna, -a, -iim, his, her{$\ iu 

anna, -a, -nm, 1h«%r lown)^ 

\, €f themiselves), 

)1 to, for themiselves), 

(sBaB), themiselves), 
(a686) fiwn, with, by themiselves). 

[. The enclitic -met may be added to all the forme of ego (except nOs- 
16 forms of ttl (except tfl and veatnun), to aibi, aS* and the forma of 

;ic -pte is Joined to the Ablative Sinj^rnlar of the PouMmlvea ; it la rape> 
irith anO ; anOpte ingeniO, by his own gemhis. 
ire formed ttlte and ttltoxnet. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 

ruoxowxn. 46 

101. B. Detreminative Pbokoukb. 

1. is, he^ that, etc. 



N. to, 



eljorll, eae, ea, 

G. lijiia, 

e5niin, eSrum, e5niiii| 

D. «!, 

^ orils. 

Ac. emii| 



e58, eSs, ea. 




^ or lis. 

2. Idem, t?is scone, 
SnieirLAB. Plitbai^ 

K. Idem, eadem, Idem, eldem, or Udem, eaedem, eadam, 

G. CJtuidem, eOnmdem, efinmdem, eOnmdem 

D. eidem, tilsdem, or tisdem, 

Ac. enndem, eandem,idem, edadem, eSsdem, eadem, 

AbL eOdem, eftdem, e5dem, elsdem, or ilsdem. 

8. ipse, he^ self. 
SiNouLAR. Plural. 

N. Ipae, ipsa, ipsum, ipsX, ipsae^ ipsa, 

Q. iiMiItis, ipsSrmn, ipsSram, ipsdrnm, 

D. ipia, ipsis, 

Ac. ipsum, ipsam, ipsmn, ipsOs, ipsSs, ipsa, 

AbL ipso, ipsa, ips5. ipsIs. 

102. 0. Demonstrative Pronouns. 


hiD, this. 
BiNG. N. lilc, haec, hOc, Pl. N. hi, hae, haec, these 

G. hfijiis. 

hOmm, hSnmi, hOrum, 

D. hnlc, 


Ac. hmio, 



hds, has, haec, 

Abl. hOc, 




iste, that. 
fkSB. N iste, ista, istud, Pl. N. isti, isUe, ista, 

G. isUns, i8t9]nmi,istSrum,ist5rum, 

D. istI, istls, 

Ac. istom, istam, istud, ist5s, istas, ista. 

Abl istd, ista, istd. istls. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 

Sing. N. 








46 FBOKOUjra. 

BiKO. N. iUe, ilia, iUud, Pl. N. ilU, illae, ilia, 

Q. ilUni, iU5r1]lI^ill&rllm,ill9n]]I^ 

D. ilU, ilUs, 

Ac. ilium, iUam, iUud, iUSs, illSs, ilia, 

AbL 1115, iim, iU9. illliu 

Rbmauks.— 1. Hfo: the forms in -c arise from tbo enclitic -ee. So hlte^ lixuioat i^^* 
fbimd in older Latin ; and -ei in the interrogative form with nt, hicine ? llii^ -oe if 
aomeUmea appended io the other forma : hfljusee, hOsee. 

S. Ista and lUe have, like hib, forms in -o, but only in Nom. Ace. AbL 

ittio, iataeo, iatOo oristllo, 

iatniio, istane, iatOo orlatlle. 

iatSo, iaUo, iatOo, So iUIc, iUOo, etc 

103. D. Eblativb Pronouns. 

qui, toho. 
qruLBi quod, Pl. N. qui, quae, quae, 

qudrum, qufiruin, quSzuin^ 
quam, quod, quds, quSa, quae, 

Abl. qu9, qua, qud. quibua. 

^ RBXABX8.~Queia, quls, ia alao foond aa a Plnral Oat Abl. The form qj^U need aa 

* the Abl. Sing. qnO, qnS« quO, chiefly with -cum ; qolonm for qnOoum* wUh vfhom. 
^ Quit interrogative, means hawf 

Ckneral Relatives are : 

Substantive, qniaquia, toAo^oer, quidquid, toJiatever. 

Acjfecttve. quiqui, quaequae, quodquod, tchosoecer, 

quicunque, quaecunique, quodounque, tohiehewr 

104. E. Interrogative Pronouns. 
Substantive. quia? tohot quid? whaif 

^^ Adjective. qui? quae? quod? which t 

Subst. and Adj, uter ? utra ? utrum ? who^ which of two f 

SiNO. N. quia? quid? who? what? Possbssivb. 

G. o^jus? whose f oqjus, c^Ja, oiijuxii, whose? 

D. cul? to, for whom? (rare). 

Ac. quern? quid? wham? whait 

AbL qu5 ? from^ with, by wham or wJiatf 

Rbxark.— The plnral of the substantive interrogative prononn and both nnmbers of 
the adjective interrogative prononn coincide with the forms of the relative qnl« quae 
qaodt who, which. 


Substantive, quianam? who pray f quidnam? what pray f 

Ai^ecthe. quinam? quaenam? quodnam? whkh pray 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



1. Substantive. ahqvdB, aliqna, aUquid, Isanudodif^ Mm &m or 
quia, qua, quid, ) other. 

aUquI, aliquae (oraUqua»), •l*^™®^ L:»»a ^y, 
qui, quae (or qua*), quod, ) ' 

3. qiddam, quaedam, qtdddam (and qnoddam), a certain^ certain one. 
8 qnispiam, qnaepiam, qiddpiam (and quodpiam), eome one, eome. 

4. qtdBquain, , qtddquam, any one (at afl). No plural. 

5. qnlvls, qnaevis, quidvls (and qnodvls), {antfoneyoupleaee^ 
qullibet, qnaelibet, qnidlibet (and qaodlibet), ) you Wee. 

6. qoisqne, quaeqne, quidqae and qaodque^ each one. 
liniisqiiiaqae, nnaqnaeqne, nnumqtddqae and flnumqiiodqiie^ each 

one severally. 

The distinction between the substantive and a^Jectiye form is observed 
rigorously only in the neuter. 

Remark. — Qmsquam is Hcldom used as an adjective, except with deoi^piations ofper- 
80118 ; tcriptor qnisquam, any writer {at ai^, Qallni quisquam, any Gaul {at alt). 
Tho corresponding adjective is allllfl. 

nllus, -a, -um, any ; nullns, -a, -um, no one, not one. The corresponding 
substantiyes are n§mo (76), and nihil, which forms nihilx and nihilO 
(Abl.) only in certain coml)inations. 

nonnnllus, -a, -um, some, many a. 

alius, -a, -ad, anoiher; alter, -era, -emm, the other , one (of ttoo) ; neater, 
neotra, neatram, neither of two. 

alterater, alteratra, alteratrum, (he one or t?ie other of t/ie two. €kn 

(or alter ater, altera atra, alteram atram. Gkn. alteriua atrloa.) 

aterqae, atraque, utrumqae, each of two, either, ambo, -ae, -o, both. 

atervis, atravia, atramvis, > , . , 

aterUbet,atraUbet,atramUbet, r^^^'^^y^l'^^^/^^- 



qois? who? Is, that, qui, who. 

qoftlii? ef what kind fXSa^ such {of that qaSlis, ae {of which Jdnd^ 


qoantos 7 how much t tantas, eo much, qoantas, as much, 

qoot? how many? tot, so many. qaot, as many. 

* in neater plnral, aliquae or aliqua* quae or qua. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



1. Pronominal adverbs of place. 

obi? where* 



n1)l^ where. 

qiiA? uJieret which 


here, this way, 

quS, where, wikhk 



there, thai way 


(here, yonder way. 

mide'f whence r 



onde^ whence. 






thence, from yonder. 

qa57 whiter t 



anfi. whiiker. 






thitfier, yonder 

2. Pronominal adverbs of time. 

qaandO? when? 





at that time. 




qaotiSs? how often t 


eo often. 

qnotiSs, as often ml 

3. Pronominal adverbs of 


quSmodo 7 qui 7 how T ita, hIc, 

so, thus. 

at, uti, (u. 

quam7 Iiowmuchf 


so much. 

qaam, as. 


1. The relative pronouns become indefinite by prefixing aU- : 

aliquantus, somewhat great ; aliquot, severcU^ some ; alicabl^ somewhere , 
•Iicunde,/rom somexohere ; aliquandS, at some time, 

2. The simple relatives become tiniversal by doubling them- 
selves, or by suffixing -cunqne (cumqae) : 

quantuBOunque, however great ; quSliscunqua, of wJiateeer kind.; quot* 
qoot, hotsever many; ubicunque, wJieresoever ; quanddcunque, whenever; 
quotidBcanque, however often; utut, in whatever way; utcunque, howso- 
eeer ; qoamquam, however, although. 

3. Many of the relatives are further compounded with -vis or 

quantuslibet, quantusvls, a^s great as you please r abivl% where you t9tZ7; 
qnamvis, cu you please, theuoh. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 

THK V^KUB. 48 


100. The Inflection giyen to the verbal stem is called Con- 
jugation, and expresses : 

1. Person and Number; 

2. Voice — ^Active or Passiye; 

3. Tense — ^Present, Imperfect, Future, 

Perfect, Pluperfect, Future Perfect; 

4. Mood — Indicative, Subjunctive, Imperative. 

110. These forms belong to the Finite Verb. Outside of the 
Finite Verb, and akin to the noun, are the verbal forms cidled 

Infinitive, Supine, Participle, Gerund. 

111. The Inflection of the Verb is effected by means of— 

1. Personal endings. 2. Connecting Vowels. 3. Tense- 

1. The personal endings are pronominal forms, which serve 
to indicate not only person, but also number and voice. 

2. The connecting vowels are commonly and conveniently 
treated as mere connectives, though they originally served to 
form the stems. 

3. The tense-signs occur only in the compound tenses (weak 

So in ama-b-a-m, Iloved^ b is the tense-sign, a the connecting vowbl, 
m the personal ending (akin to m§, me), 1st P. Singular Active. 

The compound or weak tenses are : 

The Inaperfect, Active and Passive. The Perfect in vl (ul) and si. 
The Pluperfect Active. The Futures in -bo, -bor. 

The Future Perfect The Perfect and Pluperf . Subj. 

RBMABK8.— 1. The tenpe-signs are themselves auxiliary verbs, as : -r(ani) for -g(am) 
from (e)g-(8e) ; v(I), u(I) from fu(I) ; si from (e)8 (se) ; l)(am) -b(o) from fu-(am), fu(o). 

2. No adequate uniform translation can be given to all the moods and tenses. Espe- 
cially is this true of the subjunctive. See Syntax. 

Several parts of the verb are formed with the verb sum, / am. 


Digitized by LjOOQ IC 




The Yebb gum, / am (stem es-). 


-1. SlUll, 

2. ••, 
8. est, 

I am, 
thou art, 
he, she, U iB, 



thou be, 

he, she, it be. 


-1. siimiui, 
2. Mils, 
a sunt, 

lee are, 
you are, 
they are. 




we be, 

you be, 
they be. 



— 1. arani, 
2. erSs, 

I was, 
thou toast, 
he was, 




I were (forem), 
IJuni wert (forea)^ 
he were (foret). 


-1. «rainas, 

2. erStia, 

3. erant, 

ijoe vtere^ 
you were, 
they were, 




ioe were, 

you were, 

they wei'e (foren 


-1. erS, 

2. oris, 

3. ortt, 


he wiU be. 


— 1. arimiis, 

2. eritis, 

3. «runt, 

we shaU be, 
they will be. 


-1. ful, 
2. fviisU, 

I have been. Twos, fiiaiiiii, 
t?u>u Jiast been, t/wu ftieiiii, 

Thave, may ha/oe^ beeiL, 
thou Tiave, mayesi haee, 

3. Mt, 

he has bten, he was 


he have, may hate, been. 


— 1. ftdmiu, 

we liate been, wt 


we have, may have, been^ 

2. fiiistis. 

you have been, you 


you have, may have, been. 

8. liiSmiit, 

they?iavebeen,they fiierint, 

they have, may have, been. 


-1. faeram, 

2. fiieraa, 

3. fnerat, 

I had been, 
thou Tiadst been, 

lie had been. 



I had, might have, been, 
thou hadst, mightst have, 

he had, might have, been. 


-1. faeriimvui,we ?tad been, 
2. faerfltis, you had been, 
a iiMrant, they had been. 

fiiiaadmaa, %oe had^ might have, bten^ 
fuiaadtia, you had, might have, been, 
fuiaaent, they had, might have, been. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 




FuTUBK nEmrsov. 
Bnrau— 1. fiierS^ I shall have been, 
2. faexfat thou wUt have been, 
8. fiierit, he will Jiave been, 

Plxtb. — 1. faeijiiius, ufe s/iaU have been, 

2. fiiezf til, you wiU have been, 

3. faexint, they wiUIiave been. 


1. - 

2. este, be ye^ 



be thou, estS, ihcu shaU be, 
eitS, he shaU be. 


e8tSte,y(ni shaU be^ 
siintS, they shall be. 

Pubs, ene, to be, 

Pbbf fiiisse, to Jiave been. 

Fur. Iiitamm (•am, -um), 

(fore), to be about to be. 

For. fntfirui, -a, -um, alxmt to be. 

Compounds of sum, / am. 

ab-Biim, lam atoay, absent. Terf. 

ad-Bom, lam present. Perf. affiiL 
d§-fiam, / am wanting . 
in-smn, I am in. 
interHEiiun, lam between. 

ob-aum, I am against, I hurU 

Perf. obfol or ofiiiL 
prae-sum, Iamover,Imp&i'%ntend, 
prS-sum, I am for, I profit. 
aub-Bum, I am under. No Pert 
auper-aum, lam, or remain, over. 

RKMABK.~On]y abaum and praesnxn form present participles: absena, absent^ and 
jfnmKka, present. 

PrOsnm, I profit. 
1 14. In the forms of prOstun, pr5cl- is used before vowels. 



prO d " oa aeip. 


prS-aum, prOd-ea, prSd-eat, 
prS-aumua, prOd-eatIa, prO-aiint, 

iMpBRi'KOT, prOd-eram, 

Future, pr5d-ero, 

Perpbct, pr5-ful, prS-faerim, 

Plupertbci; prd-foeram, prS-fuiaaem. 

Fur. Perf., pr5-faer5, 

INFINITIVE. Pbbs. prdd-esaej Perf. prd-fuiase 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 


Pomm, / am abU, I can. 

115. Poanmi is compoauded of pot (potis, pote) and ram; t 
becomes a before s. 


BiNA. — 1. potHram, Jam 0^0, (»», poi-sim, I be able. 

2, pot-es, poB-flU, 

3. pot-eat, pos-sit. 

Plub. — 1. pot-sumiis, poi"tTinni, 

2- pot-eitiai poi-iltis, 

8. poi-sunt, pofl-iiiit. 


Sing.— 1. pot-eram, Tvxu cMe^ pos-iem, Iwere^ mighi 60, oMt 

2. pot-erSs, poa-sSs, 

8. pot-erat, pos-set. 

Plur. — 1. pot-erSmns, potHiSmiis, 

2. pot^eratifl, po8-s§tia| 

3. pot-erant, potHient. 


Sing.— 1. pot-er5, Ja/ioateaML 
2. pot-eris, 
8. pot-erit. 

Plub. — 1. pot-erimns, 
2. pot-eritis, 
8. pot-erunt. 


pot-Ql, / haw been oKe, pot-a«rlm, Ihave^maif ham^been 


pot-uistli pot-aexlsi 

pot-tdt, pot-u6rit« 

pot-nimoBy potudnmus, 

pot-tdatia, pot-ueritia, 

pot-uimnt, pot-uerint. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 






Smo.— 1. pot-neram, I had been 
2. pot-nerSfl, 
8. pot-uerat, 

Flub. — 1. pot-uer3miig| 
2. pot-uerStia| 
8. pot-aerant, 

pot-niwMiii, Ihad^ might have, 





Funma Pbbfbot. 
Snre. — 1. Tpd-neit^ I ehaU have been able. 
2. pot-aeA, 
8. pot-narit. 

Plur. — 1. pot-uei^na, 
2. pot-nexltia, 
8. pot-nerint. 

INFINITIVE. Pres, Poiiae, iobeaUe. Flerf. Potniaie, to hate been ablA 

Systems op Conjugation. 

116. There are two Systems of Conjugation, distinguished 
by the stem-characteristic, viz., the Vowel Conjugation and the 
Consonant Conjugation. 

117. Vowel verbal stems end in ft, 6, 1 (First, Second, and 
Fourth Conjugations). 

Consonant verbal stems end in one of the consonants (Third 
Stems in u follow the Consonant Conjugation. 


I. am-& 
II. dele-5, 

III. em-S, 
rV. audi-a, 

Thb Stem-Forms. 






audi- re, 
















to low. 
to blot out, 
to remind 
to buy. 
to settle, 
to Iiear 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 







Am latiftg, do lo9$, love, 

8010.— 1. ain^ 
2. amS-i, 
8. ama-t, 

Be loving, num Unt. 

Plub.— 1. amfi-mns, 
2. amS-tifl, 
8. ama-nt, 





Was loving, loved. 
BiKO.— 1. amS-ba-m, 
2. amS-bfi-s, 
8. amS-ba-t, 

Wsre loving, mighi Um. 

l*i.UR —1. amS-bS-muB, 
2. amS-bS-tis, 
8 amS-ba-nt, 




Shall be loving, eJiaU lave, 
Sma.^l. amS-b-S, 
2. amS-bi-8, 
8. ama-bi-t 

Plub.— 1. amS-bi-mns, 
2. amS-bi-tia, 
8. amS-bu-nt. 


81HO.— 1. — , 

2. amS, love thou, amS-td, thou ehaU Urns, 

3. amS-tS, he shaU love, 

Plur.— 1. , 

2. amS-te, hve ye, amS-tdte, ye shaU hve. 
8. ama-ntO, tliey sJiaU law. 

pBMVirr. N. ama-n-8, G. ama-nt-is, loving. 
FuTTKB. amS-tur-us, -a, -um, being about to kve. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




First Cpnjuoatiok. 




Have loved, d(d law. 
Sing. — ^1. amft^vl, 

2. Ama-vi-stl, 
8. amS-vi-t, 

Pbuii. — ^1. amS-vi-mn^ 
2. amfi-vi-flk, 
8. ami^ipf'mnti 

Had loved. 

-1. ama-ve-ra-nii 

2. aiiu[-v6-ra-s, 

8. amS-ve-ra-t, 

Plur. — 1. amS-Te-riUmos, 

2. ama-ve-ri-tii, 

3. ama-ve-ra^nt, 

8haU Have loved. 
Sing. — 1. ainS-ve-r4S} 
2. amarva-xf-i, 
8. amS-ve-ri-t. 

Plur. — 1. amS-vazf-miu, 
2. amS-ve-xl-tii, 
8. amS-va-ri-nt. 


Hene, may have, loved 





Had^ miglU Iiave, loved. 




FuTcma Pbbfbot. 


Fbbs. amS-re, to love. 

Pbbv. amS-vi-sse, to have loved. 

Fur. amS tor-um, -am, -ani, esse, to be about to lode. 


N. [amS-re], loving. 

Q. ama.nd-I, of loving, 

D. ama.nd-5, to loving. 

Ac. [ama-rej, (ad) ama-nd-um, loving, to love. 

Abl 'ama.nd-5, by loving. 


1. amS-tum, to love. 

2. mmSi'ia, to love-in (he loving. 

Digitized by VjUUVIC 










Be, may be, laved. 

Sing.— ^1. aiik>-r, 


2. amS-xifli 


8. amS-tur, 


Plur.— 1. am3rmnr, 


2, amS-minL 


3. ama-ntur. 



Was loved. 

Were, might be, loved, 

SnrG.—l. ama-ba-r, 


2. ama-ba-rlsy 


8. ama-bd-tnry 


Pi.UR. — 1. ain3-bS-miiry 


8. ama-ba-minl, 


8. ama-ba-ntur. 



Shall be loved. 

Sins.— 1. ama-bo-r, 

3. ama-be-ris, 

3. ama-bi-tar. 

Plur.— 1. ama-bl-mur, 

2. ama-bi-minl, 

8. ama-bu-ntur. 

BiNG.— 1. , 

2. ama-ro, be thou laved, ama-tor, thm shaU be loved, 

8. amS-tor, he shaU be loved. 

Plur.— 1. , 

^-minl, be ye laved. 

ama-ntor, they ihaU be laved, 

Bs. ama-rl, to be loved. 

RF. ama-t-um, -am, -um, esse, to have been laved. 
rr. amS-tum Iri, to be about to be laved. 

P. amft-t-um, -am, -tun, fore. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 


122. FiBST Conjugation. 



Have been hued. Have, mojf Aave^ been lowA. 

— 1. amS-i-tui, -a, •am, s-n-m, amS-t-oB, -a, -am, s-i-mi 

3. 68, 8-X-l, 

3. es-t, g-i t. 

Plur. — ^1. amff^M, -ae^ -a, s-a-moa, am^t-I, -ae^ -a, s-I-moi, 
8. es-tia, s-X-tia, 

6k a-o-nt, a-i-nt. 


» Bad been hved. Had, migJU Imw, been loved. 

BiHo. — 1. amft-t-oa, -a, -am, er-a-m, amS-t-oa, -a, -um, es-se-m, 

2. er-S-s, ea-se-s, 
& er^-t, ea-se-t. 

Plub. — ^1. am&t-I, -ae, -a, er-S-moa, amS^UT, -ae, -a, ea-sS-moa, 

3. er-a-tia, es-aS-tia, 
8. er-a^nt, 

FuTuaa Faavaor. 

8^aU hone been loved, 
, — ^1. amS-t-oa, -a, -am, er.^, 
3. ar-i-a, 

8. er-i-t. 

Plub.— 1. am2Ut-I, -ae, -a, er-i-moa, 
3. er-i-tia, 

8. ar-u-nt. 


PaancoT. amft-t-oa, -a, -om, loved 
aaamiDiTa. ama-nd-as, -a, -am, (tme) to be loved 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



123. Second Gokjugatiok. 



Be destroying, may destroy. 

SlNO.— 1. d§le4. 


2. d5l5.s, 


8. dele-t, 


Plur.— 1. dSlS-nraih 


2. d$15.tis, 


8. d51«.nt, 



Were destroying^ might destroy. 

Soto.— 1. dSlS-ba-m, 


2. d$lS.bS^ 


8. d51§.ba.t, 

Plur.— 1. dilS-ba-mui. 


2. d§l§.bS.ti8. 


8. d§l«.ba.nt, 


Shall dMtray, 

Sing.— 1. dSlS-b-S, 



Plur.—!. dglg-bi-mtu, 

2. dSle-bi.tis, 

8. del5.bu.nt. 


Smo.— 1. , 

2. dSlS, deHroy Hum, ddld.tS, thou skaU dutroff. 

d515.t5, he shaU destroy. 

2. d«lS-U, destrtfy ye, dSlS-t6te, ye shaU destroy. 


PuKSKNT. N, d51e.n.8; G. dele-nt-is, destroying. 
d515-tfir.ii8, .a, -um, about to destroy. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 









Save, may have, dettroifed, 




Bad, might have^ dalroifei.^e4. 



Bom dettroyed, destroyed, 
8iN0.»l. del5-vl, 

2. del$-vi.8tl, 

a dele-vi-t, 

Plub. — ^1. d$, 
& deU-ve-rmit, 

Had destroyed, 
8lNO. — ^1. dgle-ve-ra-m, 
2. dele-ve-rS-i, 
8. dele-ve-ra-t, 

Plttr.— 1. d§l§-ve-rS-miif, 
2. delS-ve-ratifl, 
8. dele-ve-ra-nt, 

Shall have destroyed, 
8lNO.~l. del$-ve.r-6, 
2. d$, 
8. d§ 

PLur.— 1. delS-ve-n-mtu, 
2. dele-ve.if.tiB, 
Z. dele-ve-ri-nt 

Pbbbbht. dgl§-re, to destroy, 
Pebfbgt. dSl§.vl.88e, to have destroyed, 
FuTUBB. dele-tar.imi, -am, -um, ene^ to he oftMil to destroy, 


N. [d51S-re], destroying, to destroy. 
G dele-nd-I, of destroying, 
D. d51e-nd-5, to, for destroying, 
Ac. [d516-re] (ad) d^le-nd-mn, destroying, 1. dSlS-tnm, to destroy, 

to destroy, 
AbL d5le-nd-5, ly destroying, 2. d519 td, to destroy, in 



Digitized by LjOOQ IC 




Sboond Gokjcjoatio?/ 



Am dettroj/sd, 
Sme.^l. dSle-o-r, 

2. ddU-ris 

3. dil$.tar, 

Plur.— 1. dSl§.miir, 
2. d51§.ininl, 
8. ddle-ntur. 

Was destroyed. 
BUXQ.—I. d§le-ba.r, 
2. del5.bS.ri8| 
8. deld-ba-tur, 

Plur. — 1., 

2. dele-ba-minl, 

3. dele-ba-ntor, 


Be, may be, destroyed. 




Were destroyed., 


ShaU be destroyed. 
Brno.— 1. del§-bo-r, 

2. ddle-be-ris, 

3. delg-bUtor. 

Plvk— 1. dSle-bi-mnr, 

2. dele-bi-minl, 

3. dele-bn-ntur. 


Sing.— 1. , 

2. d§l§.re, be thou destroyed. d§l§.tor, thm shaU be destroyed. 
8. dele-tor, he shaU be destroyed. 

Plur.— 1. , 

2. dSlS-minla be ye destroyed. 

dele-ntor, they shaU be destroyed 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 




Second Gokjugatioit. 





Haw been deUwyed^ was datroyed. Eiave, may hane^ been destroyed 

SiNO. — 1. dSli^r-dfl, -a, -nm, s-o-nii dili-t-ns, -a, -am, ■-I4B, 

8. et-t, s-i-t. 

I'lub. — 1. dSlS-t-I, -ae^ -a, "s-n-mtii, dil9-t^I, -ae, -a, s-I-araa, 

%. ea-tii, ■•ItiB, 

8. s-vi>nt, »i-nt. 


Had been destroyed. Bad, might hate^ been deetroyed. 

SiNO. — ^1. d919-t-iiB, -a, -Tiin, ar-a-m, d91i4-ii8, -a, -nm, 

8. er^-t, 

Plur.— 1. dSle-t-I, ^e, -a, 

•r-S-mua, d<19-t-I, -ae^ ^ 





8haU hate been destroyed. 
Soro.—l. dSle-t-us, -a, -niii, er^ 
2. ar-i-a. 

8. er-i-t 

Plub. — 1. dtf IS-t-I, ^a^ -a, ar-i-miWi 
2. aritia, 

8. ar-n-nU 


psn. dSlS-rl, to be destroyed, 

^EKT. dSl^-t-nni, -am, -um, esse, to hate been destroyed. 

Fur. delS-tum Ul^tobe about to be destroyed. 

F. P. dSlS-t-ttzn, -am, -am, fora. 


I^BraoT. dil9-t-u8, -a, -um, destroyed. 
OmuKDira. dSle-nd-ns, -a, -um, [one] to be destroyed. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 




Second Conjugation, 

Like delere, to destroy, &re conjugated onlj^nfire, to spin, flere, 
to weep, and the compounds of '^^^teyfiU, and -ol6re (-olfiscexe) 
grow ; but aboleo, / abolish, forms abolitnm. 

All other verbs of the Second Conjugation retain the char^ 
acteristic e in the forms of the Present Stem, and drop it in the 
rest of the verbal forms. In the Perfect, the ending vl becomes 
m. In the Supine, the connecting vowel i is used. 

verbs of the Second Conjugation form their Su« 
a connecting vowel, viz. : 











mistum (rni^tnm). 










Synopsis of mone-o, / remind. 













Digitized by LjOOQ IC 








Pbmb. monS-re. 

PiBT. mon-ui-sse. 

Fur. mon-itar-um, -am, um, esse 

Pabticiflb. Pbm. mone-n-8. 
GiERiTin). mone-nd-L 

BuFiNB. 1. mon-itnm. 

FvT. mon-itnr-us, -a, -Qm. 
2. mon-itO. 










mon-it-tis, -a, -nm, s-u-m, 



r. P» 







mon-it-us, -a, -nm, s4-iiu 

Pabticiflb, ptimoT. 


Pkbf. mon-it-nm, -am, -tun, -es-seb 
FvT. mon-it-um IrL 
F. Ff. mon-it-nm, -am, -nm, fore, 
mon-it-ns, -a, -nm. 

OsRUNDiTK, mone-nd-ni, -a, -nnu 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 


TmsD coxjuoAnov. 

Third Conjuoatiok. 





SiNO.— 1. em-O, 
3. em-i^ 
8. em-i-t, 

Be buying, may buy* 

Plur.— 1. em-i-moB, 
3. em-LtiB, 
8. em-u-nt, 



Sme.—l. em-C-ba-ni, 
2. em^-bS-B, 
8. em^-ba-t, 

Were buying, nUgJU btty, 

Plur.^1. •m-S-bS-mm, 
2. em^S-bS-tii^ 
8. em^ba^nt, 



8hda he buying, sTiaU buy 
Sme. — 1. ein^.iii| 

2. em.§4^ 

8. em-e-t. 

2. em^-tis, 
8. em-^nt. 


Sing.— 1. , 

2. em-e, buy (hou, em i-tS, (hou thdU buy, 
8. em.i.t2i, Tie ahaU buy. 

PLra—l. , 

2. em-Ut»f buy ye, em-i.t5te, yeehaUbuy, 

8. em-u-ntd, they ehaU buy. 

Pbnxnt. K. em.e.n-8j G. em-e-nt-ii, buying. 
Future. em-tar-QS, -a, -nm, about to buy 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 




TfliBD Con JUG Ai ION. 


Haw houg?U^ bought, 
Bnro.— 1. 8m-l, 

2. Sm.i.8tl, 
8. Sm^t, 

Haoe^ may hme, bought, 

Plur.— 1. §m4-miii, 
2. 5m4.8tiB, 



Sing.— 1. Sm-e-ra-m, 
2. §m^e.rS.s, 
S. Sm-e-ra-t, 

Had,, might have, bought. 

Pl.UR.— 1. Sm-e-ra-mus, 
2. em.a.ra-tis, 
8. 5m-e-ra-nt, 





Shall haw haugJiL 
SiKG.— 1. Sm-«-r-8, 

2. Sm-e-zf.!, 

3. Sm-e-ri-t. 

Plttr. — 1. Sm-e-xf-mnii 
2 Sm-e-n-tii, 
8 Sm-e-ri-nt. 


pRKH em-e-re, to buy, 

Perf. 9m4.8se, to haw bought. 

For. em-tibr.tim, -am, -urn, esse, 1o be about to buy. 



N. [em-e-re], to buy, buying, 

G. em-e-nd-I, of buying. 

D. em-e-nd-6, io, for buying, 

Ac [em-e-re] (ad) em-e-ndtim, to buy, 1. em-tmn, fo buy. 
AbL em-e-nd.5, by buying, 2. em-tii, to ouy, in the buying. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 




Thibd Oonjuqatiok. 






Be^ may he^ haughL 




Wm bovglit 

Were, might he, Im^ 








m-ore, be ihau bought, exn-i-tor, thou shaU be baughi 
em-i-tor he ehaU be bought. 

ui-minX, he ye bought. 

em^iuntor, (hey shaU be bought. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 

third conjugation. 
134. Thibd Conjugation. 



Hone bem^ was bougJU, Have, fnay hate, been bought. 

SiNa.~l. amp-t-tui, -a, -nm, i-n-m, 
3. es, 
a es-t, 

am-t-ua, -a, -nm, t4-iii, 

Plur.— 1. «iii-t-I, -«6^ -a, i-Q-mm, 
8. es-tiB, 
8. t-u-nt, 

am-t-I, -aa, -a, a-I-miia, « 


Had been bought, 
8iNO.— 1. em-t-m, ^ -nm, ar-a-jn, 
a er4U8, 
«. ar-a-t, 

Had, might have, been bought 
em^t-tia, -a, -nm, aa-sa-m, 



Plur.— 1. em^t-I, -aa^^ «r4Uan% 
2. arOUtM, 
& ar^-nt, 

am-t-I, -ae, -a, as-aS-mtia, 


Shall have been bought 
fiBML"-!. aM-t-nSy -a| -qzHi er-5y 
1. «r44H 
a aiO^. 

Plur.— 1. am-t-I, -aa, -a, ar-i-mns, 
2. ar4.tia, 

a ar-u-nL 


Pan. am.1, to be bought 

Pny. em-t-nm, -am, -mn, easa, to have been bought 
FuT. am.tmn Irl, to be about to be bought 

p F. em-t-mn, -am, .am, fora. 


PnnraoT. am-t-us, -a, -nm, bought (em (p) tua) 
Gbbunditb. ttn-e-nd-ns, -a, -tun, to be bought. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 




PouETH Conjugation. 

The stems in i follow in seyeral forms the Third Conjagation* 
and take the same connecting vowels. 



EeoT, Be hearing, man hear. 
Smo.— 1. andl4$, andtpa-in, 

2. audl-B, audi-fl-8, 

« 8. andi-t, andi-a-t. 





Were hearing, might hear 








Plur.~1. andl-mus, 
2. andl-tia, 
8. andl-u-nt, 

Woe hearing. 
Bmo.^l. andi^ba-m, 
2. audi^bS^ 
8. andl-e-ba-t, 

Plur. — 1. audi-e-bfi-mus, 
2. audi-e-ba-tii, 
8. audi^ba-nt, 

SiNO. — 1. andi-a-m, 
2. audl-O-s, 
8. audi^-t. 

Pum.— 1. audi-e-mni, 

2. audl-^tiB, 

8. audi-e-nt. 

SiKO.— 1. , 

2. audi, hear thou, andl-tS, UumehaUhean 

8. andX-tS^ he shall hear. 

Plur.— 1. , 

2. Kadl'te^hear ye, aadl-t5te, ye shall hear. 

8. andi.u-ntS, they shall hear, 

Prmsht. N. andl-e-n-a, G. aadi-e-nt4s, hearing, 
FuTUBs. andMibr-us, -a, -nm, abotU to hear. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 




Fourth Conjuoatiok. 


Jlaw heard^ heard 
Boro.—l. audl-vl, 

2. audl-vi-stl, 

3. audl-vi-t, 

Plur. — ^1. audl-vi-mna, 
8. andl-vS-nmt. 

Had heard, 
8n«o. — 1. audl-ve-ra-m, 
2. andl-ve rS-44 
8. audX-ve-ra-t, 

I'luii. — ^1. audl-va-rS-mus, 

2. audl-Ta-rS-tii, 

3. audX-ve-ra-nt. 




ndve, may haw, heard. 





Hadf might have^ heard, 

Future Perfect. 
ShaU haw heard, 
SiHO.— 1. audI-ve-r-8, 
2. audl-va-rf-s, 
8. audl-ve-ri-t, 
Plur. — 1. andl-ve-xf-mna, 
2. audLva-n-tia, 
8. audl-va-ri-nt. 

PBB8EHT. audl-re, to Itear, 
Perfect, audl-vi-sse, to liave heai'd. 
Future. aadX-tur-um, -am, -um, esse, to he abomi $o Meat. 


N [andl-re], hearing^ to hear, 
G. andi-e.nd-1, of hearing. 
D . aadi.e.nd.5, to, for hearing, 
Ac. [andl-re] (ad) audi-e-nd-nm, hear- 
ing^ to liear. 1. 
Abl. andi-a-nd-0, by hearing, 2. 


audl-tnm, to hear, 

audl-tfi, to hear, in the ^loaring 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC -^ 





Smo.— 1 audi-o-r, 

2. audl-riB, 

3. audl-tar, 

Fluk. — 1. audl.4nar, 

2. audi-minl, 

3. audi-u-ntnr. 

Be^ map be^ heartL 



Watf heard, 
tilNa.— 1. aadi-6-ba-r, 
2. audi-e-bfiria, 
8. audi-e-bS-tur, 

Plur. — 1. audi-e-bfi-mnr, 

2. andl-e-bS-minX, 

3. audi-e-ba-ntor. 

Were, might be^ heard, 



Sing. — ^1. andi-a-r, 

2. audi-e-iia, 

3. andi^tnr, 

Plxtb— 1. andi-^mor, 
2. audi-e-minl, 
8. audi-e-ntor. 


2. audi-ra, he thou heard, andl-tor, 
8. audl-tor, 

Plur.— 1. , 

2. andl-fliiiil, be pe heard. 

he ehdU be heard. 

aadiMi-ntor, thep shaU be heard. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 






Edve been heard^wae heard. Have, may have, been hsard, 

SmG.— 1. andl-tpus, -a, -tun, s-o-m, andl-t^us, -a, -Qm, t-i-an, 

2. 68, s-Ii, 

3. es-t, »i.t, 

Plitb. — ^1. aiidl-i>l, -ae, -a, s-a-mna, andl-tp], -aa, -a, s-MniM^ 
2. es-kis, 8-^t^ 

8. 8-u-nt. a-l-nt. 


Had been heard. Had, might June, been heard. 

SiNO. — 1. andX-t-ns, -a,-iiiii, ar-a-m, aodX-tu-s, -a, -tun, ea-se-m, 

2. er4l^ es-sS-a, 

8. ar-a-t, as-ae-t^ 

Plur. — 1. aadl-t-X| -aa, -a, arS-mus, andl-t-X, -aa, -a, es-Bd-mua, 
2. ar-S-tia, as-ad-tia, 

8. ar-a-nt. aa-aa-nt 


8haJU have been heard. 
SnvG. — 1. audX-tpUB, -a, •am, ar-S, 
2. ar-i-8, 

8. ar-i-t, 

PUTB. — 1. andX-t-I, -aa, -a, er-imua, 
2. er-i-tia, 

8. ar-u-nt. 


Pbkssvt. audl-rt, to be heard. 

PBBFaoT. audl-t-um, -am, urn, aasa, to have be$n heard. 

FuTUBB. andl-tum Iti^tobe about to be heard. 

F. P. audl-t-um, -am, -nm, fora. 


pfRVKcT. andl-t-QB, -a, -am, Iieard. 

axBiTHDiTB. audi-end-ua, -a, -am, [one] to be heard. 

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Appendix to the Third Conjugation. 

189. Several verbs of the Third Conjugation in the Present- 
stem add i to the stem. This i is dropped when it would come 
before 6 or I, except before et ; as^ cap-it, cap-eret, but capi-et. 






Be taking. 

BiNG.— 1. capi-8, 


2. cap4^ 


8. cap-i-t, 


Plur.— 1. cap-lmus, 


2. cap-l.tis, 


a capi-u-nt. 



Wan taking. 

Were taking. 

BiNO. — 1. cap) 6-ba-m, 


2. capi^-bS-8, 


3. capi-S-ba-t, 


Pluk.— 1. capi-S-ba-mus, 


2. capi-e-bS-tis, 


8. capi-Sba-nt. 



ShaU take. 

BtNG.—l. capi-a-m, 

2. capi-^i, 

3. capi-e-t, 

Plur.— 1. capi^-miu, 

2. capi-a-tla, 

8. capi-e-nt 



BiHG.— 2. cap-e, take thou, 

Pub. cap-e-r*, 


to take. 



PI.UB.— 2. cap-l-te, take ye. 

PEB8. capi-e-n-i, 



a. oapiu-ntS. 



qf taking' 

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Am taken. 
Bora— L capi-o-r, 

8. cap-lrtnr, 

Plus.— 1. cap-i-mur, 
2. cap-i-minl, 
8. oapi-u-ntne 


Be^ may be^ takeik 


Waa taken. 
SiKO.— 1. capi-5-ba-r, 
2. capi-S-M-ils, 
a capi-S-M-tnr, 


-1. capi-S-bft-mor, 
2. capi-d-ba-minl, 
8. capi-^-ba-ntnr. 


Were, might be, taken. 


8haU be taken. 
8iNO.— 1. capi-a-r, 
2. capi-5-ris, 
8. capi^-tur, 

Plxtr. — 1. capi^-mnr, 
2. capi-S-minl, 
8. capi-e-ntor. 


Soro.— 2. cap-e-ra, 

be thou taken, 
Hum shalt be taken, 
8. cap-i-tor, 

he shall be taken, 

Plx7IL^2. cap-i.minl, 

be ye taken, ye thall be taken, GERUNDIVE. 
8. capi-u-ntor, capi-e-nd-tu, -a, van, 

theif ihall be taken. [one] to be taken. 


Pbsi. cap.1, 

to be taken. 

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141. DspoNEirr of 

Swo.— 1. horUo-r, 
2. horta-ris, 
8. horUUtnr, 

Pluk. — 1. horUUniir, 

2. hortS-minX, 

3. borU-ntur. 

Wm exkoriing. 
&K0. — 1. hortdrba-r, 

2. hortfi-ba^ 

3. hortd-bO-tar, 

Plttr. — 1. horti-bft-mur, 

2. hortfl-bft-miiiX, 

3. borUUba^tur. 

THB First Conjuoatiok. 


Be exhorUng^ may exhort, 



Were exhorting^ might exhort. 



SJtaU exTiiOrL 
SiKG. — 1. horta-bo-r, 

2. horta-be-ris, 

3. hortS-bi ttir, 

Plub.— -1. hort§-bi-miir, 

2. horta-bi-minl, 

3. hortl-biA-ntar. 


8iK«.— 2. hortS-re, PART. Pmb. hcrta-i^a, 

exihoTt than, exhorting^ 

horUUtor, Fur. hortft-ttbr-aih .a, .tmi, 

ihcm Shalt exhort^ ctbout to exhmi, 

3. hortl-tor, INF. Fvt. hortS-tOr-nm, -am, -urn, %m% 

he shall exhort, to be about to exhort, 

Plub.— 2. horta-minl, 

exhm't ye, ye shaU exhort, PASSIVE IN MEANING. 
8. horta-ntor, QBRUi^DiyE, horta-nd-ns, -a, -tmi, 

ihey shaU exhorL Wne] to be exhorted. 

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142. Defoitsnt of thb Fibst Cokjuoatiok. 
indicativb. subjunonvb. 

Hate, moff JUnw, etinoTM, 
hortiUt-us, -a, -wn| ti-Bi 

Saw exhorted^ eachorUd, 
ScNO. — 1. hortS-i-us, •«, ^toii, gm-m, 
2. ei, 

& et-t, 

Plub. — 1. hortfi-t-I| -ae| •«, s-u-mus, 
8. s-u-nt. 



Sad exhorted, 
, — 1. hortfi-t-iu, -a, -mil, er-a-m, 

2. BT'SirBf 

8. . . er-a-t, 

Sad, might have, exhorted, 
hortiUt-us, -a, -tDB, ea-se^i, 


Plub.— 1. hoctS-i-I, -aa, -a, ar-ft-muji, hortft-t-I, -aa, ^ as-sS-miia, 
2. ar-fttis, ea-sS-tii, 

8. er-a-nt. 

FUTUBS PiBvaoih 

Shall have exhorted. 
SiNO. — 1. hortS-t-iu, -a, -mn, er4i, 
2. «r.i-i, 

8. ar-l-t, 

Plub.— 1. hortS-t-I, -aa, ^ ari-miu, 

2. er4.tis, 

3. ar-n-nt. 


Pbbs. hortS-il^ 
to exhort, 


PntrxcT. hortatua, -a, -lUBi 
having exhorted. 

Perf. hortiU^tuii, -am, -am, ana, 

Up have exihorted. 
F. F horta^nm, -am, -vm^ lore. 

SuPinB. 1. hortS-tom, 

to exh4ni,for exihorUng. 

Okbuhd. [horUUrX], 

to exhort, exhorting. 

2. hortft-tfi, 

to exhort, in the 

G. horta-nd-I, 

4^ exhorting. 

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143. Depokekt of the Secoio) Cokjuoatiok. 

SiKC— 1. F«r»-04r, 

3. ▼•rS-tOTi 

Plur.— 1. ▼«ri-Buir, 

2. Tflri-iiiiiil, 

3. TVM-ntiir. 

Woi fearing. 
.~1. ▼•ri-ba-r, 
3. ▼mri-Mxls, 
a ▼ttri-bft-tnr, 

Plur.— '1. Terd-bA-DMir, 
3. TarS-bS-minl, 
8. TarS-ba-ntur. 

Befearing^ magfiait. 



F(5rtf fearing, ndghifear. 



Sino. -'I. Tcri-bo-r, 
3. Tflri-be-rii, 
8. Teri-bi-tiir, 

Pluk.^1. ▼•ri-U-miir, 

2. ▼•rS-U-minl, 

3. TMrS-ba-iitim 


8lNO.— 2. ▼•ri-re, 

Hum tihaU fear, 
8 ▼erS.tor, 

he shaU fear, 

Flub —2. verS-minl, 

/«ar y«, y<j sh(Ul fear, PASSIVE IN ME ANmO. 

8. vere-ntor, Gekundive, vere-nd-na, -a, -nm, 

iheif ehaU fear. [one'] to le feared. 


PART. PAIS, vera ni, 
X fearing^ 
Tm, ▼ar-i-tfir.iu, •«, inn, 

INF. Fur. ▼«r4-tftr4un, -am, -nm, 

to be about to fear. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 


144. DEFoiJOonr of thb Seoovd Oovjuoatiov. 


Have feared, feared. Hate, «Mf hate, feared. 

BiNO.— 1. ▼•r-i-t-tUy -a, -imii g-u-m, ▼6r4-tiii, -a, -inn, B^-tn^ 

8. M-t, ti-t, 

Pi^UK.— 1. Ter-i-t-I, -ae, -a, s-n-mus, yer-l-tl, -aa^ •m^ s•^m1la, 

2. a■-lil^ s-I-tii, 

3. s-n-nt. a4-nt 


llad feared. Had, might have, feared. 

SiHO. — 1. irer-i-t-us, -a, -nm, ar-a^^n, ▼ar-i-t-na, -a, -um, aa-se-m, 

2. ar-A4| aa-sS-s, 

3. ar.4ut, aa-ae-t, 

Pluk. — 1. var-l-t-I, -aa, -a, ar^i-mua, Tar-i-t-I, -aa, -a, as-tS-mna, 
3. ar^l-tii, ewrsStiMt 

8. ar-a-nt. aa-aa-nt. 

S/uiU Jutte feared. 
Bnce. — 1. ver-i-t-ua, -a, -um, ar-j$, 
3. ar-i-a, 

3. arlt, 

Plur.— 1. var4t-I, -aa, -a, ar-i-mua, 
8. ar4-tia, 

8. ar-u-nt. 


PsKt. ▼art-rl, rsHPKCT. var-i-tna, -a, om. 

to fear. 
Pkbf. Tar-i-t^um, -am, .um, ana, 

(0 have feared. 
F. p. var-i-tnm fora. 

BiiPiNB. 1. ▼ar.i.ttun, 2. ▼ar4-tfi, 

(0 fear,f[nr fearing. to fear, infetmntt, 

ClBRinrD. [TarS-H], G. ▼ara-nd-I, 
to fear, fearing. of fearing. 

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StNG.— 1. loqii-04r, 
2. loqn-^xlg, 
8. loqu4^tiir, 

Plur.— 1. loqui-miiri 
2. loqu-i-miiiX, 
8. loqu-n-ntnr, 

Wa» tpeaJdng, 
Sing. — 1. loqu-$-ba-r, 

2. loqa-e-bd-ris, 

3. loqn-^-bS-tor, 

ri*UR.— 1. loqn-e-bS-mnr, 
2. loqu-$-b£-minI, 
8. logu-5-ba-ntnr, 

BiNG.— 1. loqu-a-r, 
2. loqo-^-ris, 
8. loqu-S-tnr. 

(*LUR. — 1. loqu^-mnr, 
2. loqu-e-minl, 
8. loqu-e-ntnr. 


Sing. — ^2. loqn-e-re, 

speak tlioUf 
ihou sliaU speak, 
8. loqn-i-tor, 

Tie ahall 9j)eak, 

Plub.— 2. loqu-i-minl, 

speak ye, 
8. loqu-u-ntor, 

they shall sveak 

Be speoHi^^ mag $peah 



Wete speaking J ndghl speah, 




PART. Pbbi. loqa.^n-8, 

FvT. looll-tur-118, -a, -nm, 

about to speak, 
INF. fdt. locfl-tur-nm, -am, -um, m8«^ 

to be about to speak. 

Gerundive, loqu-e-ndus, -a, -um, 

to he spoken. 

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146. Deponent of the Third Ookjuoatiok. 




Hate spoken^ ipoke. 

a. — 1. loca-t-oi^ -a, -Qm, s-n-m, 

2. ei, 

8. es-t, 

Plur. — 1, loeCl-t-I, -ae, -a, s-u-miui, 

% es-tis, 

8. s-u-nt, 

Ilave, may June, spoken. 
locu-t-us, -a, -um, s-i-m, 

locfi-t-I, ^6, ^ s-I-mns, 

Had, migJU Jiave, tpoken. 
locil-t-ns, -a, -mil, es-se-m, 


Had spoken, 

SiKG. — 1. locQ-t-oa, -a, -mii, er-a-m, 

2. er4[-s, 

3, cr-a-t, 

Plub.— 1. locn-t-I, ^e, ^ er^-mtui, locnt-I, -ae, ^ es-sS-mns, 

2. er^tis, es-^i-tis, 

8. er-a-nt. es-se-nt 


FuTUBK Perfect. 

Shall have spoken. 

Sing.— 1. locn-t-us, ^ -mii, er-S, 

2. er-i-i, 

8. erlt. 

Plur.— 1. loctl-t I, .ae, -a, er-i-mus, 

2. er.i-tia, 

3. er-u-nt. 



Pm». loqu-I, Perf. 

locQ-tus, -a, -am, 

to speak. 

having spoken. 

Pbsp. locn^t-iiin, -am, -am, esse. 

to Jiate spoken. 

P. Pf. locn-t-um, -am. -tun, fore. 

Supine. 1. locn-tum, 2. 


to speak, for speaking. 

to speak, in spenh'ngt 

Qbrund. [loqu-I], O. 


to speak, speaking. 

of speakififf. 

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147 Depokent of the Fourth Conjuoatiok 


SfKO.— 1. menti-o-r, 
%, mentl ris, 
3. meatl-tar, 

Plur. — 1. mentl-muTi 

2. mentl-mlnl, 

3. menti-u-nttir, 

WaB ^^nff, 
Bute. — 1. menti^ba-r, 
2. mentl^bft-irfis 
8. menti-C-bS-tuT. 

Pluf. — 1. menti-G-b^-mur, 
2. menti-C-bft-minl, 
8. menti-C-ba-ntor. 



Be lying, may lie. 



Were lying, might He, 



Shall lie. 
BiNG.— 1. menti-a-r, 
2. menti-d-ris, 
8. menti-d-tur. 

Plur. — 1. menti-e-mur, 
2. menti-e-minl, 
8. menti-e-ntur. 



6iK0. — 2, menti-rei PART. Pres. menti-e-n-s, 

Ue thou, 
iJiou 8/iali lie, 
8. mentl-tor, 

?ie fJuiU lie, 

Plur --2. mentl-mini, 
lie ye, 
8. menti-u-ntor, 


Fur. mentX-tur-us, -a, -urn, 
alout to lie, 
INF. Fur. mentl-tur-um, -am, -urn, 
to be about to lie. 

Gekundivk, menti-c-nd-us, -a, -um 

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148. Deponent of the Fourth Gokjuoj^tiok. 

Eave, majf have, Ue(L 
mentt-t-us, -a, -uin, i-i^, 

Have lied, lied, 
Bma.— 1. mentl-t-us, ^ -uni, s-u-m, 

2. M, 

8. M-t, 

Plus. — 1. mentl-t-]^ -aa^ •«, s-n-miu, 

2. M.tis, 

3. s-o-nt, 

ntl-t-I, -ae^ -a, al^mia, 


Had Ued, Uad^ migJit have^ lied. 

Sing. — 1. mentl-t-us, -a, -tmi, «r-a-iii| mantl-t-tui, -a, -um, ••-••-m, 

2. «r4Ua, 

3. ar^-t, 

Plur. — 1. mantI.t-1, ^aa, -a, ar-fi-mus, mantl-t-l| -aa, -a, aa-ai-mna, 
2. ar4[.tii, aaai-lLs 

8. ar-a-nt, aa-aa-nt. 


Sliall luLve Ued, 
Smo. — ^1. inaiitX4-ii8| -a, -nm, er-^ 
2. ar-is, 

8. ar4.t. 

Plitr.— 1. mantl-t-I, ^a, -a, ar4-mti8| 
2. ar.i.tia, 

8. ar-n-nt. 


Pub. manU-rl, 

to lie, 
Pkrp. mentt-t-nm, -am, -tun, aasa, 

to hate lied, 
r. p. mantt-t-um, -am, -mn, fore. 
SupiRs. 1. mantX-tum, 

to Ue^for lying, 
Gerund, [mantl-n], 

to Ue^ lying. 


Pkrfict. mantX-t-na, -a, -ibMi 
liaving lied. 

2. mantf-tii, 

to Ue, in Mfing. 
G. mantl-a-nd-I, 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 




Periphrastic Cokjuoatioit. 



amfltor-ns, -a, -ma, sum, 
Am about to love. 


amfltor-iu, ^ -imi, sin, 
Se about to loce. 


amfltaros eram, amfltnnis essem, 

Wm about to love. Were about to love. 


amfltoms erii, 8ftaU be about to love. 


am&tfirus fol, amfltoms fdarim, 

Have been, was^ about to love. Have, may Jiave, been about t$ 



amfltnnis fucaram, amaturos foissem, 

Had been about to love. Had, might have, been about 

to love. 

Put. PERF.amSturusfaerS. 

INFINITIVE. pRBSEMT. am&tar-vim, -am, -am, essep to be about to love. 
PsBracT. amStar-mn ftdsse, to haive been about to love. 


Es. amand-us, ^ .urn, sum, 

amand-ua, -a, -um, sin,* 

Have to be loved. 

Have to be loved. 

rKUF. amandns eram, 

am andus essem, foremi 


Had to be loved. 

— andus er5, Sliall Jiave to be loved. 


amandus f uerimi 

7ave liad to be loved. 

Have had to be loved. 

andus fueram, 

7ad Iiad to be loved. 

SJiould liave Iiqd tobek 

!^. Present, amand-um, -am, -am, esse, to have to be loved^ 
Pekfiot. amand«um fuisse, to 7uive Jiad to be loved. 

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151. Abbeeviations occurring in certain Forms of 
THE Verb. 

1. The Perfects in -fivl, -5vl, -IvI, drop the V before 8 or R, and con 
tract the vowels throughout, except those m -!▼!, which admit the con- 
traction onlj before S. 


Smo.— 1. — — 

2. amiyiitt amfitU diliriitl, dOirtl. fBdlTistl, audlsa 

I*LU1L~1. — — — 

2. amiyiitii, amistii. dttflrittis, dilSftii. andXyiitii, andXstii. 

3. amiTfinint amfmat daliraniBt dSlfimnt aadlTimnt aadiinmi 
Hnnj. -«mST«rim, amirim. dMrerxm, d616rim. aadlTerim, aodierinu 

Ind. amiTeram, anUCram. diltrerain, dilSraiii. aadlTeram, andieram. 
Sdbx. amiTissea, amisieni dSlOviisem, dfilissam audlTiisenit aadlsMnt 

FcTuna Pxbfkot. 
amiTero, amSro. dilSTero, dilero. audlToro, aadiero. 

Intimititb Perfect. 
amiTisse, amSue. dttSyiise, dttSste. andlTisse, aadlsie. 

In like manner, n5vl, I know, and mdvl, I have moved, arc, in their com- 
pounds especially, contracted : 

Sme.— 2. nOftL Plur.~8. nOstis, 8. nOnmt Sitbj. nOrhn. 

PLtrPEBrsoT. nOram. Subj. nOssam. Imf. nOise. Bat the Fature is nOTero, nn 

Rbmabk.— In petara, to/all upon, dStinere, to give over, and in the componnds of Ire* 
to go, the Y of the Perfect is dropped in 1 and 3 Pers. Sing., and in 1 Pera. PL, bnt ne 
eontraction enraei, as : 

patlYl, petU ; petlyit petiit So dtelTl, dfitil ; dSElVit dfisUt etc 
And redil* redQt« iW>m redXre, to go badb, 

2. In 8 PI. Per£ Act. instead of the ending -Croat, -Cre is often found, 
but never in the contracted Perfects mentioned above : amSvSre, they have 
loved; dSlSvSre, they have destroyed; Smere, tTiey have bought; audlvSre, 
they have heard. But amSre, for amarunt, is not admissible. 

3. Instead of -ris in 2 Sing. Pass, we find often -re i 

amibSre, thou wast toted ; amfirSrei thou mighlest be loved ; amCbara, thou trtU be hved. 
This is rare, however, in Present Indicative. 

4. Tiie Imperatives of dicere, to say, ducere, to lead, faoere, to inake^ 
and ferre, to hear, are die, due, £ac, far. These shortened Xbrms occur in 
their respective compounds, except in tliose compounds of fiado, which 
change a into i, as : perfioe, achieve thou. (188 R) 

5. The Gerund and Gerundive of the 8d and 4th CoDJugatious, instead 
of -andl, -endiu, may, especially after 1, end in -undX and -tmdua, as : 

fadundai, to be done : gamndns* to be carried. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 

84 THX 8TE1C 

162. THE STEM. 

L Ik the Pbeskmt. 

The stem of many verbs appears in tbo Present, not ir: the 
pure, but in a strengthened fonn. 

Hence verbs are classified according to the relation of ihe 
Present St^m to the Verb Stem. 

I. Stem class: To this class belong those verbs whjse present 
stem is the same as the verb stem. 

Such are the vcrhs of the rowel conjugations ; and in tlie Third Conju- 
gation such verbs as leg-o, I read, ed-o, leat^ em-o, Ibvy. 

II. The Protracted or Intensified clnss: In this class the 
vowel of the Verb Stem is lengthened in the Present Stem: 

dUc-o, I lead, stem dtie-; dlc-o, I sat/, stem die. 

IlEMARK.— Tliis change arises from a diplitliongal strengthening of the 
stem : douo-o, deic-o y but tlie class is treated as a stem-class in formation. 

IIL The Nasal class : In this class the stem is strengthened 

A. In vowel-stems : si-, sliio, I let; 11-^ lino, 1 besmear, 

B. After the characteristic r or m: cer-, cemo, / stfl, separate; t«m-| 

C. Before tlie charaeteristic mute : vio-^viaco^ I conquer; firag-^frango^ 
I break ; fad-, fundo, I pour. 

Before a P-mute N becomes M: mp-, mmpo, I rend; onb-, onmbo, 
/ lie down, 

IV. Tlie T class: flee-, fleoto, I bend. 

V. The Inchoative class : The stem strengthened by se or iie . 
le after vowel stems, isc after consonant stems. 

1. ira-, irascor, ere-, crS-sco, dormi-, obdormlHicoi 

lamina rage, I grow. I faU atieep, 

3. ap-, ap-iscor, fac-, profio-iscor, nao-^ nanc-iaoor, 

I reach, 1 set out, I get, 

VI. Reduplicated class : Eednplication in the Present stem : 

gen-, gi-gno, / beget, (for oi-gkn-o); •U.,ti-8lo, 8iit-«r^, to set, stand 
Compare stSre, to stand, 

VII. TJ'class : U suflSxed to the stem : 

ting-, tingu-o, I soak. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 

supiini» 8ft 

VllL I'class : I suffixed to the stem : 

cap-, oapl-o, / take. 

IX. Geminated class : 

The Liquids 1 and r may be doubled : pel-, paDo, / drive ; eor-i 
curro, / rtm. 
So t is doubled in mit-, mitto, I send. 

RBMABK.-^Thiifiiuai class is probably A MibdlTldoo of the Sth diM fj:eam)\ ptllib 
forpe^o, peUo; euro, for enxjo, eorio. 

X Change of Conjugation : 

Many consonant-stems assume in the Present the character- 
istic of one of the three vowel-conjugations: 

vid-, video, /«««, vid5-re. T«n^ Tenl-o, / c&me, Tenl-r*. 

153. IT. Im tub PssnecT. 

The Perfect is formed from the pure stem. 
Exceptions : see chaDge of oonjagation. (156, 17d). 

1. The vowel-stems take -vl: am&-Yl, / have loved; dd«-Yl« 
/ have destroyed; andl-vl, I have heard. 

However, most verbs of the 2d Conjugation drop the vowel-characte^ 
IsUc, and change -vX into -aL (See 128.) 

2. Consonant-stems with short stem-syllable take 1 in the 
Perfect, before which the stem-syllable becomes long, and & is 
changed into 0. 

lego, Iread^ vid-eo, Isee^ fod-io, Idig^ log-io, IJUe^ ag-o, Ido^ 
Ug^. vXd-L f6d-L fog-L <gL 

3. Consonant-stems with long stem-syllables take si in the 

.rgp-o, lereep^ rep-sL scribe, Iwrite^ scrip-si dic-o, I My, dlzX = dio-sL 
^ng-eo, / increase^ auzl = aug-sL rSd-o, I scrape, rS^ = rad^sL 

Even when the stem-syllable is long by position only : 

carp-o, I pluck, carp-sL ping-o, I paint, pinzJ = ping-sL 

3SxcEPnoN8.^Exception8 are stems in -nd, which take X in the Perfect: 
di£end-o, 1 strike (ward) off, defend-X ; perhaps because the stems in -ad 
Conned originally a reduplicated perfect : 

maad-o, IdUw, mancaDdl ; so tft)f»BdX, / Aom 0tniek. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 


4. The stems in n have I in the Perfect: actm>, / sharpen, 

5. Sundry verbs reduplicate in the Perfect, t. e., repeat the 
initial consonant of the stem with the vowel following it: 
ptnd-o, Iwdght pe-pend-I. poie-o, I demand, po-pote-I, eur^ /nm, ea-oirr-X. 

When a change of vowel occurs in the stem, e is always found in the 
svilable of reduplication : 

cad-o, IJall, ce-cid-L caed-o, I fell, oe-cAd-L 

parc-o, I spare, pe-p«ro-L pel-lo, I push, pe-poUL 

These reduplicated Perfects are always formed in -L They do not 
lengthen the stem-yowel, but change a into i, ae into I, a before two con- 
sonants into e, and e and o into n before L 

Rexark.<->Iii oomponnds with moooeyllabic prcpotlUoos rodnpllctUon is leenenUy 
dropped except hi diseo, / learn, 4d, / give, poteo, / demand^ ttd« lekauL The com- 
poands of onrrOt / run, lomethiie* retain it, ezeuearrt With disejlUbic prepositioiM 
the reduplication is commonly retained. 

UL Thb Sufins. 

154. L The Supine is formed from ihQ pure stem. 

1. Vowel-stems and stems in TT take -torn in the Supine: 

am-o, Ilote, amfi-tom. dSle-o, I destroy, dSIi-tnm. 

andi-o, I hear, andX-tom. txibiHO, I aUot^ trfliil-tiim. 

Most verbs of the Second Conjugation drop, however, their own char- 
BCteristic vowel l)efore -tun, and insert the connecting- vowel i : moii#-o^ 
I remind^ moni-tnm. Some have no connecting-vowel. (See 128.) 

2. Consonant-stems in a P- or K-mute take -torn in the Supine 

cap-io, J taA;^, cap-turn. rep-o, J ctm^, rep-torn. 

£ao-lo, Ida, factum. dic-o, I say, dio-tnm. 

Exceptions.— 1. Among tlie P-stems, only ISbor, IsUp, lap-sua. 
2 Among. the K-stems, the Supine in -sum occurs : 
A. In verbs whose Present-stem is strengtliened by t : 

fleets Ibend, flezom. pleot*o, IplaU, plezonu 

peot-o, I comb, paznm. neet-o, / knot, Hnd, nezimu 

B. Some, whose characteristic is preceded by a Liquid : marg-o, I dip, 
mer^um j terg-o, I wipe, ter-sum j payc-o, / spare, par-sum ; sparge 
/ sow, scatter, spar-sum ; mulce-o, / stroke, mnl-sum. 

0. In some the ending* -sum preveute confusion with other words: 
fingo, I shape, makes fictnmj but figo, I fasten, fiz-um. So mnl-ram, 
from mulo-ao, I stroke, distinguishes it from multnm, mue^. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC . 


SiiuiiK.— The X-mntes are dropped in tbe Perfect and Supine between 1-t, 1-t, r^i 
H: foloio, I prop, ftdCcHd, fta(e)-tiiiii ; torqu-eo, / iwUt, toKfo)^ tor(qi)-tii]D 
(See l«o.) 

3. Consonant-stems in a T-mute take -sum in the Supine : 

ed-o, I eat, Stmn (for ed-sum) ; Ifid-o, I play, In-sum ; difend-o, I ward 
off^ dSfensnm. 

4 Liquid-stems have partly -torn, partly -sum. Stems in m 
and n take -tom; stems in 1 and r take 

emro, Ibuy^ em-tum; ▼eiii-0| I come, ▼en-tum ; can-o, Tiling^ oan-tmn. 
ver-8un, from Ter-ro, / sweep; fal^um, from £Ul-o, / cheat; TiilrSiiiii, 
from ▼ell-o, I pluck. 

Exceptions. — A. Liquid-stems "which in the Perfect pass over to the 
3d Conjugation have -turn, with or without connecting-vowels: al-o 
I nourish, al-i-tum or al-tum. 

B. To be distinguished from other forms : par-tmn, firom pario, J6rin^ 
forth; but par-sum^ from parc-ere, to spare: sal-tum, from aali-o, Heap; 
bnt sal-sum, from saU-o, I salt. 

G. Man-smn, from mane-Oj I remain, 

IL The Future Active Participle is formed regularly from 
the Supine; in some verbs, however, from the Pi^sent-stem. 

JuvStoms, about to Jielp, from JuvSre; secStnrtis, from secSre, to cut; 
BonatoniB, from sonSrei to sound ; l^^Sturus, from lavSxe, to toash ; bat 
acyutnms, from acynv&re, to help ; moriturus, from morior, I die; oritfio 
ms, from orior,Irise; paritfinia, from pario, I bring forth; agnSUbns, 
from agndioo, I recognize; nSacitarus, from nascor, lam born. 

In Bome U-atems it ia formed by means of the conncctinfif-vowol I : argnitlLniSi from 
argno, / aocute; abnoittlnis, from abnno, / rtfuse ; Initflras, ftrom 1q-o, I wash og ' 
mitllms, ih>m ruo, Irush ; frnitHnu, from frnor, i enjoy. 

165. Euphonic Laws 


Characteristic b before 8 and t becomes p : 

sorlb-o, Iwriity scrlp-sl, scrlp-tmn. 
Clmracteristic g and qn before t become c : 

leg-o, I read, lec-tum ; coqu-o, I bake, coo-tum. 

Characteristic c, g, and qn with s become x : 

dlo-o^ Is(xg, dlzi (= dicsi). 
Juttgo, I join, junxl (= Jvmg-sl). 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 


ooqn-o, Icookt oojd (= ooqn-il). 
stingo-o, I poke (ouC^t stinzL 

Characteristic t and d before 8 are dropped, or becx)me by a» 
similation m : 

ed-o, leaU S-fom (= ed-sum) ; ced-o, I give way^ c5bsi (= oedHd). 
mitt-o, I fiend, ml-ai (= mit-il), mis-ram (= mii«um). 

156. Change of Conjuoatiok. 

A change of Conjugation arises when a vowel (e, i, a), or one 
of the strengthening suffixes of the Present, is added to thepuro 
stem. The following instances occur : 

1. Consonant-stcnis, regular in the Perfect and Supine, pass over in the 
Present-stem into one of the vowel-conjugations. 






























to bind. 

Rrmark. —As there vcrb» form Poifect and Supine from the pure stem regnlarly, Uktt 
the others of the 8d or Consonaut-Conjngation, they arc placed among the verbs of the 8d 
Con}osatlon in the list below. 

2. Vowel-stems, in consequence of a strengthened Present, pass ovof 
into Uie 8d Conjugation, but form Perfect and Supine from the vowel* 

erSte-o, erS-to-ere, erS-vI, erS-tum, io 

li-n-o, lin-ere, U-vias-vO, li-tum, to 

8. Consonuiit-stcms form the Present regularly according to the 8d 
Conjugation, but pass in the Perfect and Supine into the 2d or 4th Con- 

firemo, frem-ere, frem-nl, firem-i-tum, iogrowL 

pet-o, pet-ere, pet-lvl, petltnm, tufaUproi^ 

4. Vowel.stems vary among the Vowel-Conjugiitions. 

crep-o. I. crepfi*re, I. crep-nl, n. erep-itam, II., to eradtk, 
aperi-o, IV. aperl-re,iy. aper-nl, II. aper-tam, towtamr, 

5. dare, to (/ice, and stSre, to stand, in the Perfect, In consequence of 
re'lupliciition, pass over to the 3d Conjugation. 

Rbxark.— Verbs mentioned imdcr S, 8, 4, end 6 as solferlng change of CdOagiUkm, 
aie specially marked in 176-lSO. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



Stems in a F-hute. 

Sumni: -tiixii* 
FuRFECT.— 1. After a short stem-syllable. Perfect in -I. 


iimpH) (xvip-\ 














2. After a long stem-syllable, 

Perfect in -«L 
































to pluck t^, 
to creep, 
to creep. 

AVilh cliange of CoDJugation. 

i6p!-o (saepi-o), 


(sorp-fl) torbnl. 






clep-sl (cl6p-D, 



Stems in a Z-mute. 

Supine : -tam. 


Pkufect.— After 

a sbort stem 

-syllable, Perfect in -I. 

a. Pore stem. 










to compel. 



— '• 


to pass (time) 










to make. 

eale-faoi-o(cal£), cale-fac-ere 

















to cast. 





to gather. 




lee tarn. 






to gather. 

Sotha other compoands, except dI-lig-0, intel-lig-o, neg-lig-o, ^e 


Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



b. Stem strengthened by N. 





finc-o (TIC), 


a. Pure stem. 




•illg-o (eon-, af-, !&-)« 




fraag-tra, fr«g-I, 
linqii-«r«, llqu-I, 
re-liBqii-«r«, re-Uqu-I, 
(pang-ere), (p8g>D, 

▼iiLe-«r«, Tlo-I. 

frao-tiuBt lol 

ptr-tee-tnm, to^Mur, 

re-lie-tiimi loUombeMnd, 

(pao-tuin)* oomp. S b and 8L 

oom-pao-tiun, todrtiMtighL 

▼ie-tnnit to eongti^*. 

2. After long 8tem-s3'IIabIe, Perfect in -iL 

dio-ere, dizl (dle-tO, die-tum, 

dfto-ere, dftxX, dnc-txun, 

fig-ere, flzL fixum,* 

-flig-ere, -fllxl, •flic-tiuii« 

firlg-ere, firlxl, frio-tum, 

tUg-ere, tUxt tne-tiuiL 

With change of Conjugation. 

aag-6re, aaxl, anetaa, 

frig-fire, (frixl), — 

lUcfi-re, lUxI, 

Itlgfi-re, IfLzI, 




to eoHse to W€tx, 

b. Stem strengthened by N, which is rfttin»i1 in Perfect and genciml^ 
in Supine; the stem-syllable is therefore losg by Position. 

Supm triChout N. 


fing-MW. Anxl, 




piM^n, pinxl, 
HOBg-ere, strinzL 







aagw. M^ 




timff^m, cinxl. 



44Muig-6re, e-munzl, 



jiag; a 

jnng-ere, jnnxl. 




ling-are, Unzl, 




ningere, ninxl. 



pang-ere, panxl. 



plang 0. 

plang-ere, planxl. 


to mils. 

-ttingn-o (ez-, dii-, 

. re-), -Btingn-ere, -stinxl. 



tingo (tinga-o). 

ting(Q)-ere, tinxl. 






With change of Conju« 



lanel-re, tanzl. 

aane-tam and 




▼inel-re, vinxl. 



* The exceptions mentf(ined, 154, are marked with ^. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



e. Stem strengthened by T, Snpine in -tnm. 








nexl (nexoD, Beznm,^ 












d The K-mute dropped after !■ or R, and before S or T. 









t0 8trtw. 





Xmg-o (e^). 

terg^ere (9-re)iter^ 



With change of Conjugation. 





forei-o (-ferei-o). 













to glow. 











, mnlge-o. 



mul-Biim (otnm) 






















1. Stem-syllable short, but Perfect in -«L 






fiiro a^g'). 








to love. 

o,uiteIUg-ere, intel-lexl, 



neglig^^l^r^-O' neg-lig-ere, 




(ooMig-ere, e-^r* 






to lure. 










[-ipici-o (spiec). 





(ad-t con-, do-, in-), 




pil ■fWltlM 

























to cover. 

2. Stem-syllable long, but Perf«ict in -L 

[eH» (defectiTo), Ic-ere, Ic-I, 

l*re«ent stem rare : ic-it, Ic-itar, le-imar. 



Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



8. With reduplicated Perfect 
diie^e, di-dio-I, (disoitflnis), toleam. 

Compounds retain reduplication, 
(paagp-are), pe-pig^I* paetum, toiMwiabaf^ 



paro-o, pare-are, pe-percl (par-tD, (par-tttnu), tot, 

com-pareo(-pereo),ooiii-pare-tr0, oom-pan-Ii oompar^mm, ios 

poie-o, poto-era, pe-poie-I, — loc 

pimg-o, pang-ere, pa-png*t puno-timi, toprtdL 

inter-pungo, inter-pungere. inttr-pnnxl, iiiter-pane-tiim,^ l^toMpofnej 

tang-o (tag), 





to border t^fon. 

163. Aspirate Stems in H and V. 

The stems in H, and some in V, follow the Conjugation of the 
K-mute stems. 

IlBMABK.-~Iii thcM Stems an ori/iriDal K-mate rei4>pcars, as, tIy-o for yi(g)YO, and 
▼ixl for vig(v)Bl. Compipe nix, Oi) nig(v)i, fnow. 

Perfect, -aL Supine^ -turn. 

fln-o (flogy-), fln-ere, flnxl, (flox-ni), tojiow. 

ttru-o (stnigT-)« 8tm-6re» stmxl, stmo-tnm, tobuUd, 

trah-o« trah-ere, trazi, trae-tom, to draff. 

▼eh-o, Teh-ere, vexl, Teo-tnm, to cany, 

viv-o (vigT-X ▼Iv-ere, vixl. yie-tam, toUre. 

Willi cliange of Conjugation. 
e9-nly9-re, eO-nixI and iTt — 

cO-nlTO-o (nigy-), 

to dot$ tki 


Stems in a T-mute. 

SupiNB : -sam. 
Pekfect. — 1. The stems in D with short stem-syllable and all stems in 
-nd, have Perfect in -L 

(Many stems in -ndt with reduplicated Perfect, see 4 below.) 














S-tam (ai-iam) 

, toeoL 




com-6-tam and 


fand-o (ruD), 




















a(d)-. dS-seend 0, 




to eUmb yf^ 

Witli change of Omjugation. 











Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



165. 2. Steins in D and T, with long stem-syllable, have Perfect in -tL 

























pUnd^ (ap-plaud-o), plaiid-ere. 


















to gnaw. 





to push. 





to go. 

With change of Conjugation. 










to iaugk 









to (makt 


8. With assimilation. 

a. In the Supine. 














pa8-iiim(pan8tim),A> tpread 






b. In the Perfect and the Supine. 











eon-entio Q^-, ex-), wn-ent-ere, 







strides (-do), 

1. With short stem-syllable, but Perfect in -sL 

dX-vid-are, dX-yX-sI, dX-rl-sani, 

qaat-erei (qnas-sD, qnas-snm, 

2. With long stem^llable, but Perfect in -L 

oftd-ere« eftd-I* ctL-snnif 

ild-era, ild-X, 

/» eompoaUlon -sSdl, -sessanii/rom sede-o. 
eon sid-ero, oon-sSd-X, con-ses-som, 

itndaro(-oro),strId-I, — 


Tort-I. Ter-iom, 

roTort-I (actlre), ro-Tor-siixn, 


to hammer 

to seUU 

to whittle, 

to turn, 

to tum 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



16& 4 mOt rednpDcaled FeaAecL 

Tim wfcpltnitton of the Fof ect is dropped in componnd rerbiL 




tend-o, tend-ere, 
ez-tend-o, ex-tend-ere, 
OB-toad-o, OB-tend-ere, 







tAn-SUm and 
ez-tMirfam and -tain, 

nordo-Of ]iiiord9*r6t 
pende^, pendi-re, 
spondee spondS-re, 

With change of Ck>DJugation. 

xno-mord-If nor-iiuiit 

pe-pend-I, — 

spo-pond-I, spon-snm. 

tondoH), tondS-re, to-tond-I, ton-sum. 

In 9ome verbs the strengthening H of the Present has been dropped, 
even the reduplicated sjllahle has been dropped. 
flnd-0, find-ere, fld-I, fis-sum, 

idnd-o, soind-ert, sdd-I, leii-tum, 

tundo, tund-ere, tu-tud-I, tun-ium and tll-ium, 

(168 B.) 



, iotm. 


to stretch and, 
to stretch ait 
cAoto (obs-t-X 

to pledge d^ 

U) shear. 
In two verbs 

to spat, 
to thump. 

160. Liquid-Ste3IS. 

1. All liquid-stems have the stem-syllable short 

Exceptions. — 1. Ck)ntracted forms: 8Q-mo(8ah-imo); p6-no (po-sino, 
or poBi-n-o). 

2. Original sibilant stems : haere-o, haes- 

2. Most liquid-stems, by means of the suffix e, pass over into 
the 2d Conjugation, or in the Perfect, at least, suffer change of 

3. Those which follow the 3d Conjugation throughout take I 
in the Perfect, and in the Supine either -snm or -tcuKL They 
lengthen the stem-syllable in the Perfect, or retain the double 
letter (rr, U). Some form the reduplicated Perfect 

em-o, em-er«^ $m-I, em-tam, to take, to buy. 

So, too, co.em-0, 1 buy up. But the compounds with ad, ex-, IntM^ 
red-, take 4m-o. So dir-im-o, I sever. 
inter-im-o, inter-im-ere, inter-em-I, inter-em-tmn, to make away with. 

Tlie other compounds of em-o contract : o5-mo, d^mo, prO-mo, 8u«iiiO| 
and have -si in the Perfect, generally with a p between, which is gene- 
rated by the coming together of a laMal and sibilant or dental. Gomp. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 

snois nr b. 



oOni-€(r6t oOmp-iIt oOBip-tiiflit toadonu 

dBm-era, dlmp^l, damp-tvm, totat$6 

prOmere, prOmp^I (prOm-tf). prOmp-tnm (prOmtui)* <» tete ovt 
ifim-o, sOm-ere stlmp^I Crtm-it). stimp-tiiai (tflntuoDt feteftn^ 

The same formatioii occurs in the stem -tam-. Present, tamn-o, I$eorn. 
eoii-tamn-o, -temn-ere, -temp-iX (miD, -ttmp-tui Omtom), 

170. 1. With the characteristic doubled, 
fnll-o. psall-ere, psall-I, — 


iall-€^ saU-ere, sall-I, 

▼ell-o, Tell-ere, vell-I (yul-pi), 

TCTr^ Terr^rot yerr-I (rare), 

2. With change of Conjugation in the Prcieat 
Teni-o, Tenl-ra, vBn-I, 

a Witli reduplicated Perfect, 
ean-ere, oiriiiI» 

fir«c»» pe-per-It 
#fn-perl-re, com-per-I, 
re-perl-re, rep-per-t 
pell-ere, pe-pol-I, 







par-torn* (paritttms), 



per-eell-o, per-oell-ere, per-enl-I, pdr-enl-ram, ioimiUdown, 

toU-o, toU-ere, sns-tiil-I, sub-li-tum, tol^ftup, 

171. Apparent liquid-stems in* r. — In the liquid-stems in 

r with long stem-syllable, the r has arisen from t. The original 

8 reappears in the Perfect and Supine : hence the endings -si in 

the Perfect (or by assimilation -ssl), and -stom (-sam) in the 


haere-o. ]iaer6-r«, hae-tf, 



haari-o, hanrl-re, haa-tl. 



ftr-Oi ttre-re, lis-sl, 


to bum. 

eom-bflr-o, eom-bflr-ere,eom-lHifl-iX, 


to bum vp. 

With short stem-syllable. 

j«-o, ger-ere, gessX, 

gea-tam (see tostiua, 138), 

to cany. 


IK S. 

172. 1. The stems in a preceded by a vowel have in general 
changed it to r. Unchanged appears only: 
flsHK Ylf-are, tI-sI, Tl-sam, toviHL 

2. Stems in s preceded by a consonant are : 
lept-o, dept-ere, deps-al, deps-tam, to knead 

plBf-o, pini-ere, pini-iii,-I, plas-i-taxn (pis-tarn, pin- 

lam), to pound. 

tez-o, tax-ere, tax-al, tex-tnm, toweaoe. 

These have undergone change of Conjugation in the Perfect (See 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 


8TXM8 nr n; 

Stems in V. 


173. 1* W^itb characteristic preceded by a consonant 















to sharpen. 

adnno (aa-nn-o). 













to agree. 

ex-u 0. 





im-bn o, 




to dlpt dy€. 

in-dn o. 









to atone for. 













plu-it,plttv-it, — 

to rain. 




m-tam (mittlnui), 

to rush down. 





to spew. 









to sneeze. 





to sew. 






174. 2 With characteristic preceded by a voweL 

After a Towd, u appears as v, bnt in the Snplne it soffers, as a vowel, contractiOB wttft 
the vowel preceding^ it (generally with chans^ of cooj ligation). 

eave-o, eavS-re, cfiv-I, oan-tnm, totakehesd. 

fave-o, fav«-re, fSv-I, fau-tom, to be wett-die- 

foye-o, fovS-re, f5v-I, fO-tnm, to keep warm, 

juv-o, juTS-re, jflv-I, ja-tii]n(}ny£t1lnu),toMp* 

ad-jnv-o, -juTS-re, -jflv-I, -ja-tnm (-jH tftms), <o etand iy as 

(lay-oO (lav-ere,) Ut-I, lan-tnm GO-tum), to wash, 

lav-o, laT£-re« QavS-Tl,) lavS-tnm, to wash, 

moye-o, moyS-re, mOv-I, mMom, to move, 

pay6-re, pST-Ii to quake (wltk 

▼ov«-re, ▼5v-I, TS-tum, to vow, 

i reappearance of y occars lu : 

ferv«-Tt (ere), fenr-Kfiorb-nl), — to seethe, 

iolv-ere, solv-I, soltl-tiixn, to loose, pay. 

▼olv-ere, ▼oIt-I, Toltl-tiim, torM, 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 




175. Bekarks. — ^1. Deponent verbs are imssive forms which 
have lost their passive or reflexive signification. 

2. Stems strengthened by so or isc have generallj an inchoa- 
tive meaning. Comp. 152, V. 

1. Stems in a P-iiute. 

1. ad-ip.i«Har, 
1 Ub^r, 


ISp-tui inm, 



2. Stems 


1, a. pro-fieisc-or, 

«, b. fang-or, 
c. am-plect-or. 





pro-fee-tui turn, to {get /orwonO 

funo-tui turn, to diteharfft. 
naetui (nano-tui) lom, to geL 
am-plex-uf turn, to twUu round. 

d. ulc-isc-or, nlo-ise-l, 

Ex.e experg-isc-or, (-reg-) ex-per-g-iie-l. 

1 pac-isc-or, 

ul-tui sum, to avenge, 

ex-per-rec-tus sum, to {right ontTaeff 

vp) awak^ 
pac-tus stun (pepigl), to drive (a bar- 

3. Stems in H and V. 


fru-or (frugv-). 


fruc tus, fru-i-tus sum 

, toen^. 


4. Stems : 

vec-tus sum, 

to {waggon) ride. 




assen-sus sum, 

to assent 




fas-sus sum. 

to cornets. 



oon-fes-sus sum. 

to confese. 




gres-sus sum. 

to step. 



ag-gres-sus sum. 

to attack. 


nlt-or(gnict-) \ 
from genii, f 


nl-sus (nix-US) sum, i 
nl-sflrus, 1 

to slay one's etif 





or-sus sum, 

to begin. 




pas-sus sum. 




per-pes-sus sum. 

to endure to the 



5. Stems 

fl-sus sum, 
IN A Liquid. 


com minisc-or. 


:, com-men-tus sum. 

to think iq\ do^ 

ex-peri -or. 


ex-per-tus sum, 

to try. 

misere or. 

C. Stems 

miser-i-tus sum, 
IN R FOll S. 




ques-tus sum. 


7. Stems in TJ. 




locU-tus sum. 




secft-tus sum. 





ob-U-tus sum. 


Digitized by LjOOQ IC 


Ohakgb of Conjuoatioit. 
(Compare 150.) 
176. 1. Verbs of the 1st Conjugation which pass over into the 9d is 
the Peribct and the Supine. 

erep-nl, erep-itoin, 

cnb-nl, enbitam, 

dom-ul, dom-itum, 

mio-nl, — 

dl-mioS-Tt dl-mioS-tom, 











plic-o (ez-plic-o), plicfi-re. 

(Tho Bimplo : 









f V 1 1 UvJ 










to quiver, JUuh, 

tojlght (ouQ. 

plio nl (plicfi-yD, plio-itum (-S-tnxn), to fold, 

lon-nl, son-itom (sonS-tfl- 

rus), to tound, 

ton-Hi, to thunder, 

▼et-nl, vet-itum, toforUd, 

fric-nl, frio-tnm (-£-tiun), to rub, 

necS-vI, nee&-tnm, iolMl, 

e-nec-nl ('S-vD, 6-nec-tiim, to kill (if. 

sec-nli seo-tum, to euL 

2. Verbs of the 3d Conjugation which pass over into the 2d in tlie Per 
feet and the Supine. 



ao canib-ere,ae-cab-ul, 


to lie down. 


firem-ere, frem-nl. 




gem-ere, gem-uX, 


to groan. 

gi-gn-o (GEN-), 

gi-gn-ere, gen-ul. 




mol-ere, mol-nl, 




strep-ere, ttrep-ol. 




vom-ere, ▼omul* 





al-ere, al-ul. 

al-tnm, al-itnm. 



eol-ere, eol-nl. 


to cultivate. 


consul-ere. consul-Hi, 



fiend-o (e-o). 

frendere, (frend-nl), 

fri-sum, fres-iuxn, to gnash. 


oconl-ere, occol-nl, 


to conceal. 


rap-ere, rap-ul. 


to snatch. 


cor-rip-ere, cor-rip-ul. 


to seize. 


ser-ere, — 

to string (oui). 


de-ser-ere, dB-ser-uI, 


So, too, 

, deps-o, I knead, tex-o, I weave, and plnso, I pound. 

(Sec 172.) 




compesc-ere. compesc-nl. 

to curb in. 

Don-cino (oc-, 

con-cin-ere, con-cin-uX, 

to Hng together 


ex-oell-o, (ante- 

, ex-cell-ere, ex-cell-ul, 





stert-ere, stert-ul. 



trem-ere, trem-ul. 


Digitized by LjOOQ IC 

cBAiraK or coitjvoatiok. 












to open, 
to cover up, 

to send for. 


to desire. 

to seek {Jiy at), 


3. Verbs of the 4th CoDjngation which pass oyer into the 2d in the Per- 
fect and the Supine. 

amio-nX (amixl), amio-tam, 
aper-nl, aper-tnxii« 

oper-nl, oper-tom, 

sal-nX, sal-tam, 

d9-til-al, (dS-sul-tnm,) 

4. Verbs of the 3d Conjugation which pass over into the 4th in the Per 
feet and Supine. 
arees8-o, arcess-ere, arcest-lvl, arcest-Itnm, 

So, too, laceu-o, Itease^ eapest-o, I lay ludd qf, 
incess-o, in-eets-Iyl (cessD, 

So facets-o, J cauae^ make qff. 
cnpio, cnp-ere, axp-lvl, cup-Itain, 

pet-o, pet-ere, pet-lvl, peMtnm, 

quaer-o, quaer-ere, quaes-lvl, qnaes-Itnm, 

qnaeto, quaesumiis, are old colloquial forms, prythee. 
con-qxLlr-o, oon-qulr-ere, oonquU-Iyl, eon-qul8ltiim« to hunt up. 

rud-o. rudere, md-lvl, rad-Itam, to roar, 

•api-o, sap-ttre, sap-IvK-uD, — tohaveajtavoi^ 

5. Verbs which vary between the 2d and the 4th Conjugation. 
eie-o(ci-o), ci«-rt (el-re), el-vt oi-tnm(eI-tum),to#^lrt(i» 

con-dtus, per-clt-us, ez-d-tns, or ezcltns, bnt ac-cl-tus. 

6. Verbs whicli pass over into the 3d Conjugation in the Supine. 
p9t-o, pOtSre, pOtS-vI, pMam(Po)or 


177. Change of Conjuqatiox as result of Redupucation. 

d-0, da-re, ded-I, datum, iogive^put,da. 

REXABBL—Evcrywhcrc a-short, except in dSs, thou givest^ and dS« give thou. 

1. Like do, are conjugated the compounds with dissyllabic words, such as • 
dream-do, 1 surround; satii-do, I give bail; pessnm do, I ruin; v6nam-do, IseU; af : 
drcom-d-o, circnm^-re, chrcum-de-dl, drenm-da-txun, /o^urrvund. 

2. The compounds of da-re with monosyllabic words pass over wholly 
into the 3d Conjugation. 

to drink. 





to put away. 





to put to. 





to put up 


abs-con-d-ere, abs-con-d-It 

ab8-eon-d-itnm,toim</'ar away. 






to put faith. 










to put out. 





to put In. 





to fordo {ruin). 





to betray. 





to give badt. 











Digitized by LjOOQ IC 




8to, I stand. 



• tet-i, 


, tottand. 












to iland upon. 




to Btmd out 




to stand Jrm. 




to tland ahead. 




to stand over. 




— - 

to stand apart. 





to stand out. 




to stand roumd. 

1. Like circnm-sto, all compounds of stSrewitli dissyllabic prepositions 
have -stetl in tlie Perfect, as : 

ante-tto, lam superior; inter-tto, I am between ; inper^to, I stand upon, 

2. In other cotni)ound8 the reduplicated form sisto is used, whicli, as a 
simple Ycrb, has the transitiye meaning, I {cause to) standi but in its com- 
pounds, the intransitive, I stand. 





to {cause toy 










to stand qgr. 





to stand up. 





to take a stand 





to toUhstand. 




to stand near. 





to stand upon. 


eiroum-iigt-ere, circom-steM 

to take a stand 


179. C. 

Changs of Conjuoation as result of btuenothknxd Pbesekt. 

1. Present strengthened by n. 

li-n-o, lin-ere, U-vI, or 18vl, li-tmii, 

Bl-n-o, Bin-ere, bI-yI, Bi-tmnt 

d9-8in-0t dS-Bin-ere, de-sI-vI^D, d6-si-tam, 

pOn-o (ro^iNo), pOn-ere, pos-al, poBitonit 

to besmear, 
to let. 

to leave of. 
to place, leav€ te> 

2. Present strengthened by bc- : compare XZ (181). 

er8-8C-o, creso-ere, cr9-Ti, erS-tom, torrroa. 

no-BO-o nosc-ere, nO-vt (Adj. nOtas), to learn to know. 

eo-gndscH), co-gnoso-ere, co-gnS-vI, co-gn-itam, to recognize. 

So the other componnds of nSseo, except igndsco, I pardon, take no notice qf, which 
has Sup. ignOtam(adJ. ignOtas, unknown). 

pa-80-0, paso-ere, 

qaie-BO-o, qaieBO-ere, 

8a6HM-o(a8-,oon-). Baeso-ere, 



to graze (tran*.) 






to aecustotn oiM*fi 

Digitized by VjUU*a!lC 



180. Some stems in -r (-er) undergo chan«:o of conju^tion as reralt oC 
Metathesis, Tvliicli also is a strengthening of the Present Sar-o, liow^ It « 
reduplicated form fur se-so. 

«8r-n-i>» eem-ere, 

dS-com-Ot d9-€0m-er0T 

Mr«, ser-ere« 

eon-ser-o, eon-ier^re, 

sper-n-o, spem-ere, 

•ter-n-o, stem-ere. 
























Ikchoative Vebbs. 

181. 1. Theinchoativcs are formed^ 

'by adding to the vowel- 
stems -se-. 
by adding to the conso- 
nant-stems -isc-. 
Perfect and Supine are formed from the pure stem. 

ioTeterC-se-o, inTeterSse-ere, ioveterS-vI, inveterft-tnm, to grow dd, 
nfi-se-or, nSso-t nS-tasium, to be born, 

6X-0I6-SC-0, ex-ol6sc^ro, 6X-o19-yI, ez-old-tnm, to get one' $ growth. 

Like exolSseo, cnnjngatc obsolSseo, / grow old; bat abolSieo, / disappear^ foUows 
aboleOt aud inolSsco has uo supine. 
































ob-dormi tarn, 

in-gem-al, — 

re-sip-lvl, — 

to grow ftp, 
to grow together, 
to get well, 
to get warm, 
to fad asleep, 
to long for, 




re-Yl7ite-ere, re-yi-zl, re-Tio-tnm* utcomeio^feagtAn, 

2. Inchoative Verbs may be formed liltewise from Nouns or Adjectives 

to dlean^mgr, 

to beoome known, 
to become evening. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 

nOt-ese-o, nStaso-ere, 
vafper-ase-o. vesperMe-ere, 

^TSn-nl, (vSniis), 

nOt-nl, (nStas), 

— (Tasper), 





1 ^ude^, 






102 ibbaguulb tssbs. 

182. Change of Voice 


aa-BUS fnm, io dan, 

fl-sna 8iini« to trust 

gSv-lBiu Bum, to r^oice, 

re-vert*I, re-versns sum], to turn back, 
lol-itna sum, to be wont, 

Rbxarrs.— 1. Some Active Verbs have a Perfect Passive Participle witli Active mean 
Ing, as : cSnStns, one who has dined^ from cSnSre, to dine ; prSniug, having brealtfasted^ 
n*om prandeo, I breakfast; pOtns, drunken^ from pOto, I drink; jfLrStus, having taken 
the oath, sworn, from jUro, / swear; cOBJfLrStns, a conspirator, from eonjtlro, / eot^ 
spire. Many sucli are used purely as Adjectives: consIderStns, circumspedt from eon- 
Bidero ; caatni, wanj, from caveo, I beware, 

2. The Perfect Participle of many Deponent Verbs lias both Active and Passive mean- 
ing: adeptos (adipisoor), having acquired, or being acquired; comitStOS (comitor, 
/ accompany) ; ezpertns (experior, / try) ; ezsecrStns (exsecror, / curse) ; imitfitTUi 
limitor, / copy) ; meritos (mereor, / deserve) ; oplnfitus, necopXnfitos (opinor, i 
thkik) ; paotui (paciscor, I contract) ; partltus (partior, I distribute) ; sortltos (sortior, 
I east lots) ; tueor, I protect; ttltil8« sqfe ; the Pcrf. Participle in ordinary use is tUtStus 

183. iRREauLAR Verbs. 



Irregular in the formatioii of the tense-stems are: 

1. Two Verbs in a P-inutc of the 3d conjugation, viz. : 

Clepo. IJUch, lambo, / lick. See 158. 

2. Six Verbs of tlio 3d conjugation in a K-mutc, wliicli have, in spite of 
tlie sliort stem-syllable, the Perfect in -si, viz. : 

regOt Tkeep right, ttgo, I cover in, coqao, I bake, and tlie compounds of 
lego, 1 pick up, lacio, I lure, specio, I spy (-ligo, -licio, -spieio). 

From lego, however, only dnigo, I love; InteUegO, / v/ufervtoncf ; andneglegOi 
7 neglect; are irregular. The other compounds are rcgnlar. See 161. 

8. Two Verbs of the 3d conjugation in a T-mute, which, in spite of th€ 
short stem-syllable, have the Perfect in -si, viz. : 

dlyido, /parf . quatio, /ffAaJb«. See 167. 

4 Four Verbs of the 3d conjugation in a T-mute, which, in spite of long 
Item-syllable, have the Perfect in -I, viz. : 

elldo, 1 hammer ; side, I sit; strldeo, IwhisOe ; Terto, I turn. See 167. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



5. Assimilation between bs and ma occurs in the Perfect and Supine of 

jabe^ jabS-re, jat-iL jaa-taou 

pnm-o (-pdm-o), prexa-ere, pret-sL pret-taai, 

0. Special irregularities occur in : 








bib-ere« bib I, (bib-itam), 

man8-re, iaan<«I, maa-taia, 

m6tl-rl, men-sai tarn, 

met-ere, mei-ialt met-faa, 

mor I, mor taas laai, 

raael-re, raa-il, raa-iam, 

ra-rl» i:a-tai laia. 

This rerb has no present partlciplo. 

7. Formed from different tense-stems, are : 

See 186. 






to maw, 

to hear* 

184. B. 


Irregular in the conjugation of the Present-stem are: 

1. oxi-or, ori-rl, or-tus sum, to arise. 

Present: ori-or. or-erii, er-itar, or-imar, or-imial, eri-antar. 

Impbbpbct: orl-rer and or-erer. Qerunb: ori-nndns. 
The compounds follow the simple verb, except ad-orl-rl, rise up at, at 
taek, which follows the Fourth Conjugation. 

2. I-re, to go. Stem i, which, before a, o, n, becomes e. 





I be going. 


-1. e-o, 


2, 1-8, 


3. i-t, 



— 1. I-mos, 


2. I-tis, 


3. e-u-nt. 




-2. I, go thou,, tliouekattg^. 


X.tS, Jte $haU go^ 


-2. I-te, go ye. 

I-tdte, yesTiaUgo, 


•-iipntX, they shall go. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 





I'haL-m^ItDent, I.re4n, I were gown. 

I-b-o, IshaUgo, 

f-vl (compos. -i-X), I hate gone^ I-veri-m (ex^«ri.m). 

I-vera-m (ez-i-era-m), I had gone, I.Tisse-m (ez-i-sse-m). 

Future Perpect. 
I-ver-o (ez-i-er-o). 
INFINITIVE : prw. I-re. Perf. I-visse (l4we). 
PARTICIPLES : pres. i-e-ns. G. e-u-ntig. Fut. ACT. i-tur-iw. 
GERUND : e-u-nd-L 
SUPINE: Utam^togo. 

The Passive occurs in some of the c/>ra pounds : circum-I-rL 

Compounds of eo are : ^ven-eOf I am for sale^ tind per-eo, IperisJi^ whtcli 
KTve as passives to ven-do and per-do, whose regular passives occur only 
in the forms ▼end-itus, vSnd-endus, and per-dittui. 

The compound ambi-o, / solicit, follows the Fourth Conjugation 

Like I-re, to go, are conj ugated qui-re, to he ahle, and ne-qul-re, to he unable^ 
which, however, are usual only in Present Indicative and Subjunctive. 

3. fer-re, to bear. 

186. The connecting-Yowel i is dropped before t and «, and fl 
before r. Some parts are supplied by tul- (tol- tla-), 






The hearing. 







Digitized by LjOOQ IC 




fer-Aa-m, 1 was bearing, Cnr-ro^n, I were bearing 

fer^-m, I shall bear, 

tnl-I, IJiave borne, tnl-exi-OL 

INFINITIVE: Pbes. fer-re. Vebw. tol-iin*. 

PART. fer-e-ns, bearing, fut. Act. la-tflr-ni. 
SUPINE : la.tum (t(o)lfi-tum). 



-2. fer, bear thou, 

fer-tS, iliou shall bear., he sJiall bear. 


—2. fer-te, bear ye, 



fer-tdte, ye s!iaU bear, 
fer-u-ntS, i/iey shall bea^. 





lam borne, 
-1. fer-o-r, 

2. fer-rii, 

3. fer-tur, 

I be borne, 


-1. fer4-iniir, 

2. fer.i-minX, 

3. fer-u-ntur 




-2. fer-re^ be thou borne, 

fer-tor, thou shall be bor 
fer-tor, he s/iaU be borne 

Pi.m. — 2, feac-i-mihlf be ye borne, 

8. fer-a-ntor, t/iey shall be borne, 


fMPEBF. : fer-8ba-r, fer-re-r. 
"FtrruBB: fer-a-r. 

Pkrfxct: IS-tnssum, l&.ttit8im. 
INF. fer-rl, to be borne, GER. : fer-e-nd-us. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 

































Remabk.— Snf-fero, / undergo, has the Perfect fiu-tixL-TiI (iiii-tlil-I« tnb-lS-tam 
bdng appropriated lo toll-o). (188.) 


4. ed-ere, to eat. 
la certain fonns the connecting-vowels i and e arc dropped 

before 8, t, and r j d before s (r) is dropped or assimilated (as as), and before 
t becomes s. 


Sing.— 1. ed-o, 

2. ed-i-s, S-s, 

3. ed-i-t, g-st, 

Pluii.— 1. ed^i-mus, 

2. ed-i-tis, Ss-tis, 
8. ed-u-nt. 



I be eating, 





ed-ere-m, es-sem, I were eating. 

Sing.— 2. ed-e, 58, 

PiiUR.— 2. ed-i-te, 5s-te, eat ye^ 



eat thoit^ 

ed-i-to, §8-to, 
ed-i-to, es-to, 

i/iou ahalt eat, 
lie sliall eat. 

edit5te, e8-t5te, ye shaU eat. 
ed-u-nt^ t/iey shall eat. 

•d-ere, is-ae, to eat. 

5. fl-crl, to become. 

188. PI-o is conjugated in the Present, Imperfect, and Future, accord- 
ing to tiie 4tli Conjugation, but receives a connecting-vowel in tlie Sub- 
junctive Imperfect and in tlie Infinitive, vi/., fi-e-rem, / were becoming; 
fi-e-rl, to become. In these forms the I is short, but elsewlierc it is long, 
even before another vowel. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 





feoio, Imake. 

The InfinitiTO ends in ^ and tlio wbolo Verb in tlie Presentnlem ii 
treated as the Passive to lacio, ImaJut The rest of the Passive is formed 
legularly fix)in facio. 

IND. fio, lam made^ I become, 

fis, fit (fimns, aUs), ikont. 
fiSbam, Itoiu madey I became, ' 
fiam, ItJiaU be made (become), 
factos sum. 
lactos aram. 
laotns arS* 
SUB. fiam, fiii, fiat, etc 
fierem, fiaris, etc. 
INF. Pbrp. factmn ease, io hate become. 
FuT. faturum esse or fora. 
F. P. factum fore. 

Rexark.— The compoandt of facio with PrepoeitSons change the a of the item Into 
i, and form the Passive regnlarly from the pame stem : perfldo, /<KAi«e«, Paw. perfldor; 
Intarfteio. Pat>8. intarfidor, I em destroifed. But when coropoanded with word«> otbcc 
than prepositions, £seia retains its a* and uses fio as its Passive : 

patefEMio, I lay opm^ Pass, pateflo : ealefado, I warm. Pass, ealaflo. 
The accent remains the same as in the simple verb : ealaf^ds, ttouwarmett 

189. 6. VeMe^ to be willing, 
ndlla, to be umoiUiHg ; mSlle, ia be foilling rather. 

ImnBw. fadebam, /fnadiS. 
ruTDBB. iai^aanf I $haU maJbe. 
pBBFBcr. f<5cL 
FunrKBw. ^ceram« 
P. Pbrf. fScero. 
IMPER. Sing.— 2. ft. 

Plur.— 2. fite. 

ja^ UJLXJJl. X X V X<. 



n5n vult, 
n5n vultis, 



















Digitized by Google 




























— n51I, n51Ito. 


— n51Ite, n51It5te, nolunto. 

INF. pbm. veUo, 



Pbbp. volals33, 



PART. voleiuL 


190. Defective Verbs. 

1. ajo, / my ay. 

IND. Pres. 1. ^o, 2. aia, 8. ait. Plctr.— 3. ^unt 

IxPEBP. ^JSbam, etc. Pert. ait. 

8UBJ. £V|as, syat, ^ant. 

PART, lyens (as adj.), affirmative, 

2. inquam, I sayy quoth L 

IND. Pres. Stng. — 1. inquam, 2. inquis, 3. inquit. 

Plur. — 1. inquimus, 2. inquitis, 3. inquinnt. 


3. inquiebi 


2. inquies, 3. inquiet. 

Fbrp. Sing. — 1. inquiL 

2. inquisti, 8. inquit 

3. fS.-rl, to speak. 
PBBa. fiitor. FuT. fabor, fiSbitnr. Perf. f^tns sum, etc. SUP. fSiUk 
IMPER. Bire. GER. fandl, fandd. PART. Pres. fantis, fantem. 

4. av6-re, salv6-re, vale-re. 

ave, Balv§, salvebis, Jiatl thou / vaiS, farewdl 

avSt«, aalvete, haUyef "valSte^fareiDelL 

avSre, salvSre. valSre. 

age, agite, eamef Apaige^ begone / 

oedo, ffive / PLtm. — cette. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



lu use only in the Perfect-stem are ooepi, I hate begun, to which inciplo 
serves as a Present ; meminl, / remember ; 6dl, I IiaU ; ndvl (from nOioOi 
see 179), I know ^ am aware ; consuSTl (from comnieBco), lam wonL 

IND. coepi, I have begun, 


IND memiDl^ T remember, 


SUBJ. coeperim, 

INF. coepisse, to hate begun. 
SUBJ. meminerim, 



INF. meminisse, io remember. 

IMPER. Sing.— mementS. 

Plxjr.— mementSte. 

IND. 5dl, I hate, 

SUBJ. Sderim, 
INF. Qdiane^iohate. 

coepI and odi have passive forms of the same meaning : 

coeptuB sum, ITiave begun (which is used with the Passive Inf ). 
5sus sum, Iliate, 

191. Obsolete For^ts of the Verb. 

1. The Future of Verbs in -io is sometimes formed like Ibo, / eJiallgo, 
veMbo, Ififudl come ; sclbo, 1 shall know, 

2. The Pres. Inf. Puss, was originally louger by -er: monstrarier, 
miscSrier, admittier, ezperlrier. 

3. The Pres. Subj. Act. had an ending -im (compare sim,Telim) : edim, 
edig, edit, edint, eat. Other examples, such as effodint, coquint, temperint| 
carint, seem to be doubtful. Dare formed duim; so, perduim, creduim. 

4. In older poetiy ie of the Imperf. Ind. Act. 4th conj. is sometimes con- 
tracted into X : scibam. 

5. In tlie Perfect stem there was a shorter formation. So in tlie 2 Pere. 
Perf. Act. Ind. 3 couj., dlztl, diztia (only from mute stems). The terini- 
nations -aim and -sem (Perf and Pluperf Subj.), -so (Fut. Perf), -se (Perf. 
Inf), are added to tlie verb stem. After a vowel s becomes ss. So dixim, 
fazim, adazim, rapsim; locassim, negassim; fazem, eztinzem; fazo, 
capso, Jnsso, amasso ; surreze, prStraze, dize. The Inf. forms of tlie 
vowel conjugations coincide with amasse, flesse, audlsse, as creSstX, d^^ 
l§sU, audXstI with diztl A Future Inf in -sere is also found : impetras* 
sere, prohibessere. Compare, however, facessere, capessere. 

The antiquated forms of facio are often found in old formulae. 
Audeo, I dare, forms a Perf. Subj., ausim. 

6. Old forms of esse. 

(1) siem, si$8, siet, Pr. Subj. 

(2) escit, escunt, Inchoative for Fut. 

(3) fiiam, fuSs, fuat, fuant, Pr. Subj. (stem fti-). 

(4) fnvl, f5vl, Pf Ind. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 




This Index is intended to serve as a supplement also, and oontains 
many verbs not mentioned in the text, defectives in supine or in perfect 
ind supine, compounds, isolated forms, rare words. 

A Alo, 190. 

Aibeo, ere. io be white. 
Algeo, ere, alsl, 160. 

Al-licio, ere, /jj^^Jj -lectum, 101. 

Al-luo, ere, -lul, iQtum, 173. 
Alo. ere, alul, al(i)tum, 176. 
Amb-igo (ago), ere, 159. 
Amb-io (eo). Ire, IvI (il), Itum, 185. 

Amicio,Ire,(*5J^|F^/») amictum,17a 

Amo, are, ffvl, fltum. See 119. 

Amplector, I, nmplexus, 175. 

Ango, ere, anxl, 160. 

An-nuo, ere, annul (annQtum), 173. 

Ante-cello, ere, 176. 

Ante-sto, -stare, -stell, 178. 

Apnge, 190. 

A-perio, -Ire, aperul, apertum, 176. 

Apiscor, I, aptus sum. See adipiscor, 

Ap-peto, ere, Ivi, Itum, 176. 


Ap-pOno (179), ere, -posul, -positum. 
Arceo, ere, arcul ( arctus, 

(comp. 128) i artus (adj.) 
Arcesso (accerso), ere, arcesstyl, 

-Itum, 176. 
Ardeo, 6re, arsl, arsum, 165. 
ArCsco, ere, arul, 181, io become dry. 

Ar-ripio (rapio), ere, ul, -reptuin, 

A-scendo (scando), ere, I, scensniHg 

A-spicio, ere. a-spexl, a-spectum, 161. 
As-sentior, 111, assensus sum, 175. 
As-sideo (sED£0),Cre, -sCdl, sesRuoi. 

As-suesco, ere, -suGvI, -suOtum, 179. 
At-texo. ere, -texul, -textum, 173. 
At-tineo (teneo), Ore, ul, -tentun^ 


Ab-do, ere, -didi, -ditum, 177. 
Ab-igo (ago), ere, -Bgl, -actum, 159. 
Ab-jicio (jacio), ere, -j6cl, -jectum, 

Ab-luo, ere, 4ul, -iQtum, 173. 
Ab-nuo, ei-e, -nut (-nuitQrus), 173. 
Al)-oleo, ere, evi, itum, 127. 
Ab-olesco, ere, -olevl, 181. 
Ab-ripio (uapio), ere, -ripul, -rep- 

tum, 176. [177. 

Abs-condo (do), ere, -dl (-didI), ditum, 
Ab-sisto, ere, -still, 11^. 
Ab-sum. -esse, ab-ful, a-ful, 113. 
Ac-cendo, ere, -cendl, -censum, 164. 
Ac-cido (CADo), ere, -cidi, 168. 
Ac-cipio (CAPio), ere, -cepl, -ceptum, 

Ac colo (cold), ere, -colul, -cultum, 

Ac-cumbo, ere, -cubul, -cubitum, 

Ac-curro, ere, ac-cuiTl, -cursum, 170. 
Aceo, ere, acul, to be wmr, 
Acesco, ere, acul, 181, to get mur- 
Ac-quiro (quAERO), ere, -qulsivl, 

-quisllum, 176. 
Acuo, ere, acul, acatum, 173. 
Ad-do, ere, -didl, -ditum, 177. 
Ad-imo (emo), ere, -Cml, -emtum, 131. 
Ad-ipiscor, I, ad-eptus sum, 175, 182. 
Ad-olesco, ere, -ol5vI, -ultum, 181. 
Ad-orior, -orlil, -ortus sum, 184. 
Ad-scisco, ere, -sclvl, -scltum, 181. 
Ad-sisto, ere, -stiti, 178. 
Ad-spicio, ere, -spexl, -spectum, 161. 
Ad-sto, -stare, -stitI, 178. 
Ad-sum, ad-esse, ad-ful, af-ful, 113. 
Aegresco, ere, to fail sick, 
Af-fero, -fcrre, at-tull, al-latum, 186. 
Age, 190. 

Ag-gi*edior, -gredl, -gressus, 175. 
A-gnOsco, ere, a-gnOvI, a-gnitum 

(agnOttlrus), 179. 
Ago, ere, egl, actum, 159. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



Ai-tingo (takgo), ere, attlgl, attac- 

tnm, 163. 
At-t*)lIo, cre, to raUe up. 
Aiuleo, Cre, nusus sum, 183. 
Audio. Ire, IvI, Itum. See 136. 
Au-fero, -ferre, abstull, nblfltum, 186. 
Au<^eo, cre, aiixl, auctum, 156. 
IvB, 190. 


Balbtltio, Ire, to stutter. 
Batao, ere, uT, to pummel, fence. 
Dibo, cre, bibi, (bibilum), 183. 

Cado, ere, cecidi, cilsum, 168. 
Caecatio, Ire, to be blind. 
Caetlo, ere, cecldl, cnesum, 168. 
Calefacio, cre, -ftJcI, -factum. 159, 188. 
CnlGscf>, ere, calul, to get teartn. 
Calico, ere, u1, to be skilled. 
Calveo, Cre, to be bald. 
Candco, Cre, ul, to ithine, 
CSneo, Cre, to be gray. 
Cauo, ere, cccini, cantum, 170. 
Capesso, cre, cai>esslvl, Hum, 176. 
Capio, ere, cCpI, captum, 157. See 

Carpo, ere, carpsi, carptum, 158. 
Cavco, Cre, cflvl, cautum, 174. 
Ccdo, ere, cessi, cCssura, 166. 
CCufitus, 182, R. 1. 

Ccmo, cre, (crCvI), (crCtum), 180. 

Clugo, cre, cinxl, cinctura, 160. 
Circum-do, -dare, -dedl, -datum, 177. 
Circura-sisto, ere, stetl, 178. 
Circura-sto, stare, stetl, 178. 
Claude, ere, clausl, clausum, 165. 

Clcpo, ere, ^l^^^^* cleptnm, 158, 183. 

Co-alCsco, ere, -ahil, (-alitum), 181. 

Co-arguo, ere, ul, 178. 

Co-emo, ere, -Cml, -em(p)tum, 169. 

CoepI, coepisse, 190. 

Oo-gnOsco, ere, -gnOvI, -gnitum, 156, 

179. « 

Co-go (AGO), ere, co-Cgl, co-actum, 


Col-lTdo (lasdo). ere, -Usl, hsom 

CoMigo (lego), ere, -ICgl. -leotom 

Col-lQceo, Cre. -Iflx!, 160. 
Colo, ere, colul, cultum. 176. 
Com-bUro, ere, -OssI, -Ostum, 171. 
Com-eilo, cre» -Cdl, -Csum (cstum), IGl 
Comitatus. 183, H. 2. 
Comtuiulscor, T, commentus sum, 

Com-moveo, Cre, -mOvI, -mOtum, 174 
CO-mo (EMO), ere, cOmpsI, cOmptum, 

Com-parco, ere, -parsi, -parsum, 163, 
Com-pcUo, ere, com-pull, -pulsum, 

168, 170. 
Com-perio (pario), Ire, com-pert, 

com-pcr-lum, 170. 
Compcsco, ere, ul, 176. 
Com-pingo, ere, -|)CgI, -pactum, 159. 
Com-plcctor, I, com-plcxus, 175. 
Com-plco, Cre, Cvl, Ctum, 127. 
Com-primo (piikmo), ere, -pressl 

-prcssum, 183. 
Coin-pungo, cre, -punzl, -punctum, 

Con-cido (cado), ere, -cidl. 168. 
Con-cldo (CAEDo), ere, -cidl, -cisum, 

Con-cino (cano), ere, -cinul, 176. 
Concitus (cieo), 176. 
Con-clQdo (CLAUDO), ere, -clttsl, -cla- 

sum, 165. 
Con-cupisco, cre, -cuplvl, cupltumj 

Con-cutio (quATio), ere, -cussi, -cus- 

sum, 167. 
Con-do, ere, -didi, -ditum, 177. 
Con-fercio (pajicio), Ire (lersi), fer. 

turn, 160. 
Cou-fero, ferre, -tull, coUtttum, 186. 
Con-ficio (pacio), ere, -ftjcl, -fectum 

159, 188. 
Con-fiteor (pateor), Cil, -fessus, 175 
Con-fringo (prango), ere, -frCgl, 

-fractum, 159. 
Con.gruo, ere,congruI, 173. 
Con-jicio (jacio), cre, -jCcI, -jcctum, 

ConjQratus, 183, R 1. 


Con-quiro (quaero), ere, -qulsiv^ 
•quisltum, 176. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



Cnn-sero, ere, -serut, -sertum, 176. 
Con-«ero, ere, -s5vl, -silum, 180. 
Con-6lderatu8, 183, R. 1. 
Con-sldo, ere, consCdl, -sessum. 167. 
Con-sisto, ere, -stiti, -stitum, 178. 
Con-spicio, ere, -8pcxl,-spectum, 161. 
Con-slituo (STATUO), ere, ul, -stitQ- 

tum, 173. 
Con-sto, -stare, -sliU, (constatarus), 

Coii-suesco, ere, -suGvI, -suCtum, 179, 

Cousulo, ere, consuluT, -siiltum, 176. 
Con-temno, ere, -tem(p)sl, -lcm(p)- 

tum, 169. 
Con-texo, ere, -texul, -textum, 172. 
Cori-tineo (teneo, 128), 6re, ul, -ten- 

Con-iinffo (tango), ere, contigl, con- 

tnctum, 162. 
ConvulGsco, ere,-valnl,-valitnm, 181. 
Coquo, ere, coxl, coctum, 161, 183. 
Cor-ripi<» (uapio), ere, -ripul, -rep- 

tuni, 170. 
Cor-rno, ere, cormi, 173. 
CrCbresco, ere, crBbruI, to get fre^ 

CrB-do, ere, -dldl, -ditum, 177. 
Crepc), are, crepul, crepitum, 176. 
CrBsco, ere, crBvI, crOtum, 179. 
Ciibo, are, oiibul, cubitum, 176. 
Cfldo, ere cadi, cUsum, 167. 
Ciipio, ere, cuplvl, cupllum, 176. 
Curro, ere, cucuirl, cui-sum, 170. 

De-cemo, ere, -crBvI, -cretnm, 180. 
DO-ceriM> (CARPo), ere, si, lum, 158. 
Dc-do, dBdere, dedidi, deditum, 177. 
DG-fendo, ere, -fendl, -feusum, 164. 
Defetiscor, l^tohe worn out, 
i)e-i;o (ago), ere, 159. 
Doleo. See Paradigm, 123-126. 
Dc-ligo (lego), ere, -legl, -lectum, 

De-nio (emo), ere, dempsl, demptum, 

DGpc'llo (170), ere, dGpiilI, depnlsnm. 
Dc-primo (piiemo, 183), ere, -pressl, 

Depso, ere, depsul, depstum, 172. 
De-scendo (scando), ere, -scendl, 

•acensum, 164 
De-scro, ere, -Berul, -sertum, 176. 


DC-sino, ere, *^^[/' dCsitum, 170. 

De-sipio (SAPio), -ere, 176. 
Do-sisto. ere, -stitI, -stitum, 178. 
De-spicio, ere, -six^xl, -spectuin, 161 
Dc-sum, -esse, -ful, 113. 
Dc-tendo (168), ere, -teDdl, -tentnm. 
Do-tineo (tekeo, 128), Cre, -Ml,-len 

Dc-vertor, -1, 183. 
Dico, ere, dixl, dictum, 160. 
Dif-fero, -ferre, distull, dllatuin, 186. 
Dl-gpOsco (nOsco, 179), ere, -gnOvI. 
Dl-liffo, ere, -lexl, -lectum, 161. 
Dl-mico, are, avi, atum, 176. 
l>I-rigo, ere, -rexl, -rectum, 161. 
Dir-imo (emo, 169), ere, -Gml, -cm* 

Disco, ere, did id, 163. 
Dis-cn»po, are, -ci*epul (avI), 176. 
Dis-cuiiibo (176), ere, -cubul, -cuU 

Dis-iK'sco, ere, [-pescul,] -pestum, tc 

Dis-sideo (sedeo, 166), Ore, -sGdI. 
Dl-9tiiiguo, ere, -stiuxl, -stiuctum, 160 
Dl-sto,. -stare, 178. 
Ditesco, ere, to grow rich, 
Divldo, cre, divlsl, divlsum, 167. 
Dfl, djire, dedl, datum, 177. 
Doceo, Cre, docul, doctum, 138. 
Domo, are, ul, itum, 176. 
Dnco, ere, duxl, dtlctum, 160. 
Dulccsco, cre, to graio »tO€et, 
DQresco, ere, dOruI, to grow luiril 


Edo, ere, Cdl, Gsum, 164, 187. 
£-do (DO), Cdere, Cdldl, Cilitum, 177 
El'-fero, -ferre, cxtull, datum, 186. 
Egeo, Cre, egul, to want 
Elicio, ere, -licul, -licitum, 161. 
E-lisro (lego), ere, -iGgI, -lectum, 159 
E-raico (176), are, ul (atarus). 
Emiueo, Cre, ul, to stand ont, 
Emo, ere, Cml, cmtum, 169. See lEl 

E-neco, are, ^ »^'^j"J}), Bnectum, 174 

Eo, Ire, IvI, itum, 185. 
£-vado, ere, CvasI, Cyasum, 165. 
fi-vanesco, ere, Cvauul, 181. 
Ex-ardCsco, cre, exarsi, cxarsum, 181 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



fix -cello, ere, nl (excclsos), 17(1 

Exdftus, 176. 

Ex-clado (ci^Ainx>), ere, -si, -sum, 

Ex-curro (170), ere, cxcucurri, -cur- 

Ex-<)lesco, ere, -olcvl, -oletum, 181. 

Ex-pello (170), ere, -pull, -pulsum. 

Expergiscor, I, experrectussum, 175. 

Ex-pefior, Irl, -pertus sum, 175, 
183. R. 2. 

Ex-pleo, ere, Cvl, Ctum, 127. 

Ex-plico, arc, ul (ftvl), itum (fltum), 

Ex-plOdo (PLAUDo), ere, -si, -sum, 165. 

Exsecrfttus, 183, R. 2. 

Ex-sttnguo, ere, -stinxl, -stinctum, 

Ex-sisto, ere, -stiU, -stitum, 178. 

Ex-Bto, fire (exstatttrus), 178. 

£x-tcndo, ere, dl, -sum (-turn), 168. 

Ex-tollo, ere. 

£x-uo, ere, -ul, -tltum, 173. 

Facesso (176), ere, IvI (-1), Itum. 
Facio, ere, fticl, factum, 159, 188. 
Fallo, ere, fefclll, falsum, 170. 
Farcio, Ire, farsi, fartum, 160. 
Fan, 190. 

Fateor, Crl, fassus sum, 175. 
Falisco, ere, tofaU apart. 
Faliscor, I (fossus, «((;*). 
Faveo, ere, filvl, fautum, 174. 
Ferio, Ire, to strike. 
Fero, ferre, lull, latum, 183. 186. 
Ferveo, Bre, fervl (ferbul), 174. 
Fido, ere, ftsus suui, 183. 
Figo, ere, 11 xl, fixum, 160. 
Fiudo, ere, Hdl, fissum, 168. 
Fingo, ere, fiuxl, lictum, 160. 
Flo. lien, fact us sum, 188. 
Flecto, ere, flexl, flexum, 160. 
Fleo, ere, Gvl, Blum, 137. 
Fllgo, ere, flixl, flictum, 160. 
FlOreo, ere, ul, to bloom. 
Fluo, ere, fluxl (fluxus, adj), 163. 
Fodio, ere, fSdl, fossum, 166. 
Forem, 112. 

Foveo, ere, fiJvI, ftJtum, 174. 
Frango, ere, fre^, fraclum, 159. 
Frcmo, ere, ul, itum, 17^. 
Frendo (eo), ere (ul), fresum, fres- 
Kum, 176. 

Frico, ire, ul, frictum (itum), 176. 

Prigeo, ere (frfxl), 160. 

Fngo, ere, frlxl, frictum (fiixumi 

Frondeo, ere, ul, to be leafy. 
Fruor, I, fructus (fruirus) sum, 175 
Fugio, ere, fllgl, fugitum, 150. 
Fulcio, Ire, fulsl, fultum, 100. 
Fulgeo, ere, fulsl, 160. 
Fundo, ere, ftldl, fQsum, 164 
Fungor, I, functus sum, 175. 
(Furo, def.\ furere, to \ 

Gannio, Ire, to ydp. 
Oaudeo, ere, gavlsus sum, 182. 
Oemo, ere, ul, itum, 176. 
Gero, ere, gessi, gestum, 171. 
Gigno, ere, genul, genitum, 176. 
Glisco, ere, to eweU, 
Gradior, I, gressus sum, 175. 


Haerco, ere, baesi, haesum, 171. 
Haurio, Ire, liausi, luiustum, yix 

(liausarus, liauslQrus), 
Hisco, ei-e, to yawn, 
Horreo, ere, ul, to stand on end. 
llortor, an, aius sum, 141, 143. 

Ico, ere, Id, ictum, 161. 
I-gnOsco, ere, -gnOvI, -gnOtum, 179. 
ll-licio, ere, -lexl, -lectum, 161. 
I1-lIdo (LAEDo), ere, -llsl, -llsura, 165l 
Iu)buo, ere, ul, flium, 173. 
Imitatus, 183, R. 3. 
Immineo, Cre, to overJuing. 
Im-pingo (PANOO, 160), ere, -pBgl, 

In-cal6sco, ere, -c^lul, 181. 
In-cendo, cre, -cendl, -ceusum, 164. 
lucesso, ere, IvI (1), 176. 
In-cido (CADO, 168), ere, -cidi, -c* 

In-cldo (CAEDO, 168), ere, -cidl, ^I. 

In-clnio (capio, 157), cre, -cepl, -cep* 

In-crepo (chepo, 176), arc, ul, hum. 
In-cumbo (176), ere, -cubul, -cnM- 


Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



In-catio (quAxio, 167), ere, -cussl, 

Ind-igeo (bgeo), Crc, ul, to toant. 
Ind-ipiscor, I, iudeptus sum, 175. 
Ill-do, ere, -didi, -ditum, 177. 
Iiidalgeo,ere, indulsl(indultum), 100. 
iQ-dno, ere, -dul, -datum, 173. 
Iiieptio, Ire, to be silly, 
Ingemisco, ere, ingemul, 181. 
1 ugruo, ere, ul. See congruo, 173. 
Iii-uOtesco (181), ere, nOiuL 
lu-olesco, ere, -olevl, 181, 
Inquani, 100. 
lu-sideo (SEDEO, 100), Cre, -sCdl, -scs- 

In-sisto, ere, -stitl, 178. 
In-spicio, ere, -spcxi, -spectum, 101. 
Inler-ficio, ere, -ftScI, -fectura, 159. 
In-sto, fire, -still, (iastatOrus), 178. 
lu-sum, -esse, -ful, 113. 
Intul-ligo, ere,-lexl,lectum,101, 183. 
luter-iuio (emo), cre, -Cml, -emtuui, 

Inter-pungo, ere, -punxl, -punctum, 

Inter-sto, fire, -stetl, 178. 
luter-sum, -esse, -ful, 113. 
Inveterasco, ere, -ftvl, 181. 
In-vado, ere, invasi, -vasum, 105. 
Trfiscor, I, Iratus sum, 181. 


Jaceo, Cre, ^acul, to lie. 
Jacio, ere,j6cl, juctum, 159. 
Jubeo, Cre, jussljussum, 183. 
Jungo, ere, junxl, juuctum, 100. 
jQrfilus, 182, li. 1. 

Juvo, are, jQvI, jCltum (juvatarus), 


Labor, I, Inpsus sum, 175. 

Lacesso, ere, lacesslvl, -Hum, 170. 

Lacio, 101. 

Laedo, ere, laesl, laesum, 105. 

Lambo, ere, 1, 158, 183. 

Laiigueo, Cre, I, to be languid, 

Lateo, Cre, ul, to lie hid. 

Lavo, are (ere), lavl, lautum, lOtum, 

lavatum, 174. 
Lego, ere. ICgl, lectum, 159. 
Libet, libCre, libuit (libitum 03t), it 

Licet, licCre, Itcuit (licitum est) it is 


Lingo, ere, linxX, linctum, 100. 

Lino, cre, llvl (!CtI), litum, 179. 

Linquo, ere, llqui, 159. 

Liqueo, Cre, licul, to be dear. 

Liveo, Cre, to be livid. 

Loquor, T. locatus sum. Paradign^ 

145, 140. 
LUcco, Cre, iQxI, 100. 
LQdo, ere, iQsl, lasum, 105. 
LQgeo, Cre, iQxI, 100. 
T «/^ ««« i.,T i iQtum, to wash, 173. 
Luo.ere,luI \i^Uum^ to atA?ne for. 


Maerco, Cre, to grieve. 
Malo, malic, malul, 189. 
Mando, ere, mandl, mansum, 164. 
^laneo, Cre, mansT, mansum, 183. 
3Iedeor, CrI, to JieaL 
.Memiul, 19#. 

3Ieutior, Irl, Itus. Paradigm^ 147. 
^lereor, CrI, nieritus sum, 183, R. 2. 
Merge, ere, mersi, mereum, 100. 
MCtior, Irl, mensus sum, 183. 
Meto, cre, messul (rare), mcssum, 

Metuo, ere, ul, 173. 
Mico, are, ul, 170. 
Minuo, ere, minul, minQtum, 173. 
Misceo, Cre, ul, mixtum, (mistum), 

Misereor, CrI miseritus, (misertus) 

sum, 175. 
Mitto, ere, misl, missum, 100. 
Molo, ere, molul, moll turn, 170. 
3IoDeo, Cre, ul, itum, 139, 130. 
Mordeo, Cre, momordl, moi*sum, 168L,;j~»,«„m.l83. 

Moveo, Cre, mOvI, mOtum, 174. 
Mulceo, Cre, mulsl, mulsum, 100. 
Mulgeo, Cre, mulsl, mulsum(ctuiQ), 

Mungo, ere, munxl, rauuctum, 100. 


Nanciscor, I, nactus (nanctus), 175. 
Kascor, I, natus sum (ufiscitQrusX 

Neco, arc, avi, atum, 170. 
Necto, ere, uexl (nexul), nexum, 160t 
Neg-ligo, ere, -lexl, -lectum, 161. 
Necoplnatus, 183, R. 3. 
Neo, nCre, nOvI, nCtum, 137. 

Digitized by Vj*^J>i^' 




Nequeo, Ire, 185. 

Nulesco, ere, notui, 181. 

Ningo, ere, iiinxl, 160. 

Nileo, Cre, ul, to shine, 

Nitor, I, nixus (nisiis) sum, 175. 

Nolo, nolle, nOluI, 189. 

Noceo, Cre, ul (uocitQrus), to he UurU 

NOsco. ere, novl, nOtum, 170. 
NQIk), ere, ndpsl, naptum, 158. 


Ob-do, ere, -didl, -ditum, 177. 
Ob-dorinlsco, ere, -dormlvl, -dorml- 

tum, 181. 
Obllviscor, I, oblltns sum, 175. 
Ob-sideo (SEDEO, 166), ere, -sBdl, -ses- 

Ob-sisto, ere, -stiti, -stitum, 178. 
ObsolCsco, ere» -olCvl, -olctuin, 181. 
Ob-slo, stare, slill (obstatQrus), 178. 
Obiineo (teneo, 128), Cre, -linul, 

Oc-cido, (CADO), ere, -cidi, -cilsum, 

Occldo (CAKDO), ere, -cldl, -cisum, 

Oc-cino (CANO), ere, -cinul, 176. 
Oc-cipio (cAPio), (157), cre, -cCpI, 

Occulo, ere, occulul, occultum, 176. 
OdI, def., 190. 

Of-fendo (164), ere, -fendl, -fensum. 
Of fero, -ferre, oblull, oblatum, 186. 
Oleo, ere, ul, to smell. 
OlBsco. SeelSU 
Operio, Ire, operul, opertum, 176. 
Oplujltus, 183, R. 2. 
Opperior, Irl, oppertus (or Itus). 

Comp, 175, 5. 
Ordior, Irl, oi-sus sum, 175. 
Orior, Irl, onus sum (oritarus), 184. 
Os-tendo, cre, -tendl, -ten-sum (-ten- 
tus), 108. 


Paciscor, I, pactus sum, 175, 182, R. 2. 

Pulleo, 45rc, -ul, to be pale, 

Pando, ere, pandl, possum (pansum), 


Parco, ere, pepercl (pars!), parsttrus, 

Pltfio, ere, pepen, partum (paritOrus), 


Partior, in, Itus, 182, R. 2. 

Pasco, ere, pSvI, pastum, 179. 

Pate-facio, ere, -ffecl, -factum, 188. 

Pateo, Cre, ul, to be opeiu 

Patior, I, passus sum, 175. 

Paveo, ere, 1)5 vl, 174. 

Pecto. ere, pcxi, pcxum, 160. 

Pcl-licio, -liccre, ni^^Jx •lectum,161. 

Pello, ere, pepull, pulsum, 170. 
Pendeo, Cre, pependl, 168. 
Pendo, ere, pependl, pensum. 168. 
Per-cello, ere, percull, perculsum, 

PercCnseo (censed), Cre, -consul, 

Percitus (ciEO), 176. 
Pcr-do, ere, -did!, -ditum, 177. 
Per-eo, Ire, peril, itum, 185. 
PQr-ficio. ere, -l^cl, fectum, 188 
Peruo (kego), ere, perrcxi, pcrrcc 

tum, 161. 
Pcr-petior (patior, 175), I,perpessus 

Per-spicio, ere, -spexl, -spectum, 161 
Per-sto, -stare, -stitI, 178. 
Per-lineo (teneo, 128), Cre, uL 
Pessum-do, -dare, -dedl, -datum^ 

Peto, ere, Ivi (il), Itum, 156, 176. 
Pif?et, pigCre, piguit, pigitum est, it 

Pingo, ere, pinxl, pictum, 160. 
Pinso, ere, ul (I), pinsitum (pistum, 

pinsum), 172. 
Plango, ere, planxl, planctum, 160. 
Plaudo, ere, plausi, ])lausum, 165. 
Plecto, ere, plexl, plexum, 160. 
Plector, I, to be punis/ied, 
Pleo. See 127. 
Plico, are, ul (avi), itum (atum), 176. 


PoUeo, Cre, to be potent 

Pouo (169), ere, posul, positum, 179. 

Posco, ere, poposci, 162. 

Pos-sideo (sedeo, 160), ere, -sCdl, scfri 

Pos-sum, posse, potui, 115. 
POto, are, avI, pOtum, pOtatum, 176. 
Potus, 182, R. 1. 
Prae-cello, ere, cellul, 176. 
Prae^^ino, ere, cinul, 176. 
Prae-curro, cre, -cucurrl, -corsuia, 

Prac-si ieo (ssoso, 166), Cre, sedL 

Digitized by VjUU VIC 



Prac-sum, -esse, -fui, 113. 
Piiie-sto, -stare, -still, (-stfflQrns), 

Praiuleo, ere, prandl, praDsum, 164, 

183, R. 1. 
Preheiido, ere, prckendl, prehensuni, 

Premo, ere, pressi, prcssum, 183. 
PrOd-ii^o (ago, 159), ere, -e,s?I. 
PrO-do, ere, -didi, -dituin, 177. 
Pro-ficiscor, I. prefect us sum, 17o. 
Pro-fiteor (fateor, 175), en, -fessus 

PrOmo (eho), ere, prOmpsI, prOoip- 

tum, 169. 
PrO-sum, prGdesse, prOfuI, 114. 
PrO-tendo (tkndo, 168), ere, -tendl, 

•tentum, -tensum. 
Psallo, ere, 1, 170. 
Pudct, ere, puduit, puditum est,^iV 

Puei-iLsco, ere, to become a bat/, 
PuDgo, ere, pupugl, punctuiii, 163. 


Qnaero, ) ere, quacslvl, quacsltum, 

Qujieso, f 176. 

Qualio, ere, (qujissl), quassum, 166. 

Queo, quire, 185. 

Queror, querl, questus sum, 175. 

Quiesco, ere, quiCvI, quieium, 179. 

Rff.lo, ere, rilsl, rflsum, 165. 

Rnpio, ere, i*apul, raptum, 176. 

Raucio, Ire, rausi, rausum, 188. 

Re-cCnseo (censeo, 128), Cre, -cCnsuI, 
-cCnsum (recCnsItum). 

RecrOdesco, ere, -ciUduI, to get rate 

Red-arguo (173), ere, -argul. 

Red-do, ere, -didI, -ditum, 177. 

Red.i.a:o (ago), ere, -Cgl, -actum, 159, 

Re-feilo (FALLO, 170), ere, refelll. 

Re-lero (183, 186), -ferrc, -tuU, -la- 

Reiro, ere, rexl, rectum, 161, 183. 

Re-linquo, ere, -llqui, -Hctum, 169. 

Reminiscor, I, to reeoUect, 

Renldeo, Cre, to glitter, 

Ri^or, rCrl, rat us sum, 183. 

Re-perio, Ire, reperl, repertum, 170. 

Itepo, ere, repsi, reptum, 158. 

Ro-Bipisco, ere, -siplvl (-sipul), 181. 

Re-6isto, ere, -stiti, -stitum, 178. 

Re-spondeo (168), ere, -spondl, -spcn 

Re-sto, staro, -stitl, 178. 
Restinguo, ere, -stinxl, -stinctum, 160. 
Re-tineo (tkneo, 188), Cre, ul, -te:i 

Rc-vertor, I, revertl, reversum, 167. 
Re-vlvisco, ere, vi.xl, victum, 181. 
Rideo, Cre, rLsI, rlsum, 165. 
Rigeo, Cre, ul, to be stiff, 
R6do, ere, rOsI, rOsum, 165. 
Riil)eo, Cre, ul, to be red, 
Rudo, ere, rudlvl, Itum, 176. 
Rumpo, ere, rQpl, ruplum, 157. 
Ruo, ere, rul, rutum (ruitQrus), 173. 


Salic, ire, ^^^^^^ saltum, 176. 

Sallo, ere, salll, salsum, 170. 
SalvC, def,, 190. 

Sapio, ere (saplvl), sapul, 176. 
Sarcio, ire, sarsl. sartum, 160. 
Salis-do, -dare, -dedi, -datum, 177. 
Sea bo, ere, scabi, to scratch, 
Scalpo, ere, scalpsi, scalptum, 1.58- 
Scando, ere, scandl, scansum, 164. 
Scateo, Cre, to gmhfortli, 
Sciudo, ere, scidi, scissum, 168. 
Sclsco, ere, sclvl, scltum, 181. 
Scrlbo, ere, scrlpsi, scilptum, 158. 
Sculpo, ere, sculpsi, sculptum, 158L 


Sedeo, Cre, sCdl, sessum, 166. 
Scligo (lego, 159), ere, -ICgl, -lectuiti 
Sentio, Ire, sensi, sensum, 165. 
Sepelio, Ire, IvI, sepultum, 176. 
SCpio, Ire, sCpsI, sCptum, 158. 
Sequor, I, sccdtus sum, 175. 
Sero, ere, 176. 
Sero, ere, sCvI, satum, 180. 
Serpo, ere, serpsi, serptnm, 158. 
Side, ere, sidl, 167. 
Silco, Cre, ul, to be sHenU 
Sine, ere, sivl, sitnm, 179. 
Sisto, ere, stitl, statum, 178. 
Sitio, Ire, IvI, to thirst, 
Soleo, Cre, solitus sum, 182. 
Solve, ere, solvl, solQtum, 174. 

Sono.««,8onuI. |^°'|;'^,17«. 

Sorbeo, Cre (sorp-sl), sorbtd, 158L 

Digitized by VjUU VIC 



Sordco, 6re, ul, to be dirty, 
Stirtior, in, sorlliiis sum, 182, R 2. 
Spargo, ere, sparsi, sparsum, 100. 
Sperno, ere, sprevi, spretum, 180. 
-Spicio. See ad-spicio. 
Spleiideo, ere, ul, to shine 
Spondeo. ere, spopondl, sponsum, 

Bpuo, rre, spul, spatnm, 173. 
8(|uSIeo, ere, to be roughs foul, 
Statuo, ere, statui, stattllum, 178. 
Bterno, ere, strSvl, stratum, 180. 
Bternuo, ere, stern ul. 173. 
Bterto, ere, stertui, 176. 
-Stinguo, ere, 160. 
BtO, stare, stell, (stfitunis\ 178. 
Strepo, ere, strcpul, strepitum, 176. 
Btndeo, ere (ere), strldl, 167. 
Btringo, ere, strinxl, strictum, 160. 
Bti-uo, ere, struxl, slructum, 163. 
Btudeo, ere, ul, to be zealous, 
Btupeo, ere, ul, to be astounded. 
BuSdeo, ere, sutlsT, Biiilsum, 165. 
Bub-do, ere, -did!, -dilum, 177. 
Bub-iijo (AGO, 150), ci-e, -Cgl, -actum. 

Buc-cedo (CEDO, 100), ere, -«essl, 

Buc-cendo {see ac-cendo, 164), ere, 
-cendl, -censum. 

Suc-censeo (128), Cre, ul, -censum. 

Buesco, ere, suBvI, suGtuni, 179. 

Buf-fero, -fcrre, sus-tiuul, 186, R. 

Buf-ficio (FACio, 159), cre, -ftcl, -fec- 

Buf.fodio (166), cre, -r5dl, -fossum. 

Sug-gero {see 171), ere, -gcssi, -ges- 

Btlgo, cre, suxl, suctum, 160. 

Bum, esse, ful, 112. 

BQmo (emo), cre, sumpsi, sumptum, 

Bug, ere, sul, sQtum, 173. 

Superbio, Ire, to be haughtf/. 

Su|Mir-8to, -stare, -sieil, 178. 

Buper-sum, -esse, -ful, 113. 

Bap pOuu (see 170), ere, -pcsuI,-posi- 

Burgo (rego), cre, surrexl, surrec- 
tum, 161. 

Taedct^ pertaesum est, it tires. 
Tango, ere, tetigl, lactum, 162. 
Teffb, ere, texl, tectum, 161, 183. 

Temno, ere, 169. 

Tendo, ere, tetendl, tensum {Axua) 

Teneo, ere, tenul, (ten turn), 128. 
Tergo (eo), ere, tersl, tersum, 160. 
Tero, ere, trivl, tritum, 180. 
Texo, ere, tcxul, textum, 172. 
Timeo, Cre, ul, to fear, 
Ting(u)o, cre, tinxl, tinctum, 160. 
Tollo, ere (sustull, sublatum), 170. 
Tondeo, Cre, totondl, tousum, 168 
Tono, are, ul, 176. 
Torpco, Cre, ul, to be torpid, 
Torqueo, Cre, torsi, tortum, 160. 
Torreo, Cre, torrul, tostum, 128. 
Tra-do, ere, -didi, -ditum, 177. 
Traho, cre, traxi, tractum, 163. 
Tremo, cre, ul, 176. 
Tribuo, ere, ul, tribQtum, 173. 
Trado, cre, trasi, trOsum, 165. 

Tueor, Cil ^\^\^ug^ latatus sum, 182 


Tunico, Cre, ul, to ncell, 

Tundo, cre, tutudi, tuusum, tOsum, 

Turgeo, Cre, tursi, 160. 


Ulciscor, I, ultus sum, 175. 
Ungo, ere, unxl, unctum, 150. 
Urgeo, Cre, ursi, 160. 
pro, ere, ussi, ustum, 171. 
Utor, I, tlsus sum, 175. 


Vado, ere, 165. 
Vale, 190. 

Veho, ere, vexl, vectum, lOll 
Velio, ere, velll (vulsl), vulsum, 170 
VCn-do, ere, -<lidl, -ditum, 177. 
VCn-eo, Ire, Ivl (il), lai 
Venio, Ire, vCnl. ventum, 170. 
Vcnuui-do, -dare, dedl, -datum, 

Vereor, Crl, verltus sum. See 148. 
Verro, cre, verri, vei*suin, 170. 
Verto, ere, vcrtl, versum, 167. 
Vescor, I, to feed, 
Vespcrasco, ere, 181. 
Veto, are, vetui, yetitum, 176. 
Video, ere, vidl, visum, 164. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 

118 INBKX OF y£SBS. 

Vieo, ere, etum, io pUiit 8e/t 127. Vivo, ere, vixl, victnra, ld8. 
Vi^i^eo, ere, ul, to flourisJi, Volo, velle, volul, 189. 

Viucio, Ire, vinxl, viuctum, 160. Volvo, ere, volvl, volQtnm, 174. 

Vinw, ere, vicl, victum, 16d. Vomo, ere, vomul, vomilum, 176. 

ViBo, ere, visl, visum, 172. Voveo, ere, vOvI, vOtum 174. 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



192. Stot:ax treats of the formation and combination of 

Sentences are divided into simple and compound. 

A simple sentence is one in which the necessary pai'ts occnr 
but once. 

The necessary parts of the sentence are tlie sxihject and tli4 

The predicate is that which is said of the subject. 

The subject is that of which the predicate is said. 

Iiuna splendet, Tlie moon sJiines. 

LUna is the tiuH^ect; splendeti thQjnredicaU, 

193. The most simple form of the sentence is the finite rerb ; 
»-u-m, I am; doc6-s, thou ieachest; scrlb-i-t, he lurites. 

Remark.— nere the fonn containB in itself all the necessary elements (compare 111): 
nk 1» the firat person, 8 the second, t the third. From the expansion and modification of 
*he finite verb arise all the complicated forms of the compound sentence. 

194. The subject of the finite verb is always in the Nomina- 
tive Case, or so considered. 

Remarks. — 1. The subject of the Infinitive is in the Accusative. (341.) • 

2. The use of the Nominative in Latin is tlio same as in English. 

8. Tlie Vocative (the case of Direct Address) is not affected by tlie 
•tructure of the sentence, and docs not enter as an element into Syntax, 
except in the matter of Concord. The form differs from the Nominative 
in the Second Declension only, and even there the Nominative is some* 
times used instead, especially in poetry and solenm prose. (See i\irtheri 
824, R.1.) 

Almae filius Ms^ae. Hon. Son of mild Maia ! 

Audi tu, populus AlbSnufl. Liv. Hear thou, people tf AJba I 

5 is prefixed to give emphasis to the address : 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 


O formOse pner, nimiom nS erSde eolOrX. Vxito. thapdy boy t trusi not com 
plexion ail loo much. 

The vocativo is commonly interjected In prose, except in highly emotional passagea. 

195. The Subject may be a noun or pronoun, or some othei 
word or phrase used as a noun : 

Deus mandmn gnbemat, God steers ilie universe. 
Ego rSgSs Hjfica, I drove out kings. 

Sapiens x%% advenfis n5n timet, Tlie sage does not fear adversity, 
VictI in servitutem redignntur, Hie vanquislied are reduced to slavery, 
Contendlsse decdrum est. Ov. 7\> have struggled is lionoraJtHe, 
Magnum est beneficium nStflrae quod necesae eat moxi. Sen. It is 
a great boon of nature^ that we must needs die, 
VidSn habet duSs syllabas, (The word) " vides'* lias two syllables. 

^^ The following remarks may be omitted by the beginner. 

Remarks.— 1. Masculine and Feminine adjectives and participles arc used as snb- 
ttantiveSf chiefly in the plural number : panperSfl, the poor ; dlvitSfl, the rich ; doctf , 
Me learned; whereas, in the singular, the subi^tantive is generally cxprcsned: vir bonut; 
i» good man; homo doctos* a learned person ; molier peregrlna, a foreign women. 
When pcri>on8aro not meant, a substantive is nnderftood : c5nl (capiUD, grey hairs ; 
caUda (aqua), warm water; dextra (manus), right hand. 

2. Neuter adjectives and participles are freely emplo^-ed as substantives in both nnm- 
ber!* : mediam, the midst ; extrfimum, the end ; reliqnnm, t/ie residue ; fatftrum, the 
future; bonam, good; bonat blessings, ])ossession8 ; malum, evil; mala, misfortunes 
The plural is frequently employed when the English idiom prefers the singular : yfira* the 
truth ; omnia, everything, 

3. Adjectives of the Second Declension are sometimes nsed as neuter substantives in 
the Genitive case, afterwords of quantity or pronouns : aliquld boni, something good ; 
nihil mall, nothing bad. Adjectives of the Third Dccleutsiou are thus employed only 
in combination with those of the Second. (See 371, R. 2.) 

4. Instead of the neuter adjective the word r63« thing^ is frequently used, especially in 
forms which are identical for diflTorent genders ; so bonSrum rSrum, (if blessings, rather 
than bonOrum (m. and n.). 

6. In Latin the plural of abstract nouns occurs more frequently than in Englisn . 
adyentHs imperStOrum* th£ arrivalis) qf the generals (because there were several 
generals.* or bec<<nse they arrived at dilTerent times). Pluralizing abstract nouns makes 
them concrete : fortitHdinfis, gallant actions; formldinSs, bugbears ; Irae, quarrels, 

6. other plural expressions to be noted are : nivfiSt snow(-Jlakes) ; grandinSfl, haU 
{-stones) ; pluviae, (streams qf) rain ; ligna* (logs of) wood ; carnSa. pieces qftneat ; aera, 
arUdes qf brome ; also symmetrical parts of the human body: eervIcSSt neck ; pectora, 

The Plural is freely nsed in ])octry : 

Otia si tollSs, periere Cupldinis arefls. Ov. ^ you do away with holidays, Cupk^s 
bow (and arrows) are ruined, 

1, The rhetorical Roman often uses the First Person plural for the First Person singa- 
lar. The usage originates in modesty, but mock modesty is the worst form of pomposity. 
In poetry there is often an clement of shyness. 

Librum d6 senectUte ad t6 misimus. Cic. We (I) have sent you a treatise on old 

Sitque memor nOatrl neone« referte mlhl. Or. Bring me back (word)whsihe^ eks 
thinks qf us (me amons: others) or no. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 


& The biugdlar, In a collective eense, it alio lued for the Plonl, but more rarelj: fiiba« 
^MTu; porcui, pig (meaO ; galUna^yi^tof^as articles of food) ; yeatll* cMMng; hoatlii 
ths memy ; miles, the dokOsry; pedes, if gantry ; eqnes, eawUry. 

196. Copula. — ^When the predicate is not in the form of a 
verb, the so-called Copula is generally employed, in order to 
couple the adjective or substantive with the subject 

The chief Copula is the verb sum, lam, 

Fortfina caeca est. Cic. Fortune is blind. 

Usus magister est optimiu. Cic. Practice is the best teacttsr. 

Rexabk. — Strictly speaking, the copula is itself a predicate, as is shown by the 
translation when it ptands alone or with an adverb : est Deos, there U a Qod^ Ood exists ; 
reet0 semper enint res, things wia always be {go on) well ; slo vita hominnm est, 
svch is human ^fe ; *•" So runs the world away.'''' 

197. Other copulative verbs are: viderl, to seem; appftrere, 
to appear; manere, to remain; nasci, to he horn; fieri, to become; 
6v&dere, to turn out ; cre&n, to be created ; deligl, to be chosen ;- 
pntan, to be thought; haterl, to be held; did, to be said; appel- 
l&n, to be called; nOminftrl, to be named. Hence the rule: 

Verbs of Seeming, Remaining, Becoming, with the Passive of 
verbs of Makiug and Choosing, Showing, Thinking, and Call- 
ing, take two nominatives, one of the Subject, one of the Predi- 

MSmo dives nSscitur. Sen. No one is horn ricfi, 

AristldSs Justus appellStur, Arisiides is called just. 

Servius Tullius rSx est declarStus. Lrv. Seroius TuXUus was deehrect 

Th^o^didds nunquam numeratus est Srator. Cic. Thueifdides has 
neter been accounted an orcUor. 

RxxABXs.— 1. All copulative verbs retain the Nominative with the Inflnitivo after 
Mxiliary verbs. (434.) 

BeStus esse sine virtflte nemo potest. Cic. Ko one can be happy withoui 
8. On the Double Accusative construction after Active Verbs, see 334. 

198. Subject Omitted. — The personal pronoun is not ex- 
pressed, unless it is emphatic, as for example in contrasts : 

AmSmus parentis, We love (our) parents. 

Ego xegSB ejecl, vSs t3rrann58 intrdducitis. Cio. I drove oui kings, ye 
ore bringing in tyrants, 

199. Verbs that have no definite subject are called Imper- 
sonal Verbs, chiefly relating to the state of the weather : 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 

122 ooKoamD. 

Tonat, it thunders; iiilgiirat, fdlminat, it Ughteru; pluit, t^ ra^u; 
ningit, it mows. 

RsxARKS.— 1. The passive of intransItlTe verbs (204) is often n?ed imper^onaUy: 
TfyitOTt P6opU live ; onrritnr, there is a running. The sabject is contained in the verti 
itself: glo vlvitur = tlovIU YlYitux, svch is l\fe. In the same way explain taedett 
U wearies; miseret, it moves to pity; piget it disgusts ; pndet it puts to shame. 

ft. All other so-called Impersonal Verbs have an Infinitive or an equivalent fcnr a snb^ 

8. Other uses coincide with the English. So the Third Person Flnral of verbs of Saylnff, 
Thinking, and Calling. So the Ideal Second Person Singular. (862.) To be noticed li 
the occasional use of Inqait* qvoth he, of an imaginary person : 

HOn oonoSdo, inqtdt* EpioflrO. Cio. I do not yisld the pointy quoth he {one), to 

200. Copula Omitted. — ^Est or sunt is often omitted in saws 
and proyerbs, in short questions, in rapid changes, and in tenses 
compounded with participles : 

Snminum Jul lomma iojntia, ITie height of right (is) iM height of wrong, 
JBTSmo malus ftlXz. Jut. No bad man (is) happy. Quid dulcius quam 
habere qulcmm omnia audeSs loquL Cio Whai sweeter tJuin to Itaw some 
one, with tdhom you can venture to talk about everything f Aliquamdia cer- 
tfitum. Sall. The druggie was kept up for some time. 

So also Mse with participles and tlie like. 

Oaaiar statoit ezspectandam classem. Caes. Caesar resolved that the 
fleet must be waited for, 


, 201. The Three Concords.— There are three great con- 
cords in Latin : 

1. The agreement of the predicate with the subject 

2. The agreement of attributive or appositive with the substantlye. (381, 

3. The agreement of the Pronoun with Iho Noun (Relatiye with ante 
eedent) (616.) 

RmAitK.-~It may be well for the beginner to stndy these togetner. 

202. AoREEMEirr of the Predicate with the Subjeoi. 

The verbal predicate > agrees with its subject j and^^soiu 

"I Hn number. 

The adjective predicate > agrees with its subject < gender, and 
) ( case. 

The substantive predicate agrees with its subject in case. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 

ccmcoBix 1^3 

Bnbstantlva m51illia (21) are treated as a^Jectiyes, and follow the mini- 
der and gender of the subject 

Ego rdggs €j5cl, vSs ty rannSs intrSdflcitU (198). 

Vdrae amicitiae sempitemae sonU Gic. ' True friendships are abiding. 

pOs est decern talenta. Teb. The dowry is ten talents, 

Usns magister est optimus. Cic. Practice is the best teacher, 

AthSnae sunt omnium dootrlnftram inventrlcSs. Cic. Athens is th$ 
inventor of all branches of learning, 

Arz est monosyllabnm. ** Arsi^' is a monosyllable. 

Remarks.— 1. The yiolation of the rules of agreement is due chiefly to 
one of two causes : 

1. The natural relation is preferred to the artificial (oonstroctio ad sen- 
sum,- per 83rne8iji, odscording to the sense), 

n. The nearer is preferred to the more remote. Hence : 
ExcKPnoNa — 1) Nouns of multitude often talte tlie predicate in the 

Plural : pars, part; vis, quantity; mnltitfido, crowd; organized bodies 

more rarely. 

Pars m^or recSperant s5s§. Liv. The greater part had retired. 
Omnia mvltitndo abemit. Lrv. AU Vie crowd depart, 

2) The adjective predicate often follows the natural gender of the sub- 

Capita oonJ&rSti5nis virgXs caesi sunt. LiY. The heads of the eonr- 
ppiraey were flogged. 

3) The copula often agrees with the number of the predicate (" the wagts 
of sin is death") : 

Anumtium Irae (195, H. 5) amOris integrfttio est. Ter. Lovert^ quarrels 
are love's renewal, 

2. A superlative adjective defined by a partitive genitive follows the 
gender of the subject when it precedes : 

Bordenm omnium frugum moUissimum est. Plin. Barley is the softest 
tf all grains. 

Otherwise it follows the genitive: 

Veldcissimum omnium animilium est delphlnus. Plin. The dolphin 
is ihe swiftest of aU animals, 

3. The Vocative is sometimes used by the poets in the predicate, either 
by anticipation or by assimilation. (See 324, R. 1.) 

4 The neuter adjective is often used as the substantive predicate of 
A masculine or feminine subject : 

Triste lupus stabuUs. Yero. T7ie wolf is destruction Jo the folds. 

Omnium rerum (195, R. 4) mors est extrSmiun. Cic. Death is the end 
of all things, 

5. The demonstrative pronoun is commonly attracted into the gender 
of the predicate : 


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124 TOioss. 

fia ii5n media sed nitlU ^ia est Lit. Thai Unot a nUddk eowrm^ hut 

no course at alt, 

N5n ego illam mihi duco ddtem esse, quae d5s dlcitor. Plattt. Thai 
which is eaJled a dowry I deem not my dowry^ no, not L 

When tJie pronoun is the predicate there is no change. Bo in defini- 

Quid est Dens? Wfuxt is Godf 

Forms op the Verbal Predicate. 


203. There are two Voices in Latin — Active and Passive. 
The latter seems to have been Reflexive in its origin. 

204. The Active Voice denotes that the action proceeds 
from the subject. 

Verbs are called Transitive when their action goes over to an 
object ; Intransitive when their action does not go beyond the 
subject: occlderey to fell = to kill (Transitive) ; ocddere, to fall 

Rbmark.— Transitive verbs are often nsed intransitively, and Intransitive verbs 
transitively : suppeditSrs, to fupplif (Transitive), to be on hand (Intransitive) ; queror, 
/ complain (Intransitive), I complain qf (Transitive). Wlien transitive verbs are used in- 
transitively they serve simply to characterize the agent. When intransitive verbs are 
ased transitively it is chiefly with an accusative of the Inner object. (831, R. 2.) 

205. The Passive Voice denotes that the subject receives the 
action of the Verb. 
%_ The instrument is put in the Ablative. 
VirgXs oaeditnr, He is becUen with rods, 

-h The agent is put in the Ablative with ab (ft). 

A patre caeditur, He is beaten by {his) father. 

Remarks.— 1. Intransitive verbs of Fat>sive signification are constroed asPasslvefl: 
(ismi perire, to perish of hunger, 

Ab reO fastibns vfipulSvit. Quint. Be utae whacked with cudgels by the dtfendant, 
^ 2. When the instrument is considered as an agent, or the agent as an instrument, tiK 
con^tmctioiis are reversed : 

Vinol S YoluptSte, to be overcome by Pleasure, Cio. 

FoenO mlllte portfis firangimus. Juv. We break down the gates with the l^tnk 
soldiery (as if with a battering-ram). 

Animals, as independent agents, are treated like Persons. 

A eane nOn magnO saepe tenetur aper. Ov. A boar ie qften held fast by a Uttk 


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TOICSB. 12^ 

Afllmali, m Instraments, m treated Uk« TMnfcn 

£qii5 ▼•hi, torideahan${iob$bonu dy a horn) ; ia equO, cm hontback, 

206. The person in whose interest an action is done is put 
in the Dative. Hence, the frequent inference that the person 
interested is the agent. 

With the Perfect Passive it is the natural inference, and com* 
mon in prose. 

RSs mihi tdta prGvIia est. Cic. / have had the whole thing proffided 

Oarmina soripta mihl lunt nnUa. Ov. Poem$~^I ha/09 none written (1 
have written no poems). 

With the Gerundive it is the necessary inference, and the 
Dative is the reigning combination. 

Nihil est hominX tarn timendum quam invidia. Cic. There is nothing 
thai one has to fear to ilie same extent as envy. See 852. 

207. The Direct Object of the Active Verb (the Accusative 
Case) becomes the Subject of the Passive. 

Alexander DSrSam vicit, Alexander conquered Darius. 

DSreiis ab Alexandra viotus est, Darius was conquered by Alexander. 

20a The Indirect Object of the Active Verb (Dative Case) 
cannot be properly used as the Subject of the Passive. The 
Dative remains unchanged, and the verb becomes a Passive in 
the Third Person Singular (Imperaonal Verb). This Passive 
form may have a neuter subject corresponding to the Inner 
object. (331, R 2.) 

Active : Miseri invident bonis, The wretched envy the weU-Uhdo. 
Passive : mihi invidetnr, lam envied^ 

tibi invidetur, thou art envied^ 

el invidetur, he is envied^ 

n5bl8 invidetur, we are envied^ 

v5bls invidStur, you are envied^ 

ils invidetur, i/iey are envied. 

Nihil facile persuadetnr invltis. Qunrr. People are not easily per- 
itiaded of anything against their will, 

AnnllB nSstrls plus quam animis orSditur. SxN. Our seals are more 
trusted than our souls. 

ab aliqnd, by some one. 

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126 TBIfABfl. 

fixMABK.— The Mme rale applies to GenttlTe and AMative. The poota are more ftvc 
In imitetlon of the Greek. Cftr inTideor 1 Hoa. for Cftr inTiditw mihi 1 Why atn 

209. Beflexive relations, when emphatic, are expressed as in 
English : 

Omne animal 85 ipsum dlligit. Cio. Ecery Uving creature loves itself. 

But when the reflexive relation is more general, the Passive 
is employed: 

Iiavor, / bathe, I bathe myself. 

Ptirgarl nequIvSrunt Lnr. Thep eauld not dear themselves, 
OurSbar proprils aeger Podallriiu herbia. Ov. A tick PodalMue^ 1 
was trying to cure myself by my own herbs, 

210. As the Active in all languages is often used to express 
what the subject suffers or causes to be done, so the Passive in 
Latin in its reflexive sense is often used to express an action 
which the subject suffers or causes to be done to itself: trahorp 
/ let myself be dragged; tondeor, I have myself shaved. 

Ipae docet quid agam ; fas est et ab hoste docSii. Ov. ffe himsdf 
teaches (me) whit to do ; it u {but) right to let oneself be taught even by an 
enemy (to take a lesson from a foe). 

211. The Deponent is a Passive form which has lost, in most 
instances, its Passive (or Reflexive) signification. It is commonly 
translated as a Transitive or Intransitive Active: hortor, / am 
exhorting (Trans.) ; morior, I am dying (In trans.). 

212. Reciprocal relations ("one another^') f%re expressed by 
inter, among, and the Personal Pronouns, nOs, us ; vfts, you ; sS^ 
themselves : Inter 86 amant. They love one another. 


213. The Tenses express the relations of time, embracing : 

1, The stage of the action (duration in time). 

2. The period of the action (position in time). 

The first tells whether the action is going on, or finished. 
The second tells whether the action isjyast, presoit, or future. 

Both these sets of relations are expressed by the tenses of the 
Indicative or Declarative mood — less clearly by the Sul junctive^ 

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214 There are six tenses in Latin : 

1. The Present, denoting continuance in Hiq present. 

2. The Future, denoting continuance in t\i& future, 

3. The Imperfecty denoting contimiance in the past, 

4. The Perfect, denoting completion in the present. 

5. The Future Perfect, denoting completion in the future. 

6. The Pluperfect, denoting completion in the past. 

215. An action may further be regarded simply as attained, 
without refereilce to its continuance or completion. Gontinuaiice 
and completion require a point of reference for definition ; at- 
tainment does not. This gives rise to the aoristic or uidefinite 
stage of the action, which has no especial tense-form. It is 
expressed by the Present tense for the present; by the Future 
and Future Perfect tenses for the future ; and by the Perfect 
tense for the past. 

Of especial importance is the Indefinite or Historical Perfect 
(Aorist), which differs materially in syntax from the Definite or 
Pure Perfect. 

216. The Tenses are divided into Principal and HistoricaL 
The Principal Tenses have to do with the Present and Future, 
The Historical Tenses have to do with the Past. 

The Present, Pure Perfect, Future, and Future Perfect arQ 
Prificipal Tenses. 

The Imperfect, Pluperfect, and Historical Perfect are Histor* 
ical Tenses. 

Bbxabk.— The Historical Tenses are well embodied in the following distich : 
TSlia tentSbat, lie et tentfiverat ante, 
Vixque dedit yiotfis ttilitste mantis. Ot. 

217. Table of Texpobal Relations. 



Continuance. Chmpletion. [AttcUnmeiU. 

Pbbsebt: icrlbo, scripsi, scxlbo, 

lam writing, I have torttten. Ivrnte. 

Putubb: sorlbam, scripsero, scrlbam (scripsero) 

/ 9?uiU be wriUng. I shall have toritte n. / tJudl write. 

Pact: scrib^bam, scripseram, soripsl, 

I toas writing. I had written. I wrote.] 

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Pasanr: ■orlbitnr (epistola), 
ITu letter w written^ 

tcripta est, 
Juii been written, 
w ieritten^ 

is toritten. 

fcTjjmm : 8crlb§tiir, soripta erit, icriMtnr, 

The letter wiU be tdritten^ wiU have been, vfiU be written 

(writing), wiU be written^ 

Past : ■orlbdbgtnr, acripta «nit, sciipta est, 

The Utter was written, had been written, was written, 
{writinff)^ was written, 

Knuax.— The English PfteriTe is ambignoas. The (*ame form is currently nsed for 
•ootinnance, attainment, and completion. The context alone can decide. A convenient 
teat is the sebsUtntion of the Active. 

/ Coutinnance, Some one wai writing a letter. 
A letter was written : ) Completion, Some one had written a letter. 

( Attainment, Some one wrote a letter. 
laF* Tha detailed amsideration of the Tenses may be omitted by the beginner. 

Pbksknt Tkhbs. 

218. The Present Tense is used as in English of that which 
is going on now (Specific Present), and of statements that apply 
to all time (Xlniversal Present). 

Specific Present : 

Anribos teneS lupnm. Ter. latn holding the loolf by the ears. 

Universal Present : 

ProbitSs laudator et alget. Jny. Honesty is bepraised andfreeees. 

Remarks.— 1. The SpeciAc Present is often to be translated by the BngUsh Progress- 
ive Present. The Universal Present if Aoristic, tme at any point. 

S. As continnance involves the notion of incompletencfis the Present is nsed of at- 
tempted and intended action (Present of Endeavor). Bnt on account of the donble nse of 
the Present this signification is less prominent and less important than in the Imperfect. 
Do not mixtake the Endeavor which lies in the Verb for the Endeavor which lies in the 
TenBo. So in the traditional example : 

Quintus frSXer TasculSnum Tdnditat. Cio. Brother Quintus ie '* trying to eell** his 
Tusculan villa : yenditSre itaoir means (o qSter for e-jU, Translate : intends to qfferfor 
9ale, if the notion lies in the Tense. 

8. The ambiguity of onr English Passive often snggebts other translations. Use and 
Wont make Law ; hence, the frequent inference that what is done is what ought to b€ 
done ; what is not done is not to be done. 

(Deiu) nee bene prOmeritls eapitnr, nee tangitnr XrS. Lucr. Cfod ie not to be in- 
veigled by good service, nor touched by anger. 

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210. The Present Tense is nsed more rarely than in English 
in anticipation of thefuture^ chiefly in componnd sentences: 

SI vinchnns, omnia tuta erunt. Sall. ffwe conquer (= shall conquer), 
roeryiJiing will be safe. 

Antequam ad aententiam redeo de me pauca dioam. Cic. Before 1 
return to t/ie sulject, I will say a few things of myself 

EzspectSbd dam iUe venit. Tbr. / wOl wait all tlie time that he it 
coming, or, until he corner, 

220. The Present Tense is nsed far more frequently than in 
English, as a lively representation of the past (Historical Pres- 

R5ma2n proficiscitur. SAUi. He sets out for Some, 
MSturat proficiflcl. Cabs. He hastens to depart 

BsvABK.— Bnin, whU» (y»0, commonly takes a Preaent, which is usually referred to yL 
thi? head. ' 

Dam haeo in colloqaiO gernntnr, Caesarl nflntiStom est. Cais. WMU tktdt 
Viing$ were transacting in the conference^ word was brought to Caear, 
"- — •Dam, so long as., follows the ordinary law. (See 671, foU.) 

221. The Present is used in Latin of actions that are con- 
tinued into the present, especially with jam, noiu ; jam ditl, now ^ 
for a long time j jam pridem, now long since. In English we 
often translate hy a Progressive Perfect, 

Mithridates annum jam tertium et vlc§8imum regnat. GiC. Mithri' 
dates has been reigning now going on twenty4hree years, 

Llberare vds S Philipp5 jam diu magis vnltis quam audStli. lar. 
Ton Jiave this long time 1mi4 ifie wish rather than(-=z though not) Vie courage 
to deliver yourselves from PhUif 


222. The Imperfect Tense denotes Continuance in the Past : 
pugn&ham, / was fighting. 

The Imperfect is employed to represent manners^ custofM, 
situations; to describe and to particularize. 

The Imperfect and the Historical Perfect serve to illustrate 
one another. The Imperfect dwells on the process ; the His- 
torical Perfect states tlie result. The Imperfect counts out the 
items ; the Historical Perfect gives the sum. 

228. The two tenses are often so combined that the general 


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130 FKRrXCT. 

gtatement is given by the Historical Perfect^ the particulars of 
the action by the Imperfect : 

VerrSs In forum vSnitj ardebant ocuU; t5t5 ez 5re crudSIiUbi 
iminSbat. Cic. Verves eame into tlie forum, Im eyes xoere blazing^ crudty 
yas standing out from his whole countenance, 

224. Tlie Imperfect is used of atteinpted and interrupted, 
intended and expected actions (Imperfect of Endeavor). It is 
the Tense of Disappointment and (with the negative) of Resist- 
ance to Pressure. (Mere negation is regularly Perfect.) 

Otiriam relinquSbat. Tag. He was for leaving the senate-house. 

lidz abrogSbStur. Lrv. 27ie law toas to be abrogated. 

dreum et Eretriam Eumenl dabant : senStus IXbertatem hXs civitatibiui 
dedit. Lrv. They were for giving Oreus and Eretria to Eumenes; Vie senate 
gave these cities liberty, 

Aditum n5n dabat. Nep. He would not grant access (dedit, did not), 

KflMARKs.^l. Tho Imperfect ae the Tenee of Bvolatlon is a Tense of Vision. Bnt 
In EiiglislL, Imperfect and Historical Perfect coincide ; hence the various translations to 
put the reader in the place of the spectator. 

2. The continuance is in the mind of the narrator ; it has nothing to do with the ab- 
folate duration of the action. The mind may dwell on a rapid action or hurry over a 
Blow one. With definite numbers, however large, the Historical Perfect most be used, 
unless there is a notion of continuance into another stage (overlapping). 

OorgiSi centum et novem annOi vizit- Quint. OorgUu lived 109 yeart. 

8. As the Tense of Disappointment, the Imperfect !■ occasionally used, at in Greek, to 
express a startling appreciation of ttie real state of things. Oreek inflaence ia not 

Hic aderSs. Tkr. (So it turns oat that) you tpere here (all the time). 

Hence the modal U9e of dSbSbam and poteram. (346, R. 3.) 

225. The Impertect is used as the English Progressive Plu- 
perfect: especially with jam, jam did, jam dadum. 

Jam dudum tibi adveraSbar. Plaut. 1 had long been opposing you, 

RsMABK.— As the Historical Present is used in lively narrative^ so the Historical Inflr 
m^a la used in lively description^ parallel with the Imperfect. (650.) 

Pbrfbct Tsnsv. 

226. The Perfect Tense has two distinct uses : 

1. Pure Perfect. 2. Historical Perfect (Aorist). 


227. Tlie Pure Perfect Tense expresses completion in the 
resent, and hence is sometimes called the Present Perfect 

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The Pare Perfect looks at both endn of an action, and the 
time between is regarded as a Present The Historical Perfect 
looks at but one end; or, rather, beginning and end are one. 

228. The Pure Perfect is nsed: 

1. Of an action that is over and gone. 

FlUam anicnm habeo, immo babaL TsB. / luiM an only 9on — fuiy, 
hate had an only ton. 

TMiipom quid Udtml : hano vole, 18 voloL Mabt. Whai d^fbrmtm 
time$ make I (Time n) I want heb, (Time has bbbn) I wanted Tou. 

2. Far more frequently of the present result of a more remote 
action: Besnlting condition. 

Sqnnm et millimi BnindisiX Ubi r«lIqiiL Cia / Aom ^fl a horm and 
mule for you at Brundurium — (they are still there). 

PerdidI ipem qoS mS oUeotSbam. Plaut. Fve hat the hope with 
which I entertained myseff, 

Actam est, peHstL Tbr. ItisaU over ; you're undone. 

Rbxabks. 1.— The Pnre Perfect li often tranelated hj the EngliBh Present : nfiwtflham 
become aeqvcOnted with, I know ; memlnl, / Aom rtoalUd, I remember ; OdI, thtm «oii- 
edfoed a hairedqf, J hate; eoninSvI, / have made U a rule^ I am aoeutUmwd, 

Odimnt hilarem tristSs tristemqne JocOtL Hoa The long faced haU the INm^ 
man, tJu jotere luUe the long-faced man, 

%. The Perfect ie need of that which has been and ehall be (Sententious Perfect) ahnoft 
always with an indefinite Adjective or Adverb of nnmber or a negative. It is seldom an 
Aorist (Greek). 

NSmo repente fait tnrpiiiimiu. Jmr. None ef a sudden (fiath eeer) reaehied) the 
iqtth of baeenese 

229. As the Present stands for the Future, so the Perfect 
stands for the Future Perfect 

Brntna si oonservStuB erit, vlcimas. Gic. Brutui/-^ hb is saved, we 
art frietorious, we (shall) have gained the victory. 

230. Habeo or teneo, I hold, I have, with the Accusative of 
the Perfect Participle Passive, is not a mere circumlocution for 
the Perfect, but lays peculiar stress on the maintenance of the 

Habeo statutum, Thave resolved, and hold to my resolution, 
Habeo penpectnm, I haw perceived, and IliavefuU insight, 
BzofisStmii habeSs mS rogo, o8no domL Mabt. / pray you have me 
ecBCUsed, I dine at home. 

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132 FUTUBX. 


231. The Historical or Indefinite Peifect (Aorist) states a 
past action^ without reference to its duration^ simply as a thing 

VSnl, vldl, vIcL SuBT. leame, mto, avereame, 

BSilo domain vSnit, caloe5B et veitlmenta mntSvit, panllsper com- 
mor&tua est. Gic. JliUo came hatne, changed shoes and garments, tarried a 
little while. 

OorgiSs centum et novem visit annSs. Quint Oorgias Heed 109 

282. The Historical Perfect is the great narrative tense of 
the Latin language, and is best studied in long connected pas- 
sages, and by careful comparison with the Imperfect. 

Plupxbfcot Tinbb. 

233. The Pluperfect denotes Completion in the Past, and is 
used of an action that was completed before another was begun. 
It is, GO to speak, the Perfect of the Imperfect. Hence it is used : 

1. Of an action that is over and gone. 

PntSram, IJiad- thought (before such and such a thing happened). 

2. Of a Eesulting Condition. 

Maisilienses portSs Caesarl clauserant. Cae8. The MareeiHese had 
shut their gates against Caesar. (Thmr gates were shut) 

Rbm ARX8.~1. When the Perfect of resulting Condition is translated by an Bni^isb 
Present (828 R.), the Pluperfect is traiisiatc^ by an Englii^h Imperfect : nOveram, / had 
become acquainted with^ I knew ; memineram, / remetnbered ; Oderanii / hated ; eon* 
•nSveram, Ivoax accustotned. 

2. The Periphrastic Pluperfect with habeo corres«pon(lfi' to the Perfect (280.) 


234. The Future Tense denotes Contiiiuance in the Future : 
'scnbam, / shall he writing. 

The Future Tense is also used to express indefinite action in 
the Future : scrlbam, / shall write. 

Rbmabkc.^I. In tabordlnate claases the Latin language Vs more exact than the En- 
l^h in the expression of future relations. 

DOnee erii fSUx, multOs namerfibii amlcOi, O7. So long as you shall be (ue) 
kttppy, you will count many/tiends. 

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Quidquid erit, mea lemper erls. Or. Wuimet youshoBU (are), yom wlU al» 
ways be none own, 

a. Observe especially the vcrbp volo, IvHU, and pofauni, Jean, 

OderoBi poterO; si nOn, inYltm ftmfibo. Or, IipiUhaUif JshaUb€oNs(iHLn)\ 
if not, /shall lave against my ivill. 

SI qua volet regnfire dill. dSltLdat amantem. Or. She who shall wM to queen. 
U long must fool her lover, 

236. The Future is used in an imperative sense, as in English, 

chiefly in familiar language. 

Td nihil dlcSs. Hok. Tou shall, are to, say nothing (do you say nothing), 
Qnnm volet accSdes, quum te vltsbit ablbis. Ov. When she wants you. 

approaeli ; and when she avoids you, begone, sir, 

FuTUBB Pbrjpect Tkmbb. 

236. The Future Perfect is the Perfect, both Pure and His- 
torical, transferred to the future, and embraces both completion 
and attainment : ftoro, / shall have done if, or / sJiall do it 
(once for all); vldero, I will see to it; prOfecerit, it will prove 

Rbxarks — 1. Hence, when the Perfect Is nsed as a Present, the Future Perfect is used 
a» a Future : 

KOvero, I shall knoio ; consaSvero, J shall be accustomed ; d e r o, •! poterO. Ov. 
(234, R. 2.) 

2. In pubordinate sentences, the Latin langua^ is more exact than the English in the 
use of the Future Perfect. 

When one action precedes another in the future, the action that precedes is expressed 
by the Fntnre Perfect. 

Qui prior itrinzerit ferrnin, Sjus victOria erit. Lnr. Whojlrst draws the 
sword, his shall be the victory, 

3. The Future Perfect If frequently upcd in volo, I tciU ; nOlO, Itcillnot; possiun, 
lean; licet, it is left free; libet, it- is agreeable ; placet, it is the pleasure; whereas the 
English idiom familiarly employ? the Pres=ent 

81 p 1 a e r 0, faciam vObIs satis- Cic. If lean, I shall sati^ you, 

4. The Fntnre Perfect in both clauses denotes simultaneous accomplishment or attain* 
ment ; one action involves the other. 

Qui Marcnm AntOnium oppresserit, is beUnm confScerit. CTio. Be wha 
shall have crushed (crushes) Mark Antony^ Will have, finished (will finish) the war, 

£a vitia qal fllgerit, is omnia fer§ vltia vltfiyerit Cio. He who shall hone «f> 
taped the<fe faults, will have avoided altnost all faults. 

Sometimes, however, the first seems to denote antecedence, the second ^no/i/y. An 
Imperativ* is often us«ed in the first clause. 

ImmUtfi verbOram coUocfitiOnem, perierit tOta rSs. Cio. Change the arrange' 
ment of the words, the whole tiling falls dead, 

237. As the Future is used as an Imperative, so the Future 
Perfect approaches the Imperative. 

D§ hOc tu ipse vlderis. Cic. You may see to tluU yowrsdf hereafter 

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238. The Periphrastic Tenses are formed by combining the 
rarioas tenses of eate, to be^ with participlos and yerbal ad« 


239. The Periphrastic Tenses of the Active are chiefly com- 
binations of eaw and its forms with the so-called Future Par- 
ticiple Active. The Future Participle is a verbal adjective 
denoting capability aud tendency. Compare amfttor and amft- 
tftms. The translation is very various: 

1. Soriptums Bum, lam abovi to write, lam to write^ I purpose to write^ 
lam likely to write. 

2. Scripturos eram, Twos about to write, eta 

3. Soriptnnui lul, Iliave been or woe about to write (often = I should hate 

4. Scripturus fiieram, I had been about to write, etc. 

5. Scripturus ero, IsIiaU be about to write, etc. 

<K Scripturus fiiero, / shall have made up my mind to write, etc. (of 
course very rare). 

1. Bellum scripturus sum quod populus R5m2nus cum JugurthS 
gessit. Sall. I purpose to write the history of the war which the Roman 
people carried on with JagurUia. 

2. RSz n5n interfuturus nSvall certSminI erat. Liv. TJie king did not 
intend to be present at the naval combat. 

3. Cato quS nocte periturus fuit ISgit. Sbn. Goto read on the nigJU 
when he was about to die (kill himself). 

DSditds ultimls cruoiStibos affecturi fn§runt. Liv. They would have 
put the surrendered to extreme tortures. 

4. MSiior R5man5rum gratia fuit quam quanta OarthSginiensium £u« 
fcfira fuerat. Lrv. Tfie Romans^ credit for tlUs wasgrecUer than the Cartha* 
ffinians would have been. 

5. Plus mihi ditracturus ero, quam ill! collSturus. Sen. / shaU in aJU 
UkeUhood take away more from myself tJuin Isliall bestow on him. 

6. Sapiens n5n vlvet, si fiierit sine homine victurus. Sen. The wise 
man will not continue to live, if he finds tJiat he is to live without human 

Remark.— The Snbjnnctives and Infinitives seriptflruB Bim* e88em« faerim, seri^ 
tttmm esse, and soripttlram faisse* are of gniAt importance in dependent diacoaree. 

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A.,— Of Future BdaUom, 

240. The following periphrases are used both in Actiye ancj 
Passive, but more frequently in the Passive. 

1. Fat&mm est, iiistobe^\ 

•^*» ) . » f ^ ^^^» with the subjunctive. 

This circumlocution is used; 

1. Rarely in the Indicative. 

2. Often in the Infinitive, and necessarily so, when the verb forms no 
Supine or Future Participle : 

( ut metuSs, tJiat you wiUfear. 

Puturum esse (fore), ^ ^^ ^etuaris, that you wUl he feared. 

In the Passive it is more common than the Supine with Irl. 

Spero fore u t contingat id ndbis. Cic. I hope that we shall hate thai 
good fortune. 

In £Ltl8 icriptum VSjentes habibant f or e at brevi a OalUs R5ma 
caperetnr. Cic. The Vcientes Jutd it written down in tlieir proplietie bookn 
that Home would eJiortly be taken by the Oauls. 

REXABKS.--1. Fore at ... is used chiefly with Pre sent and Imperfect Snbjanctlvc; w 
Perf. and Plnperf. are very rare. Cic. ad Att. xvl. 16 K'iST ^ 

2. The form fatarum fnisie ut . . . is nsed with Passive and Snpineless yerbs, to ex ^ 
press the dependent apodosis of an unreal conditional sentence. 

Nisi eO ipsO tempore nnntil dS Caesaris victOriS eraent allfiti, eziitimfibant 
pUrlqne fatarum fuisse at oppidam fimitteritar. Cabs. (662.) 

3. Posse* to be aUe^ and yelle, to idUI^ on accoantof their fa tare sense, do not require 
a periphrasis. In the absence of periphrastic forms, the forms of posse are often used 
instead. (659.) 

4. The Sabjunctive forms fataram siti esseti faeriti at . . • are nsed in the gram- 
luars to supply the periphrastic subjunctive of Passive and Supineless verbs. (See 616,R. 2.) 

Warrant in real usage is scarce. 

An atiqae fataram sit at Carthfigiaem saperent SOmSnl 1 Quint. L O. 
m. 8. 7. (not merely periphrastic). 

241. 2. In ed est, it is on the point, ' 

erat, ) ,t ,v 

- .. > was (Impersonal), 

ut, that (of), with the 

In e5 erat ut PausaniSs comprehenderetur. Nep. M was on the point 
ikat Pausanias should he (P. was on the point of) being arrested. 

HsMABK.^This phrase occnn in Nkpos and Liyt, seldom in earlier writers. 

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B.— 0/ Poit BUaiUyM. 

242. The Perfect Participle Passive is used in combination with sum. 
Tarn, and ful, Ihatie l>eea^ Iwas^ to express tlie Pure Perfect and Historical 
Perfect of the Passive Voice. Eram, I was, and fderam, I had been, stand 
for the Pluperfect ; and ero, I shall be, and fiiero, I shall Imve been, for the 
Future Perfect. 

Remark.— Ful i* i\ie favorite form when the participle is frequently need as an ad- 
jective : convlviiim ezomStum fait, th^ banquet was furnished forth ; tal is the 
y necessary form when the Perfect denotes that the action is over and gon e : amStui fuI, 
^ Ihate been loved (but I am loved no longer). The same principle applies to faeram and 
faero, though not so regularly. 

Simalficmin 6 marmore in sepulcrO poaitum fait; hOc qaldam homo nO- 
bilis dSportfivit Cic. A marble effigy was depoeUed in the tomb ; a certain man qf rank 
has carried it off, 

Arma quae fiza in parietihos faerant, homl inventa •out. Cio. The 
wrms which had been fastened to the walls were found on the grotmd. 

Nee mSter faerO dicta neo orba ditl. Ov. J shall not have been called mother nor 
childless long. 

C. — Periphrastic Conjugation — Passive Voice, 

243. The combination of the Tenses of esse, to be, with the 
Gerundive (verbal in -ndus), is called the Periphrastic Conjuga- 
tion of the Passive, and follows the laws of the simple conjuga- 
tion. (See 150.) 

Re-marks.— 1. The Gerundive is a verl>al adjective, which produces the effect of a 
Progressive Participle. Whenever a participle is used as a predicate it becomes char- 
acteristic, and good for all time. Compare 439, R. 

As arnans not only = qol amat^ but also := qal amet, bo axnandas = qal am§tar 

2. According to the rale (908) the Gerandive of Intransitive verbs can be used only in 
the Impersonal form : 

Farcendom est victlB. The vanquished must be spared. 


244. The Roman letter-writer not unfrequently puts him- 
> self in the position of the receiver, more especially at the begin- 
ning and at the end of fhe letter, often in the phrase Nihil erat 
quod scrlberem, '*I have nothing to write.*' This permutatiou of 
tenses is never kept up long, and applies only to temporary situ- 
ations, never to general statements. 

Table of Permutations. 

•cribo, I am toriti7ig, becomes acrlbebam, 

I write, scripsL 

NCripsI, I have wntten, scripseram, 

I wrote, scripseram, 
or remains unchanged. 

aexibuii, IshaUwHg, scriptfinu eram. 

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MOODS. 137 

The adverbial designationg of time remain michanged- 

HerX, yesterday^ becomes pridii. 

hodie, to-day, " quQ diS hSs UtterSs dedl. dabam. 

crSs, to-morrow, ^ posterQ di8, postrldiS. 

FormiSs mS continu5 redpere cSgiUlbam. Cic. lam thinking of rs- 
&r%ng forthwith to Formiae, 

Cum mibi Caecilius dizlsiet puerum sS RsSmammittere, haeo icripil 
raptim. Cia As OcBciUus has told me that he is sending a servant to Bome, 
I write in a hurry, 

IjItterSs eram datSnu pcatrldid el qui mihi primus obviam vSniBset. 
Cic. I will give the letter to-morrow to the first man that comes my way. 


245. Mood signifies manner. The mood of a verb signifies 
the manner in which the predicate is said of the subject 

There are three moods in Latin : 

1. The Indicative. 

2. The Subjunctive. 

3. The Imperative. 

Rbmabk.— The Infinitive fonn of the verb is generally, bat Improperly, called a mood. 
Thb Indioatiyb Hood. 

246. The Indicative Mood represents the predicate as a 
reality. It is sometimes called the Declarative Mood, as the 
mood of direct assertion. 

The use of the Latin Indicative differs little from the English. 

^^ The beginner may omit the Bemarkfl. 

RsaiARSs.— 1. The Latin language expresses pocHM/i/y andpotrer, obligation and fMCM> 
fity. and abstract relations generally, m facts ; whereas, onr translation often implies the 
failvrt to realize. Such expresffions are : dSbeo, I oughts it is my duty; oportetti^ 6^ 
hooves ; necesie esti it is absolutely necessary; possum, / can, I have it in my power ; 
eonvenit it isJUiing ; pSr, aeqaam est, U is fair; infinltnmi endless; difficile, hard 
to do; Ifm^m.^ tedious ; and the Indicative form of the Passive Periphrastic Oonjuga* 

Possum persequl multa oblectSmenta rfirum rusticSrum. Cic. I might rehearse 
meuty delighls of country life. 

Longum est UtilitfitSs persequl asinOrum. Cic. It toould be tedious to rehearse 
^ r A« us^ul qualities of asses (1 will not do it). 

UCC^^ Ad mortem t§ dfloX oportSbat. Cio. It behooved you to be led to eoBecution (yoa were 
not), you ought to have been led off. 

Yolumnia dSbuit in tS offloiOsior esse, et id ipsum, quod f6cit, pot nit 
ftusere dlUgentius. Cic it was Volumnia's duty tobe {V. ought to have been) more at- 
teniive to you; and the little she did do, she had it in her power to do^ {she might have done) 



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l«J8 suBjuircnyB mood. 

Quae eondleie nOa Molpieiida fnit potivt ^uam pstria relin^atda! Oka 

What tertM ougfu not to have been accepted in prrferenceto Uaxing thy country f 

Hnmihi debuerat cum veriibuB amplius etie. Or. Naught mere ehouid 1 
have had (ere then) to do with verses. 

The Perfect and Pluperfect alwajrs refer to a special case. 
-^ 2, The Imperfect as the Tense of Disappc^ntment Is sometimes used in these verbs to 
denote opposition to a present state of things : dfibSbam, lought (bat do not) ; poterSs* 
yott could (bnt do not). Tliese may be considered as conditionals in dii^^i^se. (See R. 3.) 

Poteram morbOt appellSre, sed nOn convenlret ad omnia. Cio. I might trans-- 
talt (that Greek word) '' diseaeee^** but that toould not suit alt the caaes, (Poteram 8l eon- 

At peter Si, inqnie, meliuB mala ferre lilendS. Or. ^But,^^ you say^ '^you 
could (you do not) bear yo'tr rnttfortunee better by keeping silent.''* (PoterSe 8l silirfif.) 

8. The Indicative is sometimes used in the leading? danse of conditional sentences (the 
Apodosis), thereby implying the certainty of the result, had it not oeen for the intermp- 

The Indicative danse generally precedes, which is sufficient to show the ifaetorical 
character of the concitruction. 

With the Imperfect the action is often really begun : 

LfibSbar longins, nisi m§ retinuissem. Cio. I woe letting myse^ go on {should ham 
let myself go on) ioofar^ Jiad I not checked mysetf. 

OmnInO erat eupenracaa doctrlna, si nStftra eufieeret Quint. TnOnlng 
were wholly superfluous^ did nature sujgHce. 

PraeelSr§ vlcerfimns, nisi Lepidos reeSpisset AntOninm. Cic We had (ehonld 
have) gained a brilliant victory^ had not Lepidus recHved Antony. 

In all these sentences the En«rH»>h idiom requires the Subjunctive, uhich is disguised 
by coiudding with the Indicative in form except in " were." 
y( 4. In general relative exprei^sions, such as the double formations, qnisquis, no matter 

whOy qnotquot. no matter Juyw many^ aud all forms in -ennqne, -ever, the Indicative is 
employed where we may use in En<,'lit>h a Subjunctive or its equivalent : qnisqnis esti 
no matter who heis^be^ may be; qufilecnnqne est, whatever sort qf thing it i«, be, may 
^^. . Qnidquididest, timeO DanaOi et dOna ferentes. Yibo. Whatever it (maw) 
y be, J fear the Danai even when they bring presents. 


247. The Subjunctive Mood represents the predicate as an 
idea, as something merely conceived in the mind (abstracts 
from reality). 

Rbv ARK.— The Latin Subjunctive is often translated into English by the auxUlaiy 

verbs may^ can^ must^ might, could, would^ should. When these verbs have their full 

4* ^signiflcation of possibility and power, obligation and necessity, Xhej are represented in 

"^ lAtin by the corresponding verbs: may, can, might, could, by the forms of posse, to be 

able, licetf it is left free ; will and would, by yellOi to will, to be willing ; must, by dSbOO 

or oportet (of moral obligation), . y necesse est (of absolute obligation). 

NdstrSs injUrifis nee potest nee possit alius nlciscl quam vOs. Lnr. Our wr*mgs 
no other than you has the power or can well have the power to avenge. Here potest gives 
the simple aMrmation, possit, the moral conviction of the spealcer. 

248. The realization of the idea may be in suspmsej^ it 
* may be heyond control The first, or purely Ideal Subjunctive, 

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18 represented by the Present and Perfect Tenses ; the second, 
or Unreal, is represented by the Imperfect and Pluperfect. 

BsxABKs. — 1. The Snbjnnctive, as the name impUee (subjungo, Iwtjom)^ Is largtiy 
need in dependent sen tence9, and will be treated at length in that connection. 

2. The following modiilcatioiig of the abore principles must be carefblly obsenred : 

A. The Romans, in lively dii^coiirse, often represent the nnreal as ideal, that which it 
beyond control as still in suspense. (508, B. S.) 

B. In transfers to the past, the Imperfect represents the Present, and the PInperfeet 
the Perfect Snbinnctive. O^^O.) 

249. Tlie idea may be a view, or a xaish. Hence the diyisiou of the 
Bubjnnctiye into the Potential and the Optatiye. The Potential Subjanc- 
tive is nearer the Indicative, from which it differs in tone ; the Optatiye 
Subjunctive is nearer the Imperative, for which it is often used. 

9* The beginner may omit to 259. 


250. The Potential Subjunctive represents the opinion of the 
speaker as an opinion. The tone varies from vague surmise to 
moral certainty, from **may** and "might" to *'must." The 
negative is the negative of the Indicative nOn. 

The Potential of the Present or Future is the Present or 
Perfect Subjunctive. The verification is in suspense, and so 
future ; the action may be present or future : with Perfect some- 
times past 

Velim, I sTunild wish; ndlim, IsJiould be unwiUing ; malim, / tUtoutd 
prefer ; dicas, yov, tcotUd say ; credas, yov, would believe, yqu rmtst believe ; 
dicat, dizerit aliqnis, some one may undertake to say^ go so far as to say. 

Caedl dlBcipolds minimS velim. Quint. I should by no means like 
pupils to he flogged. 

Tn Platdnem nee nimia valdi unquam neo nimis saepe laudaverls. 
Cic. You earCt pi'aise Plato too much nor too often. 

251. The Mood of the Question is the Mood of the expected 
or anticipated answer (464). Hence the Potential Subjunctive 
is used in questions which serve to convey a negative opinion on 
the part of the speaker. 

Qttls dubitet(= nemo dubitet) q u I n in virtute divitiae sint ? CiO 
Who can doubt that true wealth consists in virtue ? (No one). 

Qnis tulerit Gracch5s de seditione querentes 7 Juv. Wlu: eoM 
\ear ilie Oracchi complaining of rebellion f (No one). 

Apud ezercitnm fderit ? Cic. You were with the armyt 

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262. The Potential of the Past is the Imperfect Subjunctive, 
chiefly in the Ideal Second Person, an imaginary ** you/' 

CrSderSB victSs. Tou would^ might, ha/oe thought them beaten, 

Haud facile deoernerSfi utntai Hannibal imperatdrX an ezerci- 
lul oSriox esset Lrv. 2fbt readily could you have decided whetfier Hannibal 
teas dearer to general or to army, 

MlrarStur qui torn cemeret. Lvr, Any one who saw it then must ha94 
been astonished, 

VeUem, I should have wished; ndUem, I should Mve been unwiShKg ; 
mSUem, I should have preferred (it is too late). 

Question : 

Hcc tantnm beUnm quia nnquam arbitrSretnr ab &i5 imperStdre oon- 
fid posse 7 Cic. Who would, couldy should have Humght that this great waft 
could be brought to a close by one general f 

RniABKS.— 1. The Potential Sabjanctive is sometimes explained by the ellipsis of an 
Ideal or of an Unreal Conditional Protasis. But the free Potential Subjunctive diffen 
flrom an elliptical conditional sentence in the absence of definite ellipsis, and hence of 
definite translation. Compare the first two sentences above with : 

Eum qia palam est adversfirios facile oavendO (si oaveSs) vltSre possls. Cio. 
An open adversary you can readily avoid by caution {if you are cautious). 

Nil ego oontulerim jfLoundO sSnns (= dam sfinns ero) amico. Hon. There is 
naugfU I should compare to an agreeabUfrUnd^ while I am in my sounc^ senses, 

2. The Unreal of the Present and the Ideal of the Past coincide. What is unreal of a 
real pert^on is simply ideal Of an imaginary' person. The Imperfect is used as the teuso 
of Description. 

The Aoristic Perfect Subj. is rarely used as the Ideal of the Post. 

8. The Potential Subjunctive, as a modified form of the Indicative, is often found 
wheie the Indicative would be the regular construction. So after qnanqnam (G07, R. 1). 


253. The Subjunctive is used as an Optative or wishing 

The regular negative is n5. N3n is used chiefly to negative a single 


The Present and Perfect Subjunctive are used w?ien the decision is in 
suspense, no matter how extravagant the wish ; the Imperfect and Plu- 
perfect are used wlien the decision is adverse. The Perfect is rare and old. 

Stet haec urbs. Cic May this city continue to stand/ 
DI faxint = fecerint. The gods grant / 

N§ istuc Juppiter optimus mazimus sSrit (= sXverit)! LiY. May Jupi- 
ter, supremely great and good, suffer it not ! 

264. The Optative Subjunctive frequently takes Utinam, uti* 
nam nd, utinam nOn — in poetry also d, Oh if. 

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Utinam modo oOnfita efficere p o s a im. Cio. Jfay / but have it in n^ 
power to accomplish my endeavors. 

Utinam revlviscat frater ! Gell. Would that my brother would oome te 
lifi again I 

Utinam inserere jocds mSris OBset. Quint. Would that it were U9ua% 
ic introduce jokes! 

Ulud utinam nS vere scrlberem. Cic. Would that wJiat lam wriiiTig 
wefre not true ! 

Utinam suiceptus ndn eisem. Cic. Would I had not been bom ! 

6 mihi praeteritds referat il Jnppiter annds. Vbro. Oif Joh 
were to bring me back the years that are gone by ! 

Rbmarks.^I. Utinam wm originally aq tiitorrogatlve, How^ prayf and belongs 
partly to the potential. ll is an elliptical conditional sentence, which is not intended 
(o have an Apodosis. When the Apodosis comes, it may come in a different form. So In 
the example : Vebo. Aen. vlii. 560, 668. 

2. For tiie wish with adverse decision vellem, mSllenii and nOllem are often nsed 
with Imperf. and Plpf. Subj. 

Vellem adease poitet PanaetiuB. Cio. Would iMt PanaetUu could be present I 

NOllem dlzlBsem. do. Would that 1 had not said it I 

So Talinit nOlim, etc., for the simple wish (546, R. 3). 

255. The Optative Subjunctive is used in asseverations : 

Ita V I V a m at maximSs snmptus facio. Cic. As Ilive^ I am spending 
tery largely (literally, so may Hive as I am maMng very greai outlay). 

256. The Subjunctive is used as an Imperative — 

1. In the First Person, which has no Imperative form: 

Amemiia patriam. Cio. Let us love our country. 

Ne difficilia optSmus. Cic. Let us not desire what is liard to do, 

2. In the Second Person— In the Present chiefly of an imagi- 
nary** you." 

UtSre, you m>ay use it; nS requires, you must not pine for U. 

In the Perfect negatively : 

N§ transienui Hibdrum. Lrv. Do not cross the Ebro, 

3. In the Third Person (regularly) : 

Amet, let him love ; ne amet, let him not love, (See 265.) 

257. The Subjunctive is used as a concessive: 

Sit for. Cic. {Granted tha^ lie be a thief, 

rsoerit, sX ita vis. Cic. {Suppose) he have done it, if you will OitL^eiX so). 

Other examples with ut and nS, see 610. 

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258. The Sabjanctive is used in Questions which expect an 
Imperative answer (oonjonctlvns dfiUberfttlvus). 

Genuine questions are commonly put in the First Person, or 
the representative of the First Person : 

Qtdd faciam ? roger axmerogem? quid deinde rogSbo? Or. WhcU 
$1iaU I do f shaU Ttukorhe asked f what then shall I ask him f 

Magna foit contentio utrum moenibns sS defenderent an obviam 
Irent hostibus. Nbp. Thsre toas a grecU dispute whel^tw Huy s!u>ald defend 
themseltes behind the walls or go to meet the enemy, (Utrum nds d$liexidamua 
an obviam eSmns ?). [Example of Third Person, 429 R. 1.] 

Ehetorical questions (questions which anticipate the answer) 
under this head, are hardly to be distinguished from Potential 

QuQ mS nunc vertam? Undique custddior. Cic. W7ii(7ier sJuiM I 
now turn? Sentinels on every side. 

Quid agerem 7 Cic. Wiat was I to dot (Oomp 266, R. 8.) 

Impebatits Mood. 

259. The Imperative is the mood of the will. It wills that 
the predicate be made a reality. The tone of the Imperative 
varies from stem command to piteous entreaty. It may appear 
as a demand, an order, an exhortation, a permission, a prayer. 

Abl in malam rem. Plaut. Go {to the mischief), and be hanged, 

Oompesce mentem. Hob. Curb your temper, 

DS mihi h5c, mel meum ! Plaut. Oive me this, honey dear! 

260. The Imperative has two forms, known as the First and 
the Second Imperative. The First Imperative has only the 
Second person; the Second Imperative has both Second and 
Third persons. The First Person is represented by the Sub- 

AmSmus patriam. Cic. Let us love our country, 

Rbmark.— Some verbs have only the eecond fonn. This may be due to the slgnifl- 
tation : so scItOi know thou ; mementOi remember thou ; and hab6t5« in the sense of 
bnow^ remember, 

261. The First Imperative looks forward to immediate fulfil* 
ment (Absolute Imperative) : 

Special: Patent portae; proficiscere. Gig. Open stand th% 
paies; depart. 

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General: Jttotitiam cole et pietfttem. Gio. OuUimte juetict 
arid piety. 

262. The Second Imperative looks forward to contingent ful- 
filment (Relative Imperative), and is chiefly used in laws, legal 
documents, maxims, recipes, and the like: 

RSgid imperid duo 8 u n t o, iJiere sIuUl be tioo (officers) with rayed power. 

Consults 9.^'pe\\2intov^thsy ehdUbeeaUedcoTMula. 

NdminX p ar e n t o, they are to obey no one. 

nils salus populX BiiprSma lex e s t o. C|C. To them the welfare of the 
ptople must be the paramount law. 

Rem v5bl8 pr5pdnam : tSs earn penditdte. CiC / wiU propound the 
matter to you ; do you thereupon perpend it, 

Percontat^em f ugitd, nam garmlus Idem est Hob. Avoid yeur 
questioner^ for he is a teU'tale too, 

263. Negative of the Imperative. — The regular negative 
of the Imperative is nd (ndve, nen), which is found with the 
Second Imperative ; with the First Imperative, in poetry only. 

Hominem mortuum in nrbe neve sepellto ndye nrito, thou shalt wA 
hiry nor bum a dead man in the city, 

Impius ne audeto placare ddnis iram dedrum. Cia The impioue man 
must not dare attempt to appease by gifts the anger of iliegods, 

Tu nS cede malls, sed contra audentior ltd. Yebg. Yield not thou to 
misfortunes^ but go more boldly (than ever) to meet them, 

Sbxarx.— NOn may be used to negative a single word. 
A ISgibns nOn recddSmos. Let tu not recede from Qet ue stick to) the laws, 
Opos poliat Uma, n n ezterat Quint. Let the JUe rub the work up, not nib U 

264. Periphrases. — I. Carft nt, take care that; &c at, cause 
that ; &c, do, with the Subjunctive, are common circumlocutions 
for the Positive Imperative. 

OfirS at qiiam primum (317) venias. Cic. Manetge to come a$ eoon 

Fao c5git58. Cia Reflect! 

II. Cav8 n«, leioare lest, and cav8, with the subjunctive, and 
aoll, he umnilling, with the Infinitive, for the Negative Impera- 
tive (Prohibitive). Fac nd is also familiarly used. 

Oavi fettlnSs. Gia Do not be hi a hurry. 

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Tantcun qnum fingis nd sU manifesU oavStO. Ov. OnZjf, vhenfO^ 
vreiend, beware that you be not detected, 

N 5 1 1 yez&re, qoiiscit. Juv. Don't disturb her ; %h£% sleeping. 

265. Representatives of the Imperative. — Instead of 
the Positive Imperative, may be employed : 

1. The Second Person of the Future Indicative ; 

2. The Third Person of the Present Subjunctive: 

Fa oi e g, ut soiam, let me know; 'vl'vSn^live on. 
Quod quis habet dominae conferat omne loae. Ov. Let a man 
give everything t/iat lie has to his lady-love, 

Quaedam cum prima resecentur orlmina barbS. Juv. Let ear- 

iain faults be dipped off with the sprouting beard. 

266. Instead of the Negative Imperative (Prohibitive), may 
be employed : 

The Second Person of the Perfect Subjunctive, with n6. 
The Second Person of the Future, with nOn. 
The "Shird Person of the Present or Perfect Subjunctive, with 

Hdo fiusito, h5o ne feceris. Cio. This do, thai leave undone, 
NQn cessSbis. Cic. Toa must not be idle. 

Puer tSlum n§ habeat. Cic. A boy is not to have a deadly weapon. 
N§ metus quemquam c 3 p e r i t. Liv. Let not fear seize any one, 
Misericordia comm5tus ne sis. Ore. DonU let yourself be moved by pity. 

Remark8.~1. HOn Is often nsed In poetry for n6, and neque, nec for nSve, neu. 

Aut nOn tentfirXi aat perAoe. Ov. MlAer do not try i&t aM)^ or ifsct (jova 

H e 0, 8l quern fallfis, tfL perjflrSre t i m 6 1 0. Ov. Nor If you (shall tiy to) d#. 
edve a man, do you/ear to forswear yours^. 

On the negative nOn with a single word, see 863 R. With the Perfect SabjanctlTe, 
neqne, nihil, nemo, nullus arc freely need, as well as nSve, neu, nSquis, nSquid. 

2. The Present Subjunctive is employed when stress Is laid on the eontinwmoe of thi 
mcWm ; the Perfect, when stress is laid on the completion. Hence in total prohibitions, 
tlie Perfect Snbjanctlve is the favorite furm. 

3. The Imperative of the Pimt Is expressed by the Imperfect and Pluperfect Sabjnno 
8tve (unfulfilled duties). Comp. S58. 

DOtem daritis ; alium quaereret vinun. Tbb. Tou should hms given her a por 
tkm ; she should have sought another maf^h, 

Cr&8 Ires potios, hodiS hlo cinSrSs. ValS. Plaut. You ought rather to have 
put tuff going till to-mon'ow, you ought to (have) dine{dj with us to-day, Oood-bye. Any- 
thing decided is regarded as past. 

N6 popoicIssStit librOs. Cio. Fou ought not to have asked for fks boots. 

267. The Second Person Singular of the Present Subjuno- 

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Ure 18 used both positiyely and negatirely ; but in prose, on! j 
of an imaginary subject {" you'') : 

OcarpodM YXriboa fitSre, dam adgliitj oiim mhaint ni rsqulxis. Cic. 
Bniosyour fdg&r <ff body while you have U; when iti$g<me, you muit not 

268. Passionate questions are equiyalent to a comraancl : 

NdntacSs? warCt you hold your tongue? qnln taoit? why donH you 
hold you tongue t 

Car ii5ii at plSnas vlUe oonvlva reoSdis 7 LucR. Why do you not 
withdraw as a guest sated wWi l(fe t 



2(1 P. Audi, hear thou; aadltd (le^l or contingent); madias (familiar) ; 
andiSs (ideal 2d Person). 

3d P. AadXt5 Qegal), let him Jiear ; aadiat. 

2d P. N5 aadX, hear not (poetic) ; n5 aadltd (legal) ; n5n aadUs (faml- 
fiar) ; n5 aadiSs (ideal) ; n§ aadlveris ; n5ll aadlre. 

3d P. N5 aadttd (legal), let him not hear ; n9 aadiat j n§ aadlverit 

Tensxs or THE Moods xsn» Vkbbal Nouns. 

270. The Indicative alone expresses with uniform directness 
the period of time. 

271. 1. The Present and Imperfect Subjunctive have to do 
with continued action, the Perfect and Pluperfect with completed 
action. The Perfect Subjunctive is also used to express the 

2. In simple sentences Present and Perfect Subjunctive post- 
pone the ascertainment of the Predicate to the Future. The 
action itself may be Present or Future for the Present Subjunc- 
tive; Present Past, or Future for the Perfect Subjunctive. 

OrSdat He may believe (now or liereaftcr). 

Credidexit. Let Mm have Jiad tlie belief (heveiofore), he may 7ia/ce come 
10 i/te belief (now), he may come to the belief (liereaftcr.) 

8. In simple sentences the Imperfect and Pluperfect Subjunc- 


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tive are Past Tenses. The notion of unreality lies in the past 
tense, rather than in the Subjunctive Mood, Compare 246, E. 2. 
4. In dependent sentences the Subjunctiye is future if the 
leading verb has a future signification ; otherwise the Subjuncs* 
tive represents the Indicative. The tense is regulated by tlM 
law of sequence. (See 510.) 

272. The Imperative is necessarily Future. 

273. The Infinitive has two uses : 

1. Its use as a Noun. 

2. Its use as a representative of the Indicative. 

274. 1. As a Noun, the Infinitive has two tenses, Present and 

The Present Infinitive has to do with continued action. It ifl 
the common form of the Infinitive, used as a noun. 

The Perfect Infinitive has to do with completed action, and 
is also used to express attainment. 

The Present Infinitive is used as a subject 

VaMre est vita, Being mil is life. 

The Present Infinitive is used as the object of verbs of crea- 
tion (Auxiliary Verbs, Verbs that help the Infinitive into being). 

MetuI qnam amSrX mSlo, I pr^erheing feared to being hved. 

275. The Perfect Infinitive is comparatively little used as a 

1. As a Subject, it is used chiefly in fixed expressions or in 
marked opposition to the Present 

PlfUi prSderit demonstrSsse rectam prStinus viam qnam re- 
V o o a r e ab errdre Jam lapsSs. Qnnrr. It toiU be more profitable to have 
pointed out the right path immediately than to recall from toandering ihoH 
OkU have already gone astray. 

N5n tain turpe fiiit vin o I qnam oontendisse decSrom est. Or. 
Twos not 80 much dishonor to he beaten as 'tis an honor to have struggled. 

So by a kind of attraction with deouit, became^ oportuit, beihooved^ and 
the like, especially in earlier and late Latin. 

Tone decoit fl e 8 8 e. Lrv. Tltat was tlie time when it would have been 
kseomiTtg to weep (to have wept). 

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8. As an Object, the Perfect Infinitiye is seldom found in the 
acf ire: so after yeOe, to tmh. 

NSminem notS strSnoI ant IgnSvI mllitis notSiM voloL Lit. Iwinhsi 
to hoDe marked {to mark finally) no 9okUer with {he mark of bravery or if 

Otherwise it is found only in the poets (after the fashion of the Gredi 
Aorist Infinitiye) : 

FrStreB tendentSs opScO PSlion imposulsse OlympO. HoK. The 
brotliere striving topHe Pelion on shady Olympus, 

In the Passive, the Perfect Infinitiye is nsed after yerbs of 
Will and Desire, to denote impatience of anything except entire 
falfilment See 537. 

Here the Infinitiye esse is seldom expressed. 

DSmocritnm nSUem (esse) Tituper&tnm. Cic. I should ra;lher not hoM 
hjd Demoeritus abused, 

276. 2. As the representative of the Indicative, the Infinitive 
has all its Tenses : Present, Fast, Future, and Future Periphras- 

277. The Present Infinitiye represents contemporaneous actmi 
—hence the Present Indicative after a Principal Tense, and the 
Imperfect after a Historical Tense: 

Bloo enm venlxe, I say that he is coining ; dlcebam enm venire, 
I said that he was coming. 

The Perfect Infinitive represents Prior Action — hence the 
Perfect and Imperfect Indicative after a Principal Tense: 

Bloc enm venisie, I say that he camcy has come, used to came; 
and the Pluperfect, Imperfect, and Historical Perfect Indicative 
after a Historical Tense : 

Bizl earn veniflBe, / said that lie had come, used to come, did 

RsHABK.~XeminI, Iremember, when oMd of personal experience commonlj taket 
the present 

Turn mS rSgem appelisn S vObIs meminl, nuno tyrannum vooSzX video. Ltr. 
I remember being styled by you a king then, I see that lam called a tyrant now. So aloe 
aemoriS teneo and reeordor, I remember , I recall. When the experience is not per* 
■onal, the ordinary constmction is followed : 

Mamineram Maxium ad infinOniia hominnm miserioordiam oonfOglsia. Cia 
irmembered thai Marius had thrown himedf on the mercy qf a Hi of low ereaiuree. 

The peculiar constnietion with the Freseat arises from the livell leaa of the recoOec^ 

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Una. When the ad ioo is to be regarded as a bygone, the Perfect mi^ be used eTen of 
porsoiial experience' : 

Mi mexninl IrStnm dominaa tnrbSsie eapilUto. Or. I remember inmif an^vr 
ktminff toutled my eweethcarCe hatr. 

278. The Present Participle Active denotes continuance ; the 
Perfect Passive, completion or attainment. 

RsMABK.— The Perfect Participle Is often used where we should employ a Present : 
ratni, tMrMna; ooaplezni, emdradnff; hortStVfi exkortlmff. 

279. The Future Participle (Actire) is a verbal adjective, 
denoting capability and tendency, chiefly employed in the older 
language with sum, / am, as a periphrastic tense. In later Latin 
it is used freely, just as the Present and Perfect Participles, to 
express subordinate relations. 

BuiARK.~Tho so^^led Fntnre Participle Passiro is more properly called the QersB- 
dive, and has already been discossed. (348.) 


280. The sentence may be expanded by the multiplication 
or by the qualification^ A, of the subject, B, of the predicate. 




281. Number: The common predicate of two or more sub- 
jects is put in the plural number : 

Jib et ii^Jtlria nStfirS dijildioantar. Cic. Bight and wrong art 

distinguished by nature. 

Pater et avns mortal sunt Tbr. Father and gran^aiher are dead. 
Exceptions. — 1. Tiie common predicate may agree with a singular 

suhject when that subject is the nearest or the most important : (** My flesh 

and my heart /atZ^t/t," Psa. Ixxiii. 26.) 
AetSs et forma et super omnia R5m3nnm nOmMi tS ferOoiSrem £aclt. 

/iiT. Your youth and beauty^ and^ above all, t?te name of Boman, makes you 

too mettlesome, 

NavSs et praesidium ezoessit. Liv. T/ie fleet and garrison departed, 
2. Two abstracts in combination, when they are conceiyed as a unit, 

take a singular verb : f ' When distress and anguish eometh upon yon,'* 

Prov. i. 27.) 

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R«ligio et fidii anUpSufitur amloitiaa. Cia Let ths rtUgioui chUga^ 

turn of a promUe heprtferrtd tofridndkhip. 

So any close union : (** Your gold and silver U cankered,** Jaa. ▼• 8.) 
SenStcui popnlnsqae RSmSniu intellegit. Cia The tenate and 

people qf Home perceives (= Borne percHtee.) 

Rbxark8.~1. Heqn*— naqiM, iMiMtfr— nor, allowji the Floral chiefly when the Pep- 
Bons are diflbrent : 

Haao neque ego neqne tflfioimnt. Tbb. NeUktryounorl^OdthU. 

8. A singular eubjoct combined with another word by oaa, frUA, is treated aom** 
times as a singolar, sometimes as a plural : 

KSgo earn omnibus fori armStls refllgorat. Lit. iiago wUh dhmo$t att the 
wrmed men had retreated, 

Tanms earn qninqno vaeels tlnO iota fUminis exanlaitX snnt. Lnr. A 
Ml and Jive cows were JOUed by om stroke qf Ughtning. 

282. Gender: When the genders of combined subjects are 
different, the todjecfcive predicate takes either the strongest gen- 
der or the nearest 

In things with life, the masculine gender is the strongest; in 
things without life, the neuter. 

The strongest : 

Pater et m&ter mortal sunt. Ter. Father and mother are dead. 
Murufl et porta de cael5 t a c t a. LiY. WaU and gate had been etruek '% )^ 
by UglUning. 

The nearest: 

O on vie ta est Messallna et ffiUas. Txa Meeealina wae convicted and 
(so was) 8iUu$. 

Hippolochus IiSrissaedrumqae dSditum est praesidium. Lnr. 

mppol&dius and the Larissaean garrison {wei^) surrendered. 

When things with life and things without life are combined, 
the gender varies. 
Both as persons : 

Rez r^giaque clSssis profeoti sunt Lrv. The king and the kinfe 
feet set out. 
Both as things : 

NSturS inimXca sunt libera c^vitSs et rex. Lrv. A free etate and a 
king are natural enemies, 

RsMA]iK.~On the neuter as a predicate see 202, R. 4. 

PSx et Concordia yictis tltilia, yiotOribus tantnm pnlohra rant TAa J^eaet 
mydhannony are veifid (things) to the conquered, to the conquerors akme are theyam9 

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288. [Arsons : When the persons of combined subjects are 
diflTerent, the First Person is preferred to the Second, the Second 
to the Third : 

81 tft et Tullia, Ifiz n5ftra, vaMUs, ego et saS^issimiui Oic«ro vali- 
mni. Cia ^ TyMia^ Ughl <if my dyet, and you are imU, dearest dcero and 

Hmuamkb.^I, The order l»coiaiiiOBlj the order of the pereons, not of aodem poUte- 
Mw : Ego et uxor mea. W\re and L 

9. EzoEPTioN.^In oontraflts, and when each person ia considered fepuatdy, the pred 
Icate agrees with the person of the nearest subject : 

Ego Mntentiuii, tft yerbt dBfendit . lam the champion of the spirit, you oT the 

Et ego et Cieero meut fligitSbit. Cia 3fy Cicero will demand it and (so will) t 

So regularly with dlsjonctirea. On ne^ue^ne^ue* aee 981, B. 1. 

2. Qualification op tub Subject. 

284. The subject may be qualified by giving it an attribute. 
An attribute is that which serves to give a specific character. 

The chief forms of the attribute are: 

I. The adjective and its equivalents : amlcm oertiis, a sure 

II. The substantive in apposition: Cicero Or&tor, Cicero the 

Kbxabk.— The eqniralonts of the adjective are : 1. The prononns hjfei thU^ iUe, 
that^ etc. 9. Sabstantivos denotin<? rank^ age^ trade : senroB hoinOt a daee pereon ; 
homo senex, on old fellow ; homo gladiStor, a gtadiatorfettow ; mulier anoiUa, a 
tervant-weneh. 8. The genitive (357). 4. The ablative (408). 5. Preposition and case : 
ezoesiai i yitS« departure from life. 6. Adverbs chiefly with participial nonns : reetl 
facta, good acUone, 7. Relative clauses (506). 

L Adjective Attribute. 


285. The Adjective Attribute agrees with its substantive, in 
gender, number, and case: 


▼ir sapiens, a wise man, vlrl sapientSs, toise men, 

Mulier pulohra, a beautiful teaman, malierSs pnlchraa, beaftt^. 

Rdginm dSnum, royai gift, rigla dSna, royal ffifts. 

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Via Mpientia, of a wise man, bone fill ! good »on ! 

Mnlierl piilchrae,/{^ a beauiffiU^Doman. rSgiS d5n5, by royal gifL 
Vlmm saplenteiii, ioise man, mulierSi pulchrfti, heamUftU 


286. The common attribute of two or more substantiTet 
agrees with the nearest : 

Omnes agrXetmaria,) „, , 
Agrletmaria omnla,f^«^'*^«»^*««- 

BnABXs.— 1. The Latin lanjcoage ropeatt the common attribute more ft^neotlj 
than theScKlisli : omn is agri et omn i a mariai oB lands and (all) teas, Oenerallj, 
the Latin langoage has a strong tendency to rhetorical repetition. 

1 A common samame is put in the plural : M. et Q* CioerOnBf , Marcus and Qidntus 
Cicero; C, Gn., X. CarbOnte, Gains, Onaeus (and) Marcus Carbo; otherwise, K. Cioere 
•t Q- Cieero, Marcus and Qvintus Cicero. 

287. Position of the Attribute, — When the Attribute is em- 
phatic, it is commonly put before the substantive, ordinarily 
after it 

1. FngitlTiis servns, a runaway slave (one complex). 

2. Senma fagitlTa8,a slate (that is) a runaway (two notions). 
Many expressions, however, have become fixed formulae, such as civia 

BSmSnns, Roman citizen ; popultui RSmSniu, people of Borne, 

Bbxabx.— The-superlatives which denote order and sequence in time and space are 
often used partitively, and then generally precede their substantive : gumma aqaa, the 
twfaee qf the water; siimmai mom, the top <if the tnountain; yfre prImO, prlmO 
?8re, in the tanning qf spring ; in mediS nrbe, in the midst qf the city. So also, re- 
Uqna, eStera Oraeeia, the rest qf Greece, 

288. When the attribute belongs to two or more words, it is 
placed sometimes before them all, sometimes after them all, 
sometimes after the first. 

All lands ajid seas, omnes agrl et maria; agrl et maria om- 
nia; agrI omnes et maria. 

fSF" The beginner may omit to 318. 

Peculuu Forms or thb Adjectivb ATnuBUTB. 

289. The followmg forms of the Adjective Attribute present 
important i)eculiarities. 

1. Demonstrative Pronouns. 

2. Determinative and Ecflexive Pronouns. 

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3 Possessrfe Pronouus. 

4. Indefinite Pronouns. 

5. Numerals. 

6. Comparatiyes and Superlatives 


290. HJc, this (the Demonstrative of the First Person), refeiB 
to that which is nearer the speaker y and may mean : 

1. The speaker himself : hi c homo = ^o. ' 

2. Tbe judges in a suit of law : si ego hSs n5vl, if I know these men 

8. The most important subject immediately in hand : hie sapiens dS 
qa5 loquor, t?iis (imaginary) wise man of whom lam speaking, 

4. That in which the speaker is peculiarly interested : hoc stadium 
this pursuit of mine^ of ours. 

5. That which has just been mentioned: haeo YiJkciewaMy ihese things 
thus far = so much for that, 

C. Very frequently, that which is about to be mentioned : his condl- 
oidnibiu, on the following terms. 

7. The current period of time : h I c diSs, to-day ; h a e c nojc, Hie night 
just past or just coming y hi o mensis, tJie current month, 

291. Iste, that (of thine, of yours), refers to that which belongs 
more peculiarly to the Second Person (Demonstrative of the 
Second Person) : 

Perfer i s t a m mTlitJam. Cic. Endure that mHUary service of yours* 
Adventu ta5 ista subsellia vacnelaota sunt Cic. At your approach 
Vie benches in your neighborhood were vacated, 

RsMARK.— The enpposed contemptuous character of lite arises from the reftisal tt 
take any direct notice of the person under discussion, " the person at whom.** 

292. Hie, that (the Demonstrative of the Third Person), de- 
notes that which is more remote from the speaker, and is often 
used in contrast to Mc, this. 

Heu quantum ha eo NiobS NiobS distSbat ab ilia. Ov. Alas /horn 
far this Niobe differed from tJiat Niobe, 

nie may mean : 

1. That which has been previously mentioned (often ilia qnidem): 
I llu d quod initid vSbls prSposuI, that which I propounded to you at first, 

8. That which is well known, notorious (often put after the substantive): 

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iMtnla ilia, that (notorioui}) paUherd = inMHtuUon &f OMtradim ; i 1 1 n Jl 
Boldnis, that (famons saying) cf SoUnCs, 

3. That which is to be recalled : ill n d impiimli mXrSbile, that (which 
I am ji^oing to remind you of) u upedaUy wmderfuL 

4. Tliat which is expected : 

Ilia diss veniet mea quft liigabria p5nam. Or. Tlie day will eofM 
wHicn I shall lay aside (cease) my mournful strains, 

Ri ifA R gB.— 1. HIo and ille are used together In contrasts : as, ths latter—the farmer^ 
theformeir-the latter. 

When both are matters of indifference the natural signification is observed: hlOi the 
latter ;mB, the former. 

IgnSvia eorpiui hebetati labor firmat ; i 1 1 a mSttiraiL seneetfLtem, h I o long- 
am aduleseentiaiii roddit. Cbls. Laziness weakens the body^ ttHt strengthens it; the one 
(the former) hastens old age, the other (the latter) prolongs youth. 

When the former is the more important, hio is the former, ille the latter: 

Xelior tlltiorque est certa pSx quam spOrSta viotOria ; h a e cin nOstrS, ilia 
in deOmm manU est Lnr. Better and sttfer is certain peace than hoped/or victory ; the 
former is in our handis), the latter in the handis) of the gods. 

2. Hlc et ille ; ille et ille ; ille aut ille, thlsmanand (or) that man = one or two, 

VOn dieam h 9c signum ablStom esse et i 1 In d ; hSe dloo, nullum 16 ■ignnm 
rellqnisse. Oio. I will not say that this status was taken pff and that ; (what) J say (is) 
thiSy that you l^ no statue at all. 

' 8. The derived adverbs retain the personal relations of hid iste« ille : hic, hers 
(where I am) ; Ydnt, hence (from where I am) ; hllCt hither (where I am) ; istlc, there 
(where yon are) ; ilUc* there (where be is), etc 

4. The Demonstrative Pronouns hic, iste, ille, and the Determinative ii, are often 
strengthened by qnidem, indeed. The sentence often requires that cither the demon* 
stntive or the particle be left untranslated. 

Optfire hVeqnidem est, nOn docflre. Cio. That is a (pious) wish, not a (logical) 

Nihil perfertnr ad n9s praeter rflmOrM tatii istOsqnidem eonstanM 
Md adhUc line anctOre. (?ic. Nothing is brought to us except reports, quite consistent^ U 
is true but thus far na authoritative, 


203. Is, that, is the detenniiiative pronoun, and the regular 
antecedent of the relative. 

Mihi obviam vSnit tons paer j is mihi UtUris aba tS reddidit. Cia 

i ioas met by your servant ; he delivered to me a letter fr^m you, 

la minims eget moxtSlia qnl minimimi cnpit. Stbus. That mortal 
it in want of leasts who wanteth least, 

Ilx]iABKs.~l. m as the antecedent of the relative, is often oiiitted, chiefly in the 
nominative, more rarely in an oblique case. 

Bis dat qnl dto dat Puoy. He gives twice who gives in a trice. 

ft, la, with a copulative or adversative particle, is used as A« or that in English, for the 
peipose of emphasis. Such expressions are : et is, atque if iique, and he too, and thai 


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too; neque it, 0t if nOn, and hi mt^ and that not ; sed if, hut he^ further strengtbesed 
by qaidenit indeed. 

Ezempla quaerimoi e t e a nOn antXqna. Cic. We are looking for examples^ and 
thoee, foo^ not of ancient date, 

EpioHnu tins in domO et eS quldem angoitS qnam magnOi tennit ami- 
eOruin g^egSs. Cio. What ehoal8(^fHendeI^fficurui had in one hoiue^ and that a pinched- 
up one / 

8. Is does not represent a nonn before a Genitive, m in the English that qf. In Latin 
the nonn is omitted, or repeated, or a word of like meaning substituted. 

VOn JtldieiO ditdpulOmin dle«re d0bet magiiter Md ditdpnll magistrl. 
Quint. The master ienot to epeak according to the Judgment qf thepupUe^ but thepigMs 
according to that qf the master, 

Vulla eft oeleritSs quae ponit oum anind oeleritste contendere. Cia Then 
le no speed that can possibly vie with that qf the mind, 

X. Coelint tribunal snnm jnztS C. TribOnI siUam eoUocSvit. C^xs. Motcm 
OoeUus placed his chair qf qffUse next to that qf Oakts TrOonius. 

Of course Hie* IUe« and lite can bo used with the Genitive i« their proper sense. 

294. Reflexive : Akin to is is the Reflexiye Pronoun sol, 
sibi, b6. Instead of the Genitives ejus, eOnim, eftrnin, eOmm, the 
Possessive of the Eeflexive, mraSy sua, muim, is employed when 
reference is made to the subject of the sentence : 

Alexander moriens Snulnm ■nam dederat Perdiocae. Nep. AiM^ 
ander (when) dying had given 1m ring to PerdiccM* 

Quod quia habet dominae oonferat onrne suae. Or. (265 .) 

On the other hand : 

Deum agnSsois ez operibos 5 J a a. Ood you recognize by his toorks. 

The same principle applies to the other cases of is and of 
the Reflexive. Hence the general rule : 

295. The forms of the Reflexive Pronoun are used when 
reference is made to the subject of the sentence. 

Ipse 8 5 qoisque ^ligit Cio. Eoeryhoiy loves himself, 

Rexarks.— 1. Suoit when used in an emphatic sense (own, peeufHar^ proper\ inajr 
refer to another case than that of the snbject : 

Hannibalem sul elvSs i elvitSto SjScSmiit. Cia BannHbaFs own countrymen 
etiled him, 

JiUtitia s u u m culqae distribuit. Cio. Justice gives each man that is Ms own s 
his due, 

Inque ■ u s yolul c5gere verba pedSi . Or. And I wished to force the words inU 
their proper feet (places in the verse). 

Sn5 tempore, at the proper^ JUting time. So suO looO : 

COmoediae qaem lUum in paerls putem s u loc5 dlcam. Qunrr What 1 
consider to be the good qf comedy in the case qf boys ItoiU mention in the proper place. 

3. In dependent clauses the reflexive is used with reference either to the principal or 
to fbo subordinate subject See for fuller treatment 621 

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DisTiNcrriyK pbonoun. 155 

896. Uem, the same, serves to unite two or more attributes or 
predicates on a person or thing. 

Idem is often to be translated by at the same time ; likewisef 
also; yet, notwithstanding. 

Oim5n inoidit in ea n d em invidiam qoam pater goas. Nkf. (Xmon 
fell into the same odium as his father, 

Quidqnid honestum est idem est fitile. Cic. WJiateoer is honorahU 
M also (at the same tune) useful 

Nil pr5dest quod n5n laedere possit idem. Or. Nothing luUps thai 
may not Uketoise hurt. 

Bpicnrus, qunm optimam et praestantissimam nStOram del dioat ease, 
negat Idem esse in de5 gratiam. Oic. Although Epicurus says that the 
nature of ,Ood is transcendency good and great, yet (at the same time) he says 
that there is no sense of favor in God. 

Difficilis facilis, Jucundus acerbus, es Idem. Mart. Crabbed (and) 
kindly, sweet (and) sour, are you at once, 

KncABKB.—!. The same Ofin ezpreflted by Idem with qui, with atque or ae* with nt, 
with earn, and poetically with the Dative : 

SerrX mOrihos ilsdem erant quibas dominos. Cic The servants had the sams 
eharaeter as the master. 

Est animos ergS te Id em a o fait Teb. Her feelings toward you are the same <u 
they were, 

DispntStiOnem ezp5nimiu ilsdem ferS yerbis vt &ctum dispvtStomque 
est. Cio. We are setting forth the discitssion in very much the same words in which U 
was actually carried on. 

Tibi mSoumineOdem pistrInO ylTendam. Cia You have to live in the same 
treadmill with me. 

Invltom qui serrat idem faoit oooldentl. Hob. Be who saves a man{'B life) 
figainsthis wUl^ does the same thing as one who kills him (as if he killed him). 

3. Idem cannot be used with is, of which it is only a stronger form (is-fr-dem). 

297. Ipse, self, is the distinctive pronoun, and separates a 
subject or an object from all others : 

Ipse Ua, I myself did it and none other, I alone dui it, I did it of my own 
record, I am the very man that did it. 

Nunc ip s um, a^ tJiis very instant, at this precise moment 

OonSn n5n quaeslvit ubi ipse tut5 viveret, sed unde praesldid 
•see posset dvibos suls. Nep. Gonon did not seek a place to live in safely 
himself, but a place from which lie could be of assistance to his countrymen, 

ValTaesabit5 s9 ipsae aperaerunt. Oic. The folding-doors suddenly 
opened of their own accord, 

Oato mortaus est annis oot5gintS sex ipsis ante CKoerSnem c5n* 
iQlem. CiO. Coito died just eighty-six yean btfore Gieero^s consulship. 

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Rbji ABK8.— 1. Owing to this distinctive character, ipie is often a9ed of pcnjru \m 
opposition to things; riders in opposition to horses; inhabitants in opposition to the 
towns which they inhabit ; the master of the house iu opposition to his household, 
Eo quo mS i p 8 a mliit. Plaut. i am going where mistress sent me, 
ft. £t ipiet liketcise^ as weU^ is used when a new subject talces an old predicate : 
Yirttltfia et ipsae taedium pariunt niii grStiS varietstis adjtltae. QfuiMT. 
Virtues likewise (as well as faults) produce weariness unless they arefianored with varUiif. 
CamiUiif ex Yolsels in AafitOt trtniiit e t i p sOs belliim mOlientSi. Lit. 
Oamillus went across from the VoUdans to the Aeguians^ who were likewise (as well as tht 
Volscians) getting tip war, 

298. Ipse is used to lay stress on the reflexive relation ; in the 
Nominative when the subject is emphatic, in the Oblique CaseiJ 
when the object is emphatic. 

85 ipse laudat, lie (and not another) praises himself, 

Se i p 8 a m laudat, he praises himseff (and not anotlier). 

Piger ipse sibi obatat. Pbov. The lazy man stands in his own way, 
is his own obstacle, 

N5n egeo medicdni \ m§ ipse consdlor. Cic. I do not need medicine ; 
I comfort myself (L am my only comforter). 

Omnibug potius quam 1 p s 1 8 nSbln consiiliiimiui, we have consulted (he 
interest of all rather than our own. 

Exceptions are common : 

Qulque alils cSvit ndn cavet i p 8 e sibL Ov. And he who took pre* 
eavtionsfor ot7iei*s takes none for himself 


299, The Possessive Pronouns are more rarely used in Latin 
than in English, and chiefly for the pui'pose of contrast or clear- 

Manns lavS et cSnS. Oic. Wash (your) hands and dine, 
Praedia mea tu possidSs, ego aliSnS miaerioordiS vivo. Oia 
You are in possession of my estates^ (while) Hive on the charity of others, 

Rbxabk.— Obserye the intense nse of the Possessive in the sense of property jmchM- 
arity^Jitness: nvLJum b nn ti to belong to one'sse^^ to be one'' sown man. 

Tempore t a pag^Sstl. Lnr. You have fought at your own time (= when yon 

Ego annO m e con8iil factus sum. <^zo. I was made consul in my own year (a 
the first year in which I coald be made consul). 

Pugna suuiii finem quom jacethoetis habet. Or. AJlght has rsmihed its Jit 
aid when the foe is down. 

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SOQl ftaldam means ojie, a, a certain one (definite or indefiiuta 
h> the speaker, not definitely designated to the hearer): qul- 
dam rhetor, a certain rhetorician. 

In the plural, it is equivalent to some^ sundry, without emphasis, 

Qnldain is often used with or without quad, as if, to modify 
an expression : 

Zist quaedam virtutum ▼itiSmmque Tlclnia. Quint. There i$ a eer 
tain neigliborly relaUon between virtues and vices, 

N5n sunt istX audiendl qui vlrtatem d^am et quasi ferream 
quandam esse volant. Cic. TJvose friends of yours are not to be lis^ 
tened to wito wHl luive it (uiaiataiii) that virtue is Jiard, and as it were made 
iff iron, 

301. Aliqxds (aliqnl), means, some one (wholly indefinite), 
some one or other: ftdt hoc aliqnis tul siiiiilis, soms one or 
other like yoit did this; aliqul Bcrtlpus, some scruph or other. 

In the predicate it is emphatic (by Litotes, 448, R. 2) : sum all quia, 
aliqaid,iam somebody = a person of importance^ something = of some 
loeiglUt opposed to : nuUus sum, nihil sum, lama nobody ^ nothing. 

Bst a 1 i q ui d fSXSlo malum per verba levSre. Ov. It is something to 
relieve the fated misfortune by words, 

302. Qnis (qui), fainter than aliquis, is used chiefly in relatire 
sentences and after qtmm,when, si, if, ne, lest, num, whether, qnO 
the . . • 400. 

N S quid nimis I ^nothing in excess ! 

SI qua volet regnare diu, dSludat amantem. Ov. (234, R. 2l ) 

Quod quia habet dominae conferat omne suae. O y. (265.) 

Rbmabk.— Aliquis is used after sl« and the rest when there is stress : si quis, if 
any; si aUqvis, iS^some, 

81 aliqnid dandum est yoluptStl, modicis oonvlvils seneotfls dSleetfirl potest 
Cic. If fomethlng is to be given to pleasure (as something or other mast), old age can take 
adighi in mild festivities, 81 quid, if anything ; si qnidqnam, if anything at aU. 

When used with negatives, the negative itself is commonly negatived: YerrSS 
Rlliil unquamlBcit sine aliqaO qaaestU. Cia (448.) 

303. Qnispiam is rarer than aliquis, bnt not to be distin* 
gnished from it, except that qnispiam never intimat^es impor- 
tance. IMxerit qnispiam, some one f nay say. 

804. Qoisqnam and nlhis (adjective) mean miy one (at all), 

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158 iKDEPiNm; pronouns. 

and are used chiefly in negative sentences, in sentences that 
imply total negation, and in sweeping conditions: 

JfUtitianiinqaamnooetoalqaam. Cic. JusHee never Jiuris anybody. 

Qoifl nnqoam Gra«c5rain rhStorum S Thiloydide quldqaam 
dwdt? Cic. What Greek rhetorician ever drew anything from Thueydidesf 

Blqaisquami iUe sapiens fuit. Cic. ^ any one at all (was) wise, lie teas. 

Bst ulla rds tantli ut vlrl bonl et splenddrem et ndmen fimittSa? 
(Jic. Is anyViing of such importance as thai you should lose (for its sake) the 
splendid title of a good man t 

The negative of qoisqpiain is nfimo, nohody ; nihil, nothing (105). 
Nemo, however, is sometimes used as an adjective : 

N5mo disoipiiliMi, no scholar. 

The negative of ulku is nuUtu, 710, npne^ wUicli is aiSo used regulariy as 
a substantive in the Genitive and Ablative instead of nSminis and nSmlne. 

Rbmabks.— 1. On naqae qnisqiiam and et nSmo, Me 483. 

2. NuUns Ib used in familiar langnage instead of nOn (so sometimes in Bngiiih): 
Fhilippos nnllus usquam. Lit. No Philip anywhere. 

305. Quisque (from quisquis) means eacJi one. 

IiaudStl sunt omnSs d5nStIque prd meritd q a i s q a e . Lrv. All wer4 
praised and rewarded, each one according to his desert. 
Quam quisque n5rit artem in hSo se ezerceat. (618.) 

With superlatives and ordinals quisque is loosely translated 
every : 

Optimum quidque rSrissimnm est Cic. Boery good thing is rare, 
more accurately, T/ie better a t/ung, the rarer it is. (645, R 2.) 

Quints qudque ann5 Sicilia t5ta censStur. Cic. Every fiflh year aU 
Sicily is assessed, 

Prlm5 qu5que tempore, T7ie sooner the better, as soon as possible. 

Rbmabke.— 1. Qoisque is commonly postpositiTe, almost invariably after the reflex- 
ive : i^e s6 q a i s q a 6 diUgit (^S) ; saam onlque (295, R. 1), except when the reflex- 
ive is especially emphatic 

8. N?^lsbach^8 formulae : 

a. NOn omnia omnibus tribuenda sant, sed luna oulqne ; 

b. OmnSs idem faoinnt sed optimus quisque optimS ; 

- c. NOn omnibus an;nIshoo lit sed tertiOquOque anno; 
d. NOn omnOs idem flaoiunt, sed quod quisque vult 

306. Alter and alius are both translated other, anavker, but 
alter refers to one of two, alius to diversity. 

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8AI118 ant ovm.tilt9r^^ alone aneith (only) one otA^ ; alter Naro^ 
a second Nero. 

Alter alterum quaerlt, one (definite person) seeks the other (definite 
person); alius alium qpaLOxit^ one seeks one^ another another; alterl-* 
alterl, one party — another party (already defined) ; altt— aliX, some— others. 
Alter often means neighbor^ brotJier, feiUow-man ; alios, Hiird person. 


AgSsiUliiB claudus fiiit alter 5 pede. Nbf. AgesUaus was lame of one 

Altera mann fert lapideni| plmem ostentat alterS. Plaut. In 
one hand a stone he carries^ in tfie other holds out bread. 

Mors nee ad vlv5s pertinet nee ad mortnSs : alterl nnlU (804, R 2) 
■ant, alterSs n5n attinget. Oic. Deaih concerns neither theUtingnor 
the dead : Vie latter are not, the former it uiU not reach. 


FallScia alia aliam trndit. Ter. One lie treads on the heels of another 
(indefinite series). 

Blvitias alti praepdnunt, alii honSrSs. Cic. Some prtfer riches, others 

Alind alH nStfira iter ostendit. Sall. Nature shows one path to one 
man, another path to another man. 

Alter and alins: 

Ab a 115 ezpectSs alter! qnod fSceris. Sybus. Tou may look for 
from ariother what you'te done unto your brother (from No. 8, what No. 1 
has done to No. 2). 


307. Duo means simply ttoo, ambo, loth (two consideied to- 
gether), nterqne, either (two considered apart, as, " They cruci- 
fied two others with him, on either side one," John xix. 18) : 

SnppUcStio ambdrnm nSmine et triumphns ntrlqne ddorStoi 
est. Lrv. A thanksgiving in tJie name of both and a triumph to either (ea^h 
ef the two) was decreed, 

Rbmabk.— TJterqne is seldom plaral, except of sets : 

TTtrlqae [plibis faatOrM et senStus] viotOriam crftdSliter exeroSbant Sall. 
Mither party (democrats aod senate) made a cruel use qf victory, 

D a a e faSrunt Ariovisti nz5r68 : atraeque ineS fdgS perienmt Cam. 
driovietus^s wives toere two in number; both perished on tTiatJtight, 

On aterqne with the Genitive, see 870 R. S. 

308. MiUe, a thousand, is in the Singular an indeclinable Adjective, 
and is less frequently used with the Genitive : mille mllitSs, rather than 
mille mllitnm, a thousand sMiers; in the Plural it is a declinable Substan- 
tive, and must have the Genitive : dno mllia mllitnm, two thousand(s of) 
sokUers ^ two regiments of soldiers. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 

8500 cavalry^ 


But if a smaller number comes between, the notm follows the smaller 
numbci : 

' tria milia qningentl eqnitSs, 
tria mIlia aqnitam et quingentl, but 
•qnitSs tria mIlia quingantX, or 
aquitom tria mllia qningentL 

309. The ordinals are used for the cardinala with a careless- 
ness which gives rise to ambiguity: 

Qnattaor annl sunt, \ ex qu5 ti n5n irXdl, 

It is four years^ > ihcU I hate not seen you {since I saw you). 
Quartus annus est, / 
It is the fourth year (four years, going on four years). 

Rexark.— To avoid this amUgoity ineeptus, begun, and exMctuB^Jlnkhfd, seem to 
tiave been nsed. Qkllius, N. A. iii. 16. 

310. The distributives are used with an exactness which is 
foreign to our idiom wherever repetition is involved, as in the 
multiplication table. 

With singuU either cardinal or distributive may be used. 

AntSnius [poUicitus est] dinSrit^s quingends (or qningentSs) singulis 
mllitibns datnmm. Cic. Antonius promised to give 500 denarii to eaeh solr 

Scriptnm ecnlenm cum qui n que pedibns, pullds galllnSceSs trSs 
cum temis pedibns nStSs esse. Lrv. A letter was written to say thai a coU 
liad been foaled with five feet (and) Hiree chickens hatcJud with three fset 

Oarmen ab ter novenis virginibus cani JuasSmnt. Liv. They or* 
dered a chant to he sung by thrice nine virgins, 

Rbxark.— Tlio poets often use tlie distributive where the cardinal would be the 
rale, and the cardinals aie sometimes foaud even in prose, where we should expeet the 
distributives. BInl is not iin frequently nsed of a pair : BInX soyphl, a pair qf' OfM. 
On the distributives with PlUrfilia tantum, see 95, R. 3. 


31 1. Comparative. — The comparative degree generally tak«si 
a term of comparison either with qnam, than, or in the Ablative: 

XgnSrStio fntnrSmm malSrum ntilior est q u a m soientia. CiC Igno* 
ranee of future evils is better than knowledge (of them). 

Tnllns Hostllins ferdcior etiam R5 m n 1 5 fuit LiY. TuUus HostHiiiM 
was even more mettlesome than Romulus. 

Rbiiarks.— 1. The Ablative is nsed only when the word with qnam would stand in 
the Nom. or Ace. 

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COMPARATirBfl. 161 

Cmmt minor eit]J^^^*^J^''*^} Ca^tarU yoimger than Tmpey. 

° I Pompl^Of ' 


GaMurl magii &v6miu quam PompfjO, wefofoor Cauar mart than Fompey (MTX 

2. llie Ablative is very common in nc^gatlve tentenccf, and in iiMd exdoiivel/ U 
nrgative relative sentences. 

irOn adeO oecidi quamvlB dSjectus ut infrS t6 quoque lim, Inferini quO nihil 
3sse potest Ov. l have not fallen eo/ar, however east down^ as to be lower than you. 
Hum whom nothing can be loto^r, 

h Measore of differcuce is pot in the ablative, 400. 

4 Quasi is often omitted after plfUk amplins, more, and minns, lest, and the like, 
without aflfectinj^ the construction. 

Hominl misorS plfls qningent5i eolaphSs infrSgit mihL Ter. Be has dealt hm, 
hiciless creature, more than Jtve hundred crustdng boxes on the ear. 

Spatinm est nOn ampUns pednm sexeentOnun* Cass. The space Is not mnre than 
iqf) six himdred feet. 

More than thirty years o!d : 1. NStns pltU (qnam) trIgintS annSs. 
2. NStns plus trIglntS annis (rare). 
8. MQor (qnam) triginta annOs nfttns. 

4. Mfiljor trigintfi annIs (sStns). 

5. Mi^jor trigintft annOmm. 

Pallls nOn IStior pedibns qninqnSgintfi. Cass. A swamp not broader thanjl/t§ 
fed (or pedSs qninqnSgintft). 

ft. On the combination of the comparative with opIniSnOt opinion, spBi hope, and the 

C Atqne for qnam is poetical. 

812. Standard of Comparison oinUted.—Vfhen the standard 
of comparison is omitted, it is supplied: 1. By the context; 
2. By the usual or proper standard ; 3. By the opposite. 

1. By the context: 

Solent rSgSs PersSnim pin r e s uz9r$s habSre. Cic. 27ie Hngi €f 
Persia umady hate more wives [than one]. 

2. By the proper standard: 

Senectus est natnrS loqoSoior. Cic. Old age is naiuraUy rather (or <a0) 

3. By the opposite : 

Sed melius nSscIsse fait Ov. But it had been better not to hoM knawii 
l*liAn to have known), ignorance had been bUss» 

813. Disproportion. — ^Disproportion is expressed by the com- 
parative with qnam pro, than for^ and the -Ablative, or with nt, 
thatf or qui, w/io, and the subjunctive: 

Minor caedSs qnam pr5 tanta vict5rift fait Lrv. T!u loss wu 
{too) smaUfor so great a victory. 

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Mftjor sum quam ut mancipiuin lim mel ooxporifi. Sen. I am 
too ffreat to be the slate of my body, 

MSJor snm quam cul i>os8it Fortuna nocdre. Ov. lam too great 

for Fortune possibly to hurt me. 

814, Two Qualities compared. — When two qualities of the 
same substantive are compared^ we find either magis and quam 
with the positive, or a double comparative : 

Celer tuus disertus magis est quam sapiens. Cic. Tour (friend) 
Celer is eloquent rather than wise — more eloquent fJian wise, 

PaullI cOntio fiiit virior quam grStior populd. Lit. PauUui^s 
speech was more true than agreeable to tlie people. 

Remark.— There is no distinctioa to \\e made between the two expressions. In the 
litter turn, mainly post-Ciceronian, the second comparatlye is merely attracted into the 
same form as the first The same mlc applies to the adverb : fortius quam fUleiuSt 
with more bravery than good luck, 

315. Restriction to the Comparative. — When but two objects 
are compared, the comparative exhausts the degi*ees of com- 
parison, whereas, in English, the superlative is employed, unless 
the idea of duality is emphatic. 

NStu major, (he eldest (of two), Uu elder; natfi minor, t^ young^ 
est^ t/ie younger. 

Prior, tlie first ; posterior, the last, 

PosteriSrSs cSgitStiSnSs, ut ^unt, sapientiSres sclent esse. CiC. Afteft* 
thoughts^ as the saying is, are usually the wisest. 

Rbmark.— The same rale applies to the interrogatiye uter, tohichqftwof (whether f) : 

Quaeritur : ex duObus uterdignior;ez pltLribus, quis dignissimus. Qunrr. 
The question is: Of ttoo^ which is the worthier ; of more (than two), wMeh is the worihUsL 
Exceptions are rare. 

316. Sttperlative. — The Latin superlative is often to bo ren- 
dered by the EngHsh positive, especially of persons: 

Quintus Fabius M a z i m u s , Quintus Fabius the Great, 

Tam fSlIz essSs quam formdsissima Tellom. Ot. Would thou 

wert fortunate as (thou art) /a/r. 

Majdm6 impetu, m^5re fortunS. Liv. With great vigor with greater 

317. Superlative strenr/thened. — The superlative is strength- 
ened by longfi, by far; multo, mtich; vel, even; llniis, nniia 

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Apposmoir. 163 

omiiiiifliy ojie above all others; qnam, qiiantni— potdt, a#— ^m 


JEbc Britannia omnibiu longS sunt humSniiiimX qui OanUum incoltml. 
Cab& €f aU tlie BriUms by far the most cuUiwUsd are thou that inhabU 

PrdtagoHU sophittSs illlB traapoxibns ▼ e 1 maadmna. Cic. Proiagom 
nw, (he very greaieet sophist (= professor of wisdom) in those times, 

Urbem unam mihi amToiiiiriinam dScUnSvI. Cia / turned aside from 
a eUy above aU others friendly to me. 

Caeaar qnam aeqnisaimS loo5 i>oteat eaatra oommfinlt Cae9. Oaeear 
fortijies a camp in m favorable a position as possible, 

Rx]iAiiK.~Qiiam aeqniiiimni loeui » tarn aequni quam aequiiiimui. For 
other expreMionfi, eee 645, B. 6. 

318. By apposition one substantive is placed by the side of 
another, which contains it : 

Oicero 5rStor, Gieero the orator. 
RhSnua flymen, the river Bhine, 


819. The word in apposition agrees with the principal word 
in case, and as far as it can iu gender and number: 

Nom. HSrodotna pater hiatoriae, Herodotus the fatlier of history ; 
Qen. HSrodotI patria hiatoriae : D. Hdrodot5 patrl hiatoriae. 

Aeatna ezSaor mnr5nam. LucB. Tide ilie devourer of tooMs. 

At h S n a e omnium doctrlnanun in v entrlcda. Cic. Athens t?ie in- 
nntor qf all branches of learning. (See 202.) 

Bbk ABK8.— 1. Tbo predicate Fomeiimes agrees with the word io appoBitlon, especii% 
la names of towiif$ : Corioll oppidom captum eit. Lit. Corioli-Unffn was taken. 

Otherwise regularly : 

Pomp^jjna, nSstrl amSrSa, ipae aS afflizit Cic. Pompey, our bosom 
friend, has floored himself. 

8. The Possessive Pronoun takes the Oeultivc in apposition : 

TuuiB| hominia aimplicia, peotoa vidimus. Cic. We have seenyouf 
hosom bared, you open-hearted creature ! 

Urba meS unlua operS aalva fulL Cic. The city was sa/eed by my exer- 
Hons alone. 

320. Partitive Apposition. — ^Partitive Apposition is thai 
form of Apposition in which a part is taken out of the whole: 

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OAUra multitfido sorte decimiiB quisque ad BUpplioJntti 
lectl sunt Liv. (Of) Vie rest of tite crowd every tenth man was chosen bjf lot 
for punishment, (Sometimes called Restrictive Apposition.) 

321. Distributive Apposition, — Distributive Apposition 13 
that form of Apposition in which the whole is subdivided into 
its parts, chiefly with alter — alter, the one — the other; qaiaque, 
each one; alii— ftlil, some — otliers. (Often called Partitive.) 

Doaeflliae altera ocdsa altera capta est. GAsa (OT) tu>9 
daughters^ tIte one was killed, the other captured, 

Rbmakk.— The Partitive GcuftiTe is more commonly employed than either of thean 
forms of apposition. 

322. Mihi nffmen est Instead of the apposition with 
no men, name, the name of the person is more frequently at- 
tracted into the Dative. 

,j. . ^. ( 1. Blihi OioeronI ndmen est : more common. 

Ml/ name is Cicero, ] ^ ^^^^, ^ _ . _* 1 

(2. MUii n5men O i c e r o est ; less common. 

N5men Arotord est mihL Plaut. My name is Arcturus, 

Tibi ndmen insSnS ixMoSre. Hon. TJiey called you '* cracked," 

SamnltSs Maleventum, cnl nunc nrU Beneventum n5men eat, perlft- 

gSrunt. Lrv. The Samnites fled to Maleventum (Ucome), a city wJiieh iUno 

hears the name Benefoentum (Welcome). 
Remark.— The genitive is rare : 
MeteUO cognomen Macedonielinditiuii est. Vbll. M.vHuturnamedMaeedonieus. 

323. Apposition to a Sentence. — Sometimes an accusative 
stands in apposition to a whole preceding sentence : 

Admoneor ut aUquid etiam dS sepnltura dlcenduooi eidbtimem, rem 

n 5 n d i f f 1 c i 1 e m. Cic. / am reminded to take into consideration VuU 
sometMng is to he said about burial also — an easy matter, 

Rexark.— This accusative may follow a Passive or Neater verb as the object effecied. 
Othen regard such Neat Aceasatives as Nominatives. 



324. Any case may be attended by the same case in Predica- 
tive Attribution or Apposition, which differ from the ordinary 
Attribution or Apposition in translation only. 

KomKATiVR : Fllius aegrOtos rediit. 

Ordinary Attribution : The sick son returned. 

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Fredicatire Attribution : The mn returned siek = he was tick when he 
Heronles Juvenis le5nem interlScit. 
Ordinary Apposition : The young man Eereulee dew a lion. 

Predicative Apposition : Herculee, when a young man, alew a Hon s 

he was a young man when lie dew a Uon 

0SHiTrnB: PotaiUB ejus adhibendae uxOrifi Ihepermisdan io take her 

to wife, 
Datttb: AmIo5 tIvO nOn subTSnlst^ Tou did not hdp your friend 

(wliile he was) cUive. 
AccuaATiVB : HeroulSs cervam vivam oSpit 

Ordinary Attribution : Hercules caught a living doe. 
Predicative Attribution : Hercules eaugJU a doe alive. 
Ablatiyb : Aere ntuntnr importSt0, TJiey use imported copper = the 
topper which Hiey use is imported. 

RucARKs.— 1. The vocative, not beiog « case proper, Is not used predicative!/. Ex- 
ceptions are apparent or poetical. 

Qii5, moritHre, mil ! Vebo. '* }VhUAerdoe( thou rush to dUr^WkUherdoHtkou 
ruth, thou doomed to disf 

Notice here the old phrase : 

llacte Tirttlte ettO- Vkbg. Increase in virtue = Heaven speed thee in thy high career. 

liaote is regarded by some as an old vocative, from the same stem as magnna ; b/ 
others as an adverb. 

^ TietOrfia rediflrunt may mean, the conquerors returned, or thctj returned conquet- 
ore; and a similar predicative use is to be noticed in Idem* the same, 

Ildam abeont qui vinerant* Ihey go away Just as they had come Oitcrally, ths sams 
persons as they had come). 

8l Predicative Attrlbation and Apposition are often to be tnmcd ioto an abstract 

Ego nOn eadem toIo lanez, quae puer volul, I do not wish the sams things {as an 
Ud mani in my old age, that /wished (as a boy) in my boyhood. 

So with prepositions : 

Ante CicerSnem oOninlem, btfors the consulship qf Cficero ; ante orbem oonditam. 

4. Do not confoond the ^ as " of apposition with the ** as" of comparison~ati qua* 
li, tanqnam. (645, B. 4). 

Cieero ea quae nuiie tUH veniunt cecinit ut vfttfle- Nkp. dceroforetold all that 
^ coming to pass now as (if hs were) an inspired prophet, 

6. When especial stress is laid on the Adjective or Substantive predicate, in combina* 
tton with the verbal predicate, it is well to resolve the sentence into its elements : 

ThemiatoelSt Unus restitit, Themistodes alone withstood s Themistodes was ths 
9»i9 one that withstood, 

Argouautae primi in Pontum Euxinum intrfiv6runt« the Argonauts Jirst 
entered ths Euxine (Black) Sea = were ths JtrH to enter the Black Sea. 

Vna laltia victla nullam sp6rfire lallltem. Yebo. The only safety which the 
^anqvished have, is to hope/or none, 

Fragilem truel oommlsit pelag5 ratem primus. Hon. Be was thsjb-st to trust 
^/hOl bark to ths wild waves. 

e. The English idiom often uses the adverb and adverbial expressions instead of the 
lAUn adjective : so in adjectives of indinaHan and disindinatUm, knowl^dgs and igno- 

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fOMM, of ord€r ftodixMUiOfi, of Otiw and mcmom, and of temporary condition genermllf : 

libeni, wUh pleasure ; voleni, toUUngily) ; nOleni, vnwiUingQy) ; invltuf t againti omU 

will; prtUlexii, aware; imprfldem, unawares; gcieni, knawingily): prXmiii, prior* 

fbrst ; nltimns, last ; mediuSt in, about the middle ; hodiemtif, tthday ; mSttltXiini, in 

tke morning; frtqn%ikM,/teg!uent(ly) ; lubllmis, al<^ 

OderotlpotOFOtiinOn, invXtuB amSbo. Oy. (S84,R.s.) 

P11U liodis boni fBcI imprftdem qn»m leioxu ante bono diem anquanL Tsa. 

I have done more good to-day unawares than I have ever done knowingly b^ore. 

Adourrit, mediam muUerem complectitnr. Tsb. Be runs up, puts hi9 ohm 

wbout the woman^s waist. 

Qui prior iftrinzerit fermm ^ve TioUlria erit Lnr. WAo draws the sword prst^ 

his shall be the victory, 

Yespertlnns pete teetiua. Hon. 8eek thy dweOing at eventide, 

SSrai venitinoinSoiilanillei. Jur. The eoldisry rarely eomes into the garret. 

So also t5tiil. wholly, 

Fbiloiopbiae nOe tOtOi tridiane, Cia We give ourselves whoOy to philosophy, 

8911 bee oontingit lapientL Cia This good ludt happens to the wise man alone » 

itisonly the wise man who has this good luek. 

7. Carefully to be distinguished are the uses of prlmui, and the adverbs prXmunii 

first, for thejlrst time, and prlmO, atJirsL 

Primus : Ego prlmm bano QrStiOnem 18gl, Iwas thejlrst to read this speeOu 

Hano p r I m a m OrStlOnem iSgl. this was thejlrst speech that I read, 

Prlmnm : Hano OrStlOnem p r X m n m lOgl deinde tranferlpil, IJlrst read (and) 

ihsn copied this speech. 

HodiO bano OrfitiOnem prlmnm lOgl, Iread this speech to-day for thejlrst Ume, 
PrImO: Hano OrStiOnem prImO libenter lOgl, poftefi mafl^magieqne mibi 

jQtna ylia est* aljirst Iread this speech withpleamre, afterward U seemed to me drier 

and drier,^Lattmann and 2f Slier, 



825. The Mnltiplication of the Predicate requires no further 
rules than those that have been given in the general doctrine of 

2. Qualification of the Predicate. 

326. The Qualification of the Predicate may be regarded as 
an External or an Internal change: 
J. External change : combination with an object. 

1. Direct object, Accusative. 

2. Indirect object, Dative. 

IL Internal change: combination with an attribute^i which 
may be in the form of 

1. The Geninve case. 

2. The Ablative. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 

AOcusAnyx. 1C7 

8. Preposition with a case. 
4. An Adverb. 

L— The InflnitiTe fonnt (InflnitlTo, Gerand, Gerond4Y0, and Sapine) 
cow M objects, now as attributes, and require a separate treatment 



827. The Accusative is the case of the Direct Object 
The Object may be contained in the verb (Inner Object, Ob- 
ject EflTected) : 

Daus mandum creSvit, God made a ereation^the universe. 

Akin to this is the Accusative of Extent : 

A rectS conscientifl transversnm nnguem n9n oportet di8c8d«re. GlO 
One ought not to swerve a naUhreadlh from a rigM eonsdenee. 

Deoam annds TrCya oppngiifita eit Lrv. Ten pears teas Trey besieged. 

Maxtmain partam lacte vlwnnt Caes. Ibr the most part Ihey live an 

From the Accusative of Extent arises the Accusative of the 
Outer Object (Object Affected) : 

T^xu mnndum gnbemat, God steers the universe. 

Kbxabx.— The Accnsative of the Inner Object is tbc characteristic use of the case; 
tte Accnsatlvo of tbe Outer Object the most common ose. It is sometimes Impossible tfl 
determine which element preponderates ; so in verbs compounded with prepositiona 
Tbe so-called Terminal Accusative may be conceived as an Inner or an Outer Object 
Hence the followfng table is only approximate : 

General View of the Accusative. 

328 I. Inner Object : Object effected. 

Cognate Accusative. 

Accnsative of Extent 

1. In Space. 

2. In Time. l^"^^"^. ^'*^ 
8. Of Adverbial Relaticu. 

Terminal Accusativ«» 
(Point Reached). 

Verbs com« 
funded ti 


n. Outer Object : Object affected. ] 

1- Whole. ^®™ 

2. Part (so-called Greek f^^^f^ ^'t^*" 

Accusative). j Prepositions. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 


III. Double Accusatiyc : Asking iind Teashing. 

Making and Taking. 

IV. Accusative as tlic most general form of the object (:>bject created 
or called up by the mind) : 

In Exclamations. 
Accusative and Infinitive. 

329. ActiYe Transitive Verbe tal^e the Accusative case : 

RSmuhui Urbem RSaiam condidit, Bomuhts founded the City cf Some 
(Object Effected.) 

Mens regit corpus, Mind governs body, (Object Affected.) 

RBMABK8.— 1. Many verbs aro intransitive In English which are transitive in Latta ; 
dolSre, to grieve (for) ; d6ip6rftre, to deepoAr (qf) ; horrSre. to shudder {at) ; mXrSrl, 
to wonder (at) ; rldSre, to lavgh (at). Especially to be noted is tlic wide scope of the 
Inner Object : 

HonOrSi d6sp8rant« Cic They despair qf hxmon (give them vp in despair). 

NeeSta est Yitia quod IlliX neeem flfivisset (Ml). Tag. VUia teas executed for haw- 
ing wept (for) her son's execution, 

Consoia mfins recti FSmae mendSeia risit. Ov. Consdous of rights her sotd (b|it) 
toughed (at) the falsehoods qf Rumor, 

Verbs of Smell and Taste have the Inner Object : 

Fiicis iptum mare lapit. Sen. 2''hejl8h tastes qf the very sea. 

B On onmSi possnnt olSre unguenta exOtioa. Plaut. R is not every one can ernatt 
^fforeigr. perfumes, 

2. The Accnttative with Verbal nouns, such as tactiOv Umddng^ is comic. 

330. Verbs compounded with the prepositions ad, ante, dr- 
oom, con, in, inter, ob, per, praeter, sab, sabter, super, and trans, 
which become transitive take the accusative : 

All with circnin, per, praeter, trans, and sabter. . 
Many with ad, in, and saper. 
Some with ante and con. ' 

Pythagoras PemSrum magds adiit Cia I^thagaras applied to ((vm- 
suUed) the Pernan magi. 

Stella Veneris antegreditar sdlem. Cic. The star Venue goee in 
advance of the sun 

Tarn m5 circumstant densdrum turba maldmm. Ov. So dense a 
tfWDd of evils eneompa8s(es) ine. 

Bam, si opus esse vid§bitar, ipse conveniam. Cic. Itoill go to see A#r 
myself y if it sJiall seem expedient, 

OonsUium multae calliditStis init. Ov. He engages in {devises) a plan of 
deep cunning. 

Tanais Surdpam at Asiam interfluit Curt T!ie Don flows betmeen 
Europe and Ana, 

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Mortem obiit, « medi5 ablit. Ter. 8hs went to foes Death (died), eks 
left the world, 

Caesar omnom agmm inoSniim percnrrit. Cass. Caesar traeened 
rapidly all the Picenian dUtriet, 

Popnlns Bolet dignds praeterXre. Cic. The people U vxmt to pa*B by the 

Z!pamIn5ndS8 poenam subiit Nep. Epaminondaa submitted to Vie pun- 

Flnminaque anttquSs subterlSbentia murSs. Vbro. And riven 
gUding under ancient walls, 

R5mSnl ruInSs marl supervSdSbant. Liv. The Bomans marched over 
the ruins of i/te wall, 

CrasBUS EuphrStem nulla belli causfi transiit. CiC. Orassus crossed 
tJie Euphrates witlumt any cause for war. 

Remarks.— 1. If the simple verb iff a transitive, it can take two accnaattvet : 

AgSiilSuB HellSspontom oOpiSi trl^ficit' Nbp. AgeiUaHs threw his troops aarost 

S. With many of these verbs the preposition may be repeated : 
. C5piSa trajecit Bhodannm, or trans Bhodanom, He threw his troops across ths 

Sometimes with difference of slgniflcation : 

Adire ad aliquem, to go to a man ; adire aliqaem, to apply to {to eonsulO a num, 

331. Any verb can take an Accusative of the Inner Object, 
when that object serves to define more narrowly or to explain 
more fully the contents of the verb. 

When the dependent word is of the same origin or of kindred 
meaning with, the verb, it is called the Cognate Accusative. 

Faciam ut mel meminerls dtim vltam vIvSs. Plaut. Til make 
you think of me th4i longest day you live. 

Servus est qui ut antlqui dizirtmt servltutem servit. Quint. 
He is a slave wJw, as old-style people said^ slaves a slavery ^who is a slave that 
is a slave. 

Remarks.—!. The Cognate AccnsatlTe, when a snbstantive proper, is commonly at- 
tended by an attribute : 

Consimilem Itlserat jam Olim llle IfLdom. Ter. He had long hefore played a 
like game. 

CantilSnam e a n d e m canii. Ter. Tou are ulnging the tame eong. 

M I r a m atqne inscltnin 8<mmiSvI somninm. Plaut. A marveUous and uncanny 
dream Fve dreamed. 

2. Much more common is the Inner Accusative of nenter pronouns and a^ectives 
treated as snbstantives : 

XenophOn e a d e m fer6 p e c o a t. Cm. XenopJion makes very much the same mis- 

Eqaidem posse vellem idem glOriSrI qaodCyrnB. Cio. For my part looulo 
wish that U were In my powet to make the tame boast as Cyrus. 

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Quidquid deilrant r6g9i pieetnntnr AcliXvI. Hob. Wtustefoet mad freak 

■ (he Hngtplay, the Achivi are punished for it. 

Quid lacmmfis 1 Teb. What are you crying for f 

With transitive verbs ac accugative of the person can be employed beside : 

Discipulds id fLnum moneo ut praeceptOrSs snOs nOn minns quam ipsa 
Itadia ament Quint. I give pupils this one piece of advice, that they love their teachen 
no less than their studies themselves. 

8. From this the accasative neuter gradually passes over into an adverb, wich ai 
tliqnaxituxii, somewhat; nihil, nothitig {** nothing loath'*) ; sammnxn, at most. Especi- 
ally to be noted are : magnam partem, to a great extent; id temporis, at that Ume; id 
aetStis. of that age ; id genus, of that kind; omne genus, of every kind. 

Haeo yulnera yitae nOn minimam partem mortis formldine aluntur. Lucb. 
These wounds of life are for not the least part fostered by the fear of death. 

Ndstram vicem ultus est ipse s6s6. Cio. He took vengeance on himself in our 

4. Instead of the Inner Accusative the Ablative is occasionally found : lapidibni 
l^uere, to rain stones; sanguine sfldSre, to su^eat blood. 

Eerculis simulScrum multO stldOre mSnSvit Cia The statue qf Eercules ran 
frtdy with sweat, 

332. A part of the object affected is sometimes put in the 
Accusative case after a passive or intransitive verb or an 
adjective : 

Tacita cur5 animum incensus. Liv. ffis soul on fire with silent care. 
Jam vnlgStum ftctis quoque sauoins pectus. Quint. By this Ume 
** breast-wounded " is actuaUy become a common newspaper phrase. 

Remarks.—]. This is commonly called the Greek Accusative, and is found chiefly in 
poetry. The common prose construction is the Ablative. 

NGsoit stSre loo9 ; micat auribus et tremit arttls. Vbro. He cannot stand stiU 
he twitches vdth his ears and quivers in his limbs. 

2. Somewhat different is the Accusative with induor, I don; exuor, I doff ; eingOT 
I gird on myself; in which verbs the reflexive signification is retained : 

Intltile ferrum cingitur. Veug. ffe girds on (himself) a useless blade. 

LOrlcam induitur fIdOque accingitur ense. Vero. Be dons a corselet and begirds 
himself with his trusty glaive. 

Arminius impetH equi peryfisit oblitus faoiem suS cruOre n6 nOsceretur. 
Tag. Hermann got through, thanks to hisjlery charger, having smeared his face with his 
own gore to keep from being recognized. 


333. When two Accusatives depend on the same verb, one is the In- 
ner, the other the Outer object. 

Active verbs signifying to Inquire, to Eequire, to Teach, and 
celare, to conceal, take two Accusatives, one of the Person, and 
the other of the Thing. 

Pusidnem quendam S5crates interrogat quaedam ge5metric«. CiG 
Socrates asks an urchin sundry questions in geometry. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 


Oaetar Aedu58 frfiinentmn flSgitin>at. Caes. Caesar kept demand^ 
ing tlie com of Hie Aedui, 

Quid nunc te, ajdne, UtterSs doceam 7 (258). Cic Why should I now 
give you a lesson in literature, you donkey t 

Iter omnes cdlat. Nbp. He keeps aH in t/ie dark about his route, eoneeaU 
his route from aU. 

Remarks.— 1. The Passive form with the Nominative of the Person and the Acciu** 
live of the Thing is sparingly used. Diseere is more common than docSrX. 

]I5t1l8 doo6rI gandet lOnicOs mfttlira virgO. Hor. Therar* ripe maid d#> 
Uffhts to learn Ionic dances, 

OmnSs mllitiae artSi Moctns fuerat Liv. Be had learned (jbeen taught) thoroughlp 
aU the arts of war, 

2. The expressions vary a good deal. Observe: 

This then is not the only way, PoBOO, Idaim^ and flSgitO, 

For it is also right to say, And always peto, postulo, 

Docfire and oSlfire d6. Take aliqxdd ab aliqa5, 

InterrogSre d6 qnS r6. While qoaero takes exi ab, d6, quO. 

Adherbal BOmam ISgStOs miserat, qui senSttun dooSrent d6 caede firfitris. 
Salu Adherbal had sent envoys to Borne to inform the senate qf the murder qf his brother. 

BassuB noster m6 d6 hOc libr5 c6lSvit. do. Our friend Bassus has kept me in the 
dark about this book. (So commonly in the Passive.) 

Aquam S pflmice nunc postulSs. Plaut. You are now asking water of a pumice 
stone (blood of a turnip). 

S. With dooeo the Abl. of the Instniment is also nsed : docfire fidibus, equOt to teadk 
the lyre^ to teach riding. Boctns generally takes the Abl. : Doctos Qraecif lltterli« a 
good Grecian. 

4. Quid m6 vlf 1 wfiat do you want qf met what do you want me for t belongs to thii 
general class. 

5. On Doable Accosative with compound verbs, see 830, R. 1 ; on the accns. neater of 
the Inner Object, see 831, R. 2. 

334. Verbs of Naming, Making, Taking, Choosing, Showing, 
may have two Accusatives of the same Person or Thing : 

Iram bene Ennius initium dixit insaniae. Gic. Well did Ennius 
call anger the beginning of madness. 

AncumMarcium regem populus oreSvit. LiY. The people made 
Aneus Mareius king. 

Oato ValeriumFlaccum oollegam habuit. Nef. CaiohadVeh 
lerius Flaccus (aa) colleague. 

Sdoratem ApoUo sapientissimuin JudicSvit. Cia ApoU$ 
judged Socrates (to be) the wisest. 

AthSniSnsiboa Pythia praecSpit ut Miltiadem sibi imperStdrem 
sflmerent. Nep. The Pythia instructed tlie Athenians to take MUtiades 
(as) their commander. 

Praesta te virum. Cic. Show yourself a man. 

Quern inteUegimus divitem? CiC. Whom do toe understand by the 
rich man? 

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Rbm ARK.— The Doable Accutatire in turned into the Douole Nomlnativo with the 
Pfto^ive (197). BeddOt / render^ is not a»ed in the Passive, but, iu6tead thereof; flo, 1 

H&beo, with two AccQsatives, commonly means to have; in the sense of hold, rtgar4^ 
other tarns are used : 

Utnimpr5 aneillS m 6 habSs an prO flliS! Piaut. Do pou look upon tns as a 
maUi-aervant or a daughter f 

So habSre leryOmm looO, (in) nnmer5 deOmm, to regard as staves, as gods 


335. The Accusative of Extent in Space accompanies the 
verb, either with or without per, through. 

1. With per to denote entire occupancy {from one end to the 
other, all through). 

SparsI per prSvinciam mHitSs, the soldiera scattered all through the 

PhoebidSs itmr per ThSbSs ISoit. Nbp. P/ioebidas marched through 

2. Without per to denote distance, hotofaVy how long. 

Trabes inter b§ binds pedSs distSbant. Caes. The beams were 
two feet apart. 

Campus MarathSn abest ab oppidd Atheniensium circiter m 1 1 i a 
paacunm decern. Nbp. The plain (of) MaratJion is about ten miles from 
the city of Athens. 

A rectS conscientiS transversnm unguem n5n oportet discS- 
dere. Cic. (327.) 

Rbxarks.— 1. With abetse and distSre, an Ablative of measure may also be em- 
ployed : 

Mllibns passnom qnattnor et Ylgintl abesse. to be twenty-four mOesffom .... 

3. When the point of reference is taken for granted, ab (S) with the Ablative may be 

Hest68 ab mllibns passnum minni dnObns oastra posnSmnt. Cass. The smm^ 
ritched their camp less than two mUes off. 

336. The Accusative of Extent in Space accompanies the 
adjectives longus, long ; latos, wide; altiu, high (deep). 

Fossa pedes t recent 5s longa est, sex pedSs alta, the ditch 
is three hundred feet long, six feet deep. 

MllitSs aggerem latum p e d e s trecent5s triginta altum padSs 
oot5ginta ez8trux§runt. Cabs. 7%^ soldiers raised an embankment 
three hundred and tkirUffeet wide (and) eighty feet h4gh. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 


837. The Accusative of Extent in Time accompanies the 
verb, either with or without per, in answer to the question. How 

OorgiSs centum et noTem visit annSs. Qunrr. Gorgiaa littd 109 

TenuistX pr5vinciam per decern annos. Cic. Tou have Jisld on ie (fu 
promncefoT 10 years (10 years long). 

Bat mecum per tdtum diem. Ep. He is with me the livelong day. 

Rkxark.— Per with the Accosativo Is fpeqnently Deed like the AblatlTe of Tfme 
within which. Per iUa tempora = ilUs temporibns, in thots timet. 

So eJ»pecially with the negative : 

NnUa r68 per triennium nisi ad nfLtam istlna jlldioSta est Cia No 
wMtter was decided during (in) the three years except at his beck. 

338. The Accusative of Extent in Time accompanies the 
adjective natus, old (born) : 

Pner decem amiOa nfltiui est, the bay is ten years old. 

Gyrus regnSvit annds trlgint^ ; quadragint^ ami5s n S t u s regn&re 
ooepit. CiC. Cyrus reigned t/iirty years ; (he was) foHy years old (wheu) 
he began to reign. 


839. The Accusative as the Objective Case generally is used 
as an object of Thought, Perception, Emotion ; an object cre- 
ated by the mind, evoked or deprecated by the will. Hence the 
use of the Accusative: 

1. In Exclamations. 

2. With the Infinitive. 

340. The Accusative is used in Exclamations as t\i^ general 
object of Thought, Perception, or Emotion: 

MS miserum, poor me I 

MS caecum qui haeo ante n9n vld«rim« Cic. BUnd me/ not to hcve 
ieen aO, Viis brfore. 

So in Exclamatory Questions: 

Qu5 mihi fortonam, si n5n concSditur iltl ? Hob. What (is the object 
ot) fortune iomjeif Im not allowed to er^oy U f 

Interjections are used : 

Hen mS miserum! Alas! poorm^t 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 


6 mitferSs hominum mentSs, 6 pectora caeca. LuCB. Oh, the wretched 

minds of men, oh, the blind hearts ! 

Remarks.— 1. 6 with tho Vocative is an address ; with the Norn, ft dMuacteriflttc ; 
with the Accus. an object of emotion. 

3. £ll< Lo! and EcoOt Lohere! talce the Nominative : 

En YfimSi Lo Vanu! £ece homo ! Behold the man! 

In the earlier language the Accnsiativo was nsed : 

En tibi hominem ! Plaut. UereU your man! 

Ecoe me ! Plaut. Eere am I! 

8o Eccum. ellnm^ eooam, eccillam, in comic poetry. 

There ^eenis to be some confusion between the interrogative £n tod £m (Hefll). 

Pr5 takes the Vocative : PrO dl immortSlGs I Ye immortal gods ! The AccosatlTt 
occnrs in : PrO denm (hominum, denm atqne hominum) fidem ! For heaxeiCs sake, 

Hei ! and Yae ! Uice the Dative. 

Heimihi! ^Af/^.' YmyIcxIbI Woetothecongttered! 

341. Tlie Accusative as the most general form of the substantive, and 
the Infinitive as tlie most general form of the verb, are combined so as to 
present the general notion of Subject and Predicate as an object of thought 
or perception (537). 

The Accusative with the Infinitive is used 

1. In Exclamations : 

Hem, mea lux, IS nunc, mea Terentia, sic TezSri! H*m, light of m$ 
tyes^for you to be so Iiarassed now, lerentia dear. (The idea of) yau(r) be- 
in^ so liarassed ! So in idiomatic English, Me write I 

2. As an Object (See 527.) 

3. As a Subject (See 535.) 

Remark.— The Infinitive was originally a Datiye-Locative, bat almost every ^yntao- 
tical trace lias vanished, and practically it has become an Accosative Neater. 

Terminal Accusative, 

342. The Accusative of the Local Object, Whither t com- 
moDiy takes a preposition, such as: in, into; ad, to; versos, i 
^ward : 

In Qraeciam proficisci, to set out for Greece, 

Remark?.— 1. The omission of the preposition, except as below atated, is poetical i 
Italiam ySnit Vbro. He caine to Italy. 

8. Names of Towns and Smaller Islands are pat in the Accasativc of the place 
WhUherf without a preposition. So also rtls, into the country; doillTim« domOs, home. 

For ftirther explanations, see 410. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



843. The Dative is the case of the Indirect Object, and al- 
ways implies an object effected which may be contained in the 
r/erb or expressed by the complex of verb and object 

Neiii9 errat nnl Bibi Sen. No one errs (makes mistimes) to, for hbmMtif 

Fortona multis dat nimis, satis nallL Mabt. Fortune to man^ 
gives too much, enough to none, Dat-nimis is Uie Object Effected. 

RxxARKs.— 1. In BngUeh the form of the Indirect Object is the eame m that of the 
Direct : ^* He shewed me (Dat) a pare river ; " He shewed ms (Ace.) to the priest. Origl 
nally a case of Personal Interest, it is osed freely of Persontfled Things, sparingly of 
Local Relations, and this despite the fact that Locative and Dative are blended in the 
First and Third Declensions. U a locative, the Dative is a sentient locative. 

2. When parts of the body and the like are involved, the English Possessive is often a 
convenient though not an exact translation. 

Ta5 virO ocnll dolent. Tkb. Tour husbaruTi btbs ache. Nearer : Tour husband 
has apain in the eyes. Tul Tirl ocnll. Tour hitsbajcd's eves. 


344. The Indirect Object is pnt in the Dative with Transi- 
tive verbs, which already have a Direct Object in the Accusa- 
tive. Translation, to, for, from. This Accusative becomes the 
Nominative of the Passive. The Dative depends on the complex. 

Active Foim : 

To : Facile omnSs, cum valemus, recta consilia aegrdtis damns. Ter. 
Beadily aU of us, to/ien well, give good counsel to tJie sick. 

For : Frangam tonsorl crura mannsque simuL Mart. Fd break the 
harbet's legsfo?' 7um and hands at once. 

Fbom : Somnum mihi ademit. Cic. It took my sleep away from me. 

Passive Form : 

Perpetutia num datur nsus. Hon. Perpetual enjoyment (of a thing) is 
given to no one. 

ImmeriUs frangontur crura cabams. Juv. I7i4 innocent hacks get their 
legs broken for them. 

Arma adimuntur mllitibus. Lrv. The soldiers have their amis taken 
from them. 

Domus pulchra dominls aedificatur n5n muribus. Cic. A handsome 
hoiise is buiUfor its owners, not for tJie mice. 

Rbmabks.— 1. For is nearer the Dative than To; but /or (i» dtfence of) is pr5 : pr5 
patrifi morl, to die for oner's country. To {with a vUw to) is ad or in, and when the idea 
of motion is involved the prepositiou must be used, even with darOi which gives its niime 
to the Dative: 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 


Hosvia est uxor invlta quae a d vimm napttun datur. Plaut. An enmny U ths 
w^e who is ffiven to a man i» marriage against her wiU. 

LltterSs alioul dare, to give one a letter (to carry or to hAve). 

LitterSs ad aliquem dare, to indite a letter to one. 

SogSi at mea tibi eoripta mittam. Cio. You askmsto send you my torifings 
(you wish to have them). 

LibrOs jam prldem ad t6 mlsissem si esse OdendOs pntSssem. Cic. Ishouid 
kave tent tfu books to you long since if I had thought they ought to be published, 

%. Fivm is allowable, and even then merely approximate, when the relation of Per 
mmal Interest is involved, otherwise the Ablative is nsed. Both combined in 

Is frster, qnl Sripnit frStrem c ar c e r e, nOn pottdt 6ripere f S 1 0. Sen. 

3. The poets are more free in their use of the Dative, inasmuch as their personifications 
are bolder: 

KarthSginl jam nOn ego nUntiOs mittam snperbOs. Hon. Carthage no more 
shall I send haughty tidings. 

Jam satis terrls niyis atqne dfrae grandinis misit pater. Hob. FuU,fuU 
enough qf snow and dire hail the Sire hath sent the Land. 

The extreme is reached when the Dative follows Ire and the like : 

It caelO clSmorque virum clangorqae tubSrtim. Vebg. Mounts to High Heaven 
Vforriors'' shout and trumpets'* blare. 


346. The Indirect Object is put in the Dative with many In- 
transitive Verbs of Advantage or Disadvantage, Yielding and 
Resisting, Pleasure and Displeasure, Bidding and Forbidding, 
such as : prOdesse, to do good; nocere, to do Jiann ; indnlgere, to 
give up ; cedere, to yield ; servlre, to he a slave; p&rdre, oboedire, 
to be obedient ; credere, to lend belief ; ignOsoere, to grant forgive- 
ness ; placere, to give pleasure ; imper&re, to give orders ; resist- 
ere, to make resistance. 

Nee prdsunt domind ^uae prdsunt omnibus artSs. Ov 
And the arts which do good to all do none to their master. 

Verba ndbis magis nocent, minus prdsunt nostra quam aliSna 
Quint. Our own words do us more harm (and) less good than the words of 

Indulsit lacrin^. Ov. She gate free course to hei' tears. 

Turpe servire puellae. Ov. It is disgraceful to play the stace to a 

Tune cede malls. Vero. Yield not thou to misfortunes. 

Mundus ded paret et hulc oboediunt maria terraeque. CiG 
T%e universe is obedient to God, and seas and lands hearken unto Mm. 

Nimium no crede coldrX. Vbrg. Truti not complexion aU too 


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DATIVB. 177 

IgnSsoe UmdrL Prop. Grant pardon to my fear. (Be to my fear aa 

if you knew it not) 

O a I plaoe5 prdtinui ipaa placet Ov. The girl IpUaee ^raighi plewie$ 
me herself, 

Reliquum est ut tnte tibi imperis. Cic. It remains that you give orders 
to yourself {have absolute command over yourself). 

Arbor redstit Tentls. Ov. The tree offers resistance to the winds. 

RxMARKB.— 1. Among the most notable ezcepttons are : aequire* to bt equal ; de 
Oire (to distkigu^)t to be becoming ; dBfloere, to be wanting ; javire, to be a help ; 
jabfire. to order; and Tetfire, to forbid^ which take the Accnaatiye : 

Earn piettLram imitsti Bant maltX^aeqaftTit nimo. Pun. Thatetnlet^ 
vainting many have imitated^ none equalled. 

Forma v i r b neglecta d e o e t Or. A eareleee beauty It beoonAng to men. 

X6di68 dSfioiat Cia The day would faU ms. 

F r 1 6 B fortHna a d j a v a t. Tbb. Fortune favors the brave. 

On jabeo and veto see 424, R. 8. Fido and confido take the Ablative as well aa Um 

2. The Dative use is often obscared by the absence of etymological translation. So 
nflbere alical* to marry a man (to veil for him) ; medSrI alioali to heal (to take one*i 
measures for) a man ; BapplioOt I beg (L bow the knee to) ; persafideo, / persuade (I 
make it sweet). 

a. The novice is again reminded that the passives of these verbs are used impersonally : 

Qal in vident egent^ illl qaibas inyidetar rem hahent. Playtt. Those 
who envy are the needy, those who are envied have thestuff. 


346. Many verbs compounded with the prepositions 

ad, ante, con, in, inter, 

ob, post, prae, sab and saper, 

take the Dative, especially in moral relations. 
Transitive Verbs have an accusative case besides. 

Pelopidis omnibus perloulls adfuit. Nep. Felopidas toas present 
{to help) in all dangers. 

Virtos omnibus rSbus anteit. Plaut. Virtue goes before old 

N5n omnis aetas, Lude, 1 u d 5 convenit. Plaut. Not every age, 
(good) Lydus (Playfair), sorts with play. 

At lupus et turpSs instant morientibus ursl. Ov. But the 
wolf and foul bears jn'esn tlie dying hard. 

Probns invidet nSminL Cia The upright inan (looks hard at) ewries no 


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178 DATIVK. 

ArliUdfts interfuit pagna« iiStSII apud Salaminam. Kmp. 
Ariifiides w<u engaged in the naval battle off Salamis, 

ObstS principils. Ov. Oppose the beginnings, 

Hannibal Alezandr5 Magnd n5n po8tp5nendu8 eit 
Just. Hannib U is not to be put below Alexander the Oreat. 

Omnibus Druidibus praeest unns. Caes. At (he head of aUthe 
Druids is one man, 

Blandaqui§8 victis fortim BubrSpsit ooellls. Ov. Caressing 
sleep crept stealthily o'er her vanquished eyes, 

MiserlB Bucourrara ^d»c!&. \v.ViQ. Ikam to sueeor the wretched, 

Anatnm 5Ta gallXnlB Baepa BuppdnimuB, Gic. We often puA 
ducW eggs under hens (for them to hatch). 

Iiucnmo Buperfuit patrX. Liv. Lucumo survived his father. 
So with TransitiYe and some Intransitive Verbs, oompoonded with d8 
and ex. 

Oaesar D5Jotar5 tetrarchiam Sripnit, eldemque dStrazit 
Armeniam. Cic Caesar wrested from Dejotarus his tetrarcJiy^ and stripped 
from him Armenia. 

RxM ARKS.— 1. When the local slgnlflcatioii preponderates, the prepositlou is repeated 
with It0 proper ca^e : 

Adhaeret nSvis ad woipvlitm^ the ship sticks to the rock, 

Ajfix incnbnit in fg;\K^Tim,Ajaxfdlcntdt8woTd, 

Congredl cam hoste, loengage (he enemy, 

DOtrahere Snnlnm d 6 digits, to draw a ring from on^s finger. 

The tendency In later Latin i^ to neglect thi» distinction, which even in the best period 
\S not rigidly observed. Compounds with cum (COn-) commonly repeat the preposition : 
always oommUnioSre aliquid cum aliqaOtto communicate somethingtoa num 
(share it with him). 

2. The analogy of this class of verbs, which imply Nearness, Is foUowed by haflvao* 
misceo, jnngo, and others, chiefly in poetry and later prose. 

Haeret laterl letfilis amndO. Vkrg. Sticks to the side the lethal shitfi. 

Quod haerSre in e q n senez posset (M2) admlrSrI soiebSmns. Cia We used 
to wonder that the old man could stick to his horse. 

MiscS Btultitiam consilils brevem. Hob. Mix with sense a Utile nonsense (adi 
to sense a little spice qf nonsense). 

NOn potest amor com timOre misoSrI. Sen. Love cannot mingle with fear. 

Jungitnr UnidiO. Juv. She is yoked to Orson. 

Notice ezeello, I excels with the Dative, after the analogy of praCBtO. 


847. Some verbs are construed both with the Accusative and 
with the Dative. 

Sometimes there is hardly an appreciable difference; sometimes the 
Dative emphasizes the personal relation. 
Oomitor aliquem, I accompany a man; oomitor alicnXi/aet oi com- 

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DATIVB. 179 

panitm to a man; adolor, generally Accnsatiye, I faubn on; •emnlor, 

I rival I am a rival ; praestSlor, I wait far. 

Sometimes the difference follows naturally from the difference of case : 
OxwSxe alicol, to take precautions for \ ^^^^^ ^^^ 
aliquem, against ) 

Qiilqn« alila oSvit n5n cavet ipsesibL Ov. (298.) 
l^c niger est, ha n o tn, R5mSne, cavStQ. Hob. His is a black fdUne , 
wgainst Mm be (hou on thy guards oh Boman ! 
Metnere alicul, to fear f<^ ) ^^ ^^ 

aliquem, to dread i 
So all Verbs of Fearing. 
alicuX, tot 
aliquem, to eonntlt 
alicul, to be sui 
aliquem, to meet 
modcraA ) ^. ^^ ^^^ ^ moderate 1 
TemperSre ) to set bounds to Y^^^^^^^^- 

aliquid, to manage j 

To be noticed are the constructions of invideo, I envy, 
mvlMre alicul Jlq«dd , ^ j,^^ ^ ^^ ^ ^ 
(in) aliqu& rS ) 

alionjus rtf (once in Horace). 

alicnjus alicul rel, to envy something belonging to a m>an. 
N5n invlderunt laud$s suas mulieribus virl R5manL Lnr. The men 
9f Bome did not begrudge the women the Iionors tluU were due them, 

Invidet igne rogi miseris. LuCAN. Begrudges the hapless men tht 
funeral fire, 

VacSre rel j 

i matter. 

Commlere alicul, to take measures for, eonsuU ilie interest of ) 
Co£venIre alicul, to be suitable for } ^^ ^^ 

) to be at leisure for \ 

} to attend to yai 

SixSfto be at leisure from ) 

VacSre rS, S.xS,to be at leisure from 


348. A few verbs, cliiefly of Giving and Putting, take a 
Dative with an Accusative, or an Accusative with an Ablative, 
according to the conception. 

DSno tibi librum, I present (to) you a book, 
I>5no te libr5, T present you with a book. 
Circumdo ^ ^^^^ murum, I put round tJce city a wall, 

( urbem mur5, 1 surround the city with a wall, 
8o also aqpergere, to besprinkle and to sprinkle on ; impertire, to endow 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 


and to give : indnere, to dathe and to put on; ezuere, to itrip of and to 
itrtp off; miscSre, to mix and to mix in. 


349. Ease, to be, with the Dative, denotes an inner connection 
between its subject and the Dative, and is commonly translated 
by the verb to have: 

Mihi est amicus, Iha/w a friends 

An nescis longfts regibus esse manns ? Ov. Or perhaps you do not 
know that kings luive long arms f 

Rkmarkb.— 1. The predicate of esse with the Dative is translated in tne ordinary 
manner : ^ 

Caesar amicus est mibi, Caesar is a friend to me (amicus meus, my friend^ friend 

itf MIME). 

2. The Dative is never f imply equivalent to the Genitive. The Dative is the Person 
interested in the Possession, hence the Possesi^ion is emphatic ; the Qeuitive character- 
ises the Possession hy the Possessor, hence the Possessor is empliatic. 

Latlnl cbncedunt BOmam caput latiO esse. Lnr. The Latins concede that Latixtm 
has its capital in Rome. (Latil : that Latium's capital is Borne.) 
8. On the attraction of the Dative with uOmeu esso (322). 

4. The possession of qualities is expressed by iu and the Ahlatlre or some other torn : 
In CicerOne magna fidt Sioquentia, Cicero had great eloqueiMs, 
CimOn habSbat satis filoquentiae. Nep. Cimon had eHoqumoe enough, 


350. Certain verbs take the Dative of the Object for Wltich 
(to what end), and often at the same time a Dative of the Per- 
90nal Object For Whoniy or To WJioni, as in the legal phrase, cul 
bond ? To ivliom is it (for) an adva7itage 9 = wlio is advantaged 9 * 

Nimia fiducia magnae calamitStI solet esse. Nep. Excessiw con- 
Odence is usually a great calamity. 

Virtus sola neque datur d 5 n 5 neque accipitur. Sall. Virtue alone 
is neither given nor taken as a present. 

Paupertas pr o b r 5 habSrI coepit. Sall. Poverty began to be held {as) 
a disgrace. 

Pausanias rex LacedaemoniSrum venit Atticis auzilid. Nep. 
Pausanias, king of the Lacedaemonians^ came to tlie help of the Attics. 

Vitid mihi dant quod hominis necessarii mortem graviter fero. 

• Such verbs arc: essd to be; fieri, to become, to tutm out ; dare, to put ; mittere. te 
send; aocipere, to receive; venire, to come; relinquere, to leave; babfire, to hold. 
▼ertere, to interpret ; dUcere, to c^unt^ and the like. 

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Matius ap. Cic. They charge it to me as afattU that I resent the murder of 
otie so near to me. 

Caesar receptul can! JusBit Ca£& Caesar ordered a retreat to be 

Remark ~The origin of this opago Bcems to be mcrcanUl j (Key). In English we trotk 
Profit and L'^8 as persons. 

Quern fors diernm cumque dabit luord appOne. Hor. *^ Every day that FaU 
thall givey set dawn to Prqflt.^* 

Ou the Dative of the Gerund and Gerundive in a similar sense, see 480. 


351. The Ethical Dative indicates special interest in the 
action. It may be called the Dative of Feeling, and its nse in 
Latin (and Old English) is confined to the personal pronouns. 

Tu mi hi Antonil ezempld istlua audSciam dSfendia? CiC. Do you 
defend me (to my face) by Antonyms example that fellow's audacity f 

Ecce tibi Sebosus I Cic. Her^s your Sebosus / 

"She's a civil modest wife, one (I tell you) that will not miss you morn- 
ing nor evening prayer." — Shakespearb. 

Et quSscunque meo fecisti ndmine versus, ure mihl, laudSs dSsine 
habere meSs. Prop. Aiui whatever verses you have made on my account ^ 
bum tliem me (I beg) ; cease to keep praises of me. 

RE]rARK.~E8pecialIy to be noted is sibi veUe. to want ^ to mean : Quid tibi vis, 
mulierl Hon. What do you warU, wotnanf Quid sibi vult haec Orfitiot Whai 
doea this speech rneanf 


352. The Dative is used with Passive Verbs, in prose chieiBy 
with the Perfect Passive, to show the interest which the agent 
takes in the result. That the person interested is the agent is 
only an inference. (See 206.) 

R5s m ih i tota prdvlsa est. Cic. I have had the whole matter provided 

Carmina scripta mihi sunt nulla. Ov. IMve no poems written, (there- 
fore) hate written no poems, 

RisMARK.— Instances of this Dative >vith the Tenses of continuance are poetical, oi 
admit of a different explanation : 

Barbarus hloego sum quianOu inteUegor ullX. Ov. I am a barbarian herebf 
cause IcanH make myself intelligible to any one. 

Whenever an Adjective or an equivalent i? used, the Dative maybe an Ablative *. 

Sic dissimiUimls bestiolls commflniter oi>>u8 quaeritur. Cio. So though these 
Uttle crecUufw ary so very unlike, their food Is umiqht in comnwn 

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182 DATHTB. 

Carmina quae Borlbimtiir aquae pOtOrfbui. Bob. Aont which are toritien j>h4n 
pnpU are water-drinkers. 

C6na ministrStnr pnerls tribiu. Hob. mnner U served^ {fhe laOten beinsf) the 
waiters are (but) three. 

353. The agent of the Gerund and Gerundiye is put in the 

H5c mihi fadendum est, IJiave Hits to be done {t/tis is to be dons by mSy I 
muM do this). 

Sat mala sed cnxictls iata terenda via. Prop. TIuU i$ a bad road^ hut 
one all have to travel. 

Ddsperanda tibi salvi Concordia socrn. Jut. Tou muti despair of 
harmony while Mother-in4aw^g aUve. 

Compare the Dative with verbals in -bilis : mihi am^bUis, lovable in 
my eyes. 

Rkxark.— When the verb itself takes the DatiTe, the Ablative with ab (S) la eni- 
ployed for the pake of clearness : 

Civibiu ft vObIs eonsalendum. Cio. The interest <tf the dtizene must be eontuUed by 

Where there la no arablgaitj there is no need of ab. 

linguae moderandnm est mihi. Plaut. 1 must put bounds to my tengui, 


354. Datives of Participles are used as predicative attributes. 

PhasSlis conspicitar prima terrSrum Rhodnm S Cilicia petentibua. 
Lrv. P/iaselis is the first land sighted as you make for Rhodes from Oilieia 
(to people as they make for Rhodes). 

In nnivenram aestimanii (= SI aestimSs) plus penes peditem rdboris. 
Tac. If you look at it as a whole^ there is more real strength in the infantry, 

RRMiBK.— Notice the Oreekish phrase : mihi volenti est, lam gladfor it to be so. 


355. A few derivative substantives take the Dative of their 
primitives : 

Jostitia est obtemperStio legibns. Cic. Justice is obedience to tJie lawt 
Bbmark.— Otherwise the Dative mast have a verb to produce the Object Effected. 


356. Adjectives of Likeness, Fitness, FriendUness, Nearness, 
and the like, with their opposites, take the Dative: 

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R2ra avis in terrls nigrdque simillima oyon5. JuT. A 

rare bird in this worlds and very like a black swan, 

N5ii ego sum lau di n5n natus iddneus armls. Pnop. / am 

not filed by nature for glory ^ not fitted for arms. 
Utilis urbl. HoR. Useful to the city , 
Amioa lut5 bus. Hob. A Jwg, devoted to the mire. 
Semper, ta sclto, flamma f fi m 5 est p ro z i m a. Plaut. Bear thou 

in mindy that fire is aye next door to smoke. 

Testis id dicit quodilli causae maxime est alienum. Cic. The 

witness says what is espedcdly damaging to that case (side), 

RBMARK8.— 1. Many adjectiyee which belong to this'class become suDstaiiiives, and 
as puch areconstnied with the Genitive : amlcvLBy friend; affinis, connection ; aeqaSllSv 
cont^imporary ; aliSnns, /oreij^n, strange; cognfitus, lAnsman ; communis, common ; 
contrSrias, opposite ; pSr, match ; proprius, peotUiSris, own, peculiar; similis, like / 
("we ne'er shall look upon his like again "), especially of godu and men, always with 
personal pronouns ; sacer, sacred; superstes, «e/7-t;iw;'. 

Domini similis es- Ter. You are like your master. 

VirtfLte sIspfirdispSr fortUnls p a t r i s. Attius. Se thou thyfaiher^s match 
in valor, not in luck. 

2. The object toward which is expressed by the Accnsative with in, erg^, adversui : 
Xanlins fait sevSms in filinm. Cic. Manlius was severe toward his son. 

M6 esse Bcit ergfi 86 benevolum. Pulut. He knows that I am kindly disposed 
toward Mm. 

AdversQS deOs immortSlSs impil jfLdicandl sunt. Cio. They are to be judged Im- 
irious toward the immortal gods. 

3. The (i^ectfor wfdch may be expressed by the Acca»atiye with ad, to: 
Homo ad nidlam rem Utilis. Cio. A good-for-nothing fellow. 

This la the more common constmction with adjectives of fitness. 

4. Propior, nearer^ prozimos, next^ are construed also (lil^e propo, near) with the 
Accusative and the Ablative with ab, off: 

Propius est fidem, it is nearer beliefs i. e., more likely. 
Qnl t6 prozimns est, he who is next to you, 

Prozimns ft teotis ignis defenditnr aegr6. Oy. A fire next door is kept off with 
difficulty (is hard to keep off). 

5. AliSnnSt/evvi^, strange, is also constrned with the Ablative, with or withoat ab 


HomO snm, htlmfinl nihil 5 m6 aliSnnm pnto. Teb. I am a man, and nothing 
that pertains to man do I consider foreign to me. 

6. In poetry, Idem, the same, is often construed after the analogy of the Greek, with 
the Dative. 

Invltnm qui servat idem facit oocldentl. Hon. (296, R. 1.) 

7. Derived adverbs take the Dative. 

11. in^ternal change. 


857. The Genitive Case is the Case of the Complement, and 
is akin to the Adjective with which it is often parallel. It is the 
Bnbstaaitive form of the Specific Characteristic. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 

184 GBNITrVK. 

The chief Eugibh representatives of the Genitiye are : 

The Possessive case : 

Domus rSgis, the Mng^i 'palace. 

The Objective case with of : 

Domus rSgis, the palace of the king. 

Substantives used as adjectives or in composition : 

Axbor abietifl, Ji/i'-tree, 

Remarks.— 1. Other prepositions than of are not nnfrcqaently osed, especially wltn 
the Objective Genitive. (361, R. 1.) 

Patriae q uls exiul b6 qnoqne fQgit t Hos. What exiU waou his eouniry everjled 
himself as wellf 

BoiOmin trinmphl spem eollSgae rellquit- Liv. His l^ the hope qf a triumph 
OTEX. the Boii to his colleague. 

Via mortis. Lit. The death^tath^ the ^oay to death. Elsewhere : via a d mortein. 

3. An abstract Nonn with the Genitive is o7ten to be trant>lated as an attribnte : 

VemI temporii saSvitSs, the sweet spring-time. 

And, on the other hand, the predicative attribnte is often to be translated aa aa ab- 
stract nonn witli qf: 

Ante ROmam eonditam, before the founding <^ Borne. (894, R. 8.) 

Notice also hlo metus, this fear ^feari^ this, and kindred expressioni. 

358. The Genitive is employed: 

I. and 11. Chiefly as the complement of Nouns Substantive 
and Adjective. 

III. Occasionally as the complement of Verbs. 

Rim ABK.^The Locative of the Second Declension coincides in form with the 
thre, and is generally treated under the head of tbe (lenitive. (See 413.) 


Adnominal Oenitive, 

AProsrrrvK genitive, or gbnitivb of specification. 

369. The Genitive is sometimes used to specify the contents 
of generic words instejid of Apposition in the same case : 

Vitinm nimiae tarditatis. Quint. The fault of excessive downe89, 
Virtns continentiae. Cic. Tlie virtue of seff'OontroL 

So especially with vox, expression; nOmen, nanie ; verbum, 
word^ verb: vox volupt&tis, the word ^^ pleasure ;'^ nOmen regis, 
the name or title of king. 

Sulla nSmen FiUcis asaompsit. Veix. SuUa assumed the swmime (of 
* the Lucky.'* « 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 


Remark.— So also occasionally other words, sncli as ; 

VtXm RUmae, t^e eUy qf Home, (Poet) 

Arbor tLbietiB^Jlr'trM, 

BprOtae injuria formaa. Vbro. The kuuU of detpised beaniy, 

Genitive of Property, 

860. The Possessive Genitive is the substantive form of an 
adjective attribute with which it is often parallel : 

Domns regis = domus rSgia, the paiaee of the king, the Idn^i pcUace = 
(he royal palace. 

Remarks.— 1. The adjective form is often preferred. So always with the posscssire 
prononn : amlcos mens, a/Hend (^ mknt^ eanis aUOnut, a Hrange dog^ another nunC$ 
dog; Alius erllil, master's son. So of cities: ThalSs XllMiiis, Tholes of MUeius. 

3. The attention of the student is called to the variety of forms which possession may 
take. Statua MyrOnis, Myron^s statue, may mean : 1. A statae which Myron owns ; 
9. ^Vlkich Myron has made ; 3. Which represents Myron. 

8. Observe the brief expressions : VentTun erat ad Vettae, We (they) had eonte to 
Vesta'' s (i. «., temple, aedem) ; Hasdmbal 6isgOnis« Gisgo's Hasdrubal, Hasdmbak 
Oisgo'^s son (as it were, Uaadrubal 0' Oisgo) ; Flaooos Claudil, Claudbu^s Flaccus = 
Fkuxustheslaveorfrsedmanof Claudius. 

4. The chorographic (geo<?raphic) Genitive is rare and late : 

B«x Cbalcidem Eaboeae v6nit. Liv. The king earns to Chalds <f (in) Buboea, 


861. When the Substantive on which the Genitive depends 
contains the idea of an action, the possession may be ctctive or 
passive. Hence the division into 

1. The Active or Subjective Genitive : amor Del, the love of 
Oody the love which Ood feels (God loves). 

2. Passive or Objective Genitive: amor Bel, love of God, love 
toward Ood (God is loved). 

Rbmarks.— 1. The English form In qf is nsed either actively or passively : the love of 

Vfomen. Hence, to avoid ambiguity, other prepositions than qf are often sabstitated f<M 

tlie Passive Genitive, snch Bffor, toward, and the like. So, also, sometimes in Latin: 

VolnntSs prOvinciae ergfi Caesarem, the good-tvUl qf the province toward Conor, 

Odiani in hominnm Universnm genos. Hate toward all mankind, 

3. Both Genitives may be connected wiih the same Substantive : 

Quanta sit aviditSs hominnm tSlis victOriae sdo. Cio. Ho\o great the eagerness 
qf mm for such a victory It, 1 know, 

362. The Genitive of the Personal Pronouns, except nostrum 
and vestmm, is used as the Passive Genitive : 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 


Amor mel, love to me. 

Desiderium tul, longing for thee, 

Memoria ndstrl, memory of tts (our mmsotj). 

Remark.— VSstrnm and vestrom are oaed m Fartitiye Genittves : 

Magna pars nostrum, a great pari qf mt ; mterqae vestnim, tUher QMh) qf you. 

NOBtrl melior pars ineav (he better part of our being ^ our better part. 

With omnium, the forms afiftrum and yestrum most be need. 

8d3. The Possessive Pronoun is generally used as the Active 

Amor mens, my lave (the love whdeh IfeeH). 
Desiderium tuum, your longing (the longing which you feet). 
Additional attributives are put in the (Jenitive : 

H6c negdtium mea ipslus (sollus, unlus) opera perfectum est. m$ 
btieinesg toasfinis/ied by my exertions alone. 

Rbmabk.— Occasionally, however, in Latin, as in Bnglish, the "Pmnrmiwrn Pronoia 
is used paftslvely : dSsIderium tuum, Umgingfor thee ; injuria tuft, yomr wrong (•* Th« 
deep damnation of hie taking off ^'). 


364. The Genitive of Quality must always have an Adjective 
or its equivalent : 

MItis ingenil Javanls. Lit. A yovih of mM disposition. 
Homo niMB <=: imlUas pretil). Plaut. A fellow of no aeeount 
IVfdaf via. Caes. A Utree day if journey. 

N9n moltl cibi hospitem accipies, mulU Jod. Cic. Tou wiU reeeiw a 
guest who is a small eater but a great joker. 

Remark. — ^The (lenitive of Quality is less common than the Ablative, being found 
chiefly of the essentials. The Genitive always of Number, Measure, Time, Space; the 
Ablative always of externals, so of parts of the body. Often the use seems indifferent 


365. The Genitives of Possession and Quality may be used 
as Predicates : 

Domuii est regis, the Jiouse is the king's. 

Vir est mag^ ingenii, the man is (one) of great genius. 

Remarks.— 1. The Possession appears in a variety of forms, and takes a variety of 
translations : 

Htljus erO Ylvus* mort ^us htljus er9. Prop. Here I shall be, IMng ; dead, hers I 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 

GBNmyx. 187 

Omnia quae mulieris faSnmt virl fiont. Cio. AU that vm the w^sU (pioperty) 
teeomu the hwdancTe. 

Is [HeroulSs] dIoSbStur esse MyrOnis. Cio. That (statoe of Hercules) wu sold to 
be Myron's (work), by Myron. (GenitTvus AnctOris.) 

HOlae senStos EflmftnOrnm. plSbs Hannibalis erat. Lrr. At JTola the senate wa» 
(on tbo side) of the Romans^ the common folk (on) HannibaTs, 

DamnStio est jfLdioum, poena legis. Condemning ie thejudgee* (business), punish^ 
taent the law's. 

Est animl ingenul col mnltum debeSs eldem pltLrimnm yelle d6b6re, Cio. 
tkows the feeling of a gentleman to be willing to owe very mvch to him to whom you niroady 

Pauperis est nnmerSre peons, *2^ only the poor man that counts his flock QT^the 
■wt qf a poor man to count thefloek). 

Stnltttiaie «rt, « <»yb^ ; Mitais est, </ 1« «i»^om<irsr. 

So also with facere, /Dmafer (caue to be) : Bflmtnaw girillBii HaBn^toMmgwaaer 
the Roman sway. 

2. In the Third Declenpion of the Adjective, the Genitive is the nsnal form : 

Amentis est superstitiOne piaeceptOmm contrS ratiSnem catisae trabl. 
Quint. It is madness to let oneseJf be carried by a superstitious regard for rvies counter to 
the requirements of tlie case. 

Sometimes the Nom. of the Third Declension is nsed in combination with the Nom. 
of the Second. 

Pigrnm et iners vidStnr sfldOre adqnXrere qnod possis sangxdne parSre. T^a 
M is thought sloio and spiritless to acquire by sweat what you can get by blood, 

8. The same methods of translation apply to the Posi^essivu Pronoun in the Predicate 
C* Vengeance is mine'') : menm est, it Is my property, business^ way, 

VOn est meom mentlrl. Tsb. Lying is not my way (I do not lie), 


866. The Genitive stands for the Whole to which a Part be- 

Magna vis mllitnm, a great number of soldiers, 
Omtdxaa. mHitmn, a hundred (of Vie) soldiers, 
II mllkiBB, ibom (^iM) mMiers. 
FortissimI mHitam, Vm hrmmst {€f &^ JoUfen. 
Satis mllitum, enough (of) soldiers (soldiers enough), 

367. The Partitive Genitive is nsed with substantives of 
Qnantity, Number, Weight : 

Modius trltid, a measure of wheat. 

Libra farris, a pound of spelt. 

Ala equitum, a squadron of cavalry. 

Remark.- This is sometimes called the Oenitlvns Generis. Whether the conceptioc 
be partitive or not, depend? on circumstances. 

Medinmus tritici, a medimnus of wheat may be a medimnus (tf wheat (Genitlvns 
Generis) or a medimnus of wheat (Partitive). 

368. The Partitive Genitive is used with numerals, both 
special and general : 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



Oentnm militum, a hundred (of the) soldien, a hundred (of) aoldicra, 

(Oentum mllitds, a, th^ hundred soldiers.) 

Quintos r§gum, the fifth (of the) king{a), 

(QuintuB r$z, the fifth king,) 

Multl mllitmn, many of the soldiers, many soldiers. 

(Multl mllites, many soldiers,) 

Rbmarkh.— 1. The BnglUh language oommonly omits the partitioD, aoleM It Is 
especially emphatic : 

Quot clvium adsnntt How mat^cnuaoKB are present f (^uot oXvfit adsiutl 
How MANT are the citizens present f 

2. When all are embraced, there is no partition : 

NOs treoenti conjUrfivimTiSt three hundred qf us have bound ourselves by an oath, 

AmloOs qaOs BmltOs YisAet, fHends whom he has in great number (qf whom he keu 

Qnl omnSs, all ef whom, 

Qnot estis t How many are {there qf) you t 

Here the English language familiarly employs the partition. Exceptions are Toiy rare. 

On mille and milia see 30S. 

369. The Partitive Genitive is used with Pi'onouns: 

n mllitam, those (of the) soldiers, 

n mllites, those soldiers, 

nil Graeodrum, tliose (of the) Greeks, 

370. The Partitive Genitive is used with Comparatives and 
Superlatives : 

Prior hdmm. Liv. The former of these, 

RSgum ultimua ille bondrum. Juv. The last of the good kings, 

Rbxarks.— 1. When there are only two, the comparative exliaiists the d^greaa of 
comparison. (315.) 

%. Uterqae« eiilur {both), is commonly used as an adjective with sabstantives : 
uterque consul, Hther consul = both consuls; as a substantive with pronouns: uterquo 
ItOmm. both of these, 

8. On the concord of the Superlative see 803, R. %, 

371. The Partitive Genitive is used with the Neuter Singu 
lar of the following and kindred words, but only in the Nomi- 
native or Accusative: 

tantum, so mtich^ quantum, as {hoto much), aUquantum, somewhat 
multum, much, plus, more, plurimum, most, 

paulum, little, minus, less, minimum, leaet. 

satis, enough, parum, too little, nihil, nothing, 

hoc, this, id, illud, istud, that, idem, the same, 

quod and quid, tshieh and what t with their compounds. 

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Oar^s plQs habet AesohinSs, minus laoertdrum. Quint. AmfUrM 
\aM mot'efleshj less muscle, 

Cimdn habebat satis Sloquentiae. Nbp. (349, R. 4.) 

Surgit amari aliquid, quod in ipsis flSribus angat. LuCR. Upriid 
something hitter to eltoke us mid the very flowers. 

Nihil reliqui facere. 1. To leave nothing {not a thing), 2. (OccasionallyX 
io leave nothing undone, 

Rkxarks.— 1. The conception is often not so much parti tive as characteristie. At wt 
•ay : Scelus puerl es. Plact. Tou are a rascal <tf a 6oy— where the boy is the rascal, 
so Qaodoiimque h9c regnl. Vbro. ThU realm, what (little) l/iere it of U {what lUtle 
realm I have), 

2. Neater Adjectives of the Second Declension can be treated as substantiyes in the 
Genitive; not »o Adjectives of the Third, except in combination with Adjectives of the 
Second : aliquid bonam, or boni, eomething good ; aliqnid memorfibile, tomsthing 
memorable; aliquid boni et memorSbilis, something good and memorable, 

Ylxqne tenet lacrimSs quia nlllacrimSbile oemi t Ov. And tearee restrains 
her tears, because she descties naught to shed tears for. 

8. The partitive coostmction is not admissible with a preposition: ad tantum Itn* 
dinin« to so much zeal. (Exceptions are late : ad multum di6L /ar into the day.) 

4. The Partitive Genitive is also used with Adverbs of Quantity, Place, Extent: ar 
mOmm affatim, abundance qf arms; ubi terrSrom. gentiom! where in the world f 
hftc ed arrogantiae prOoessit, he got to this, that pitch of presamptioix. (Later Latin, 
turn temporiSi at that time). Notice especially the phrase: quoad 6j as faoere pos- 
simii as far as {can do so, 

6. Instead of the Partitive Gen'tive with Numerals, Pronouns, Comparatives, and 
Superlatives, the Ablative may be employed wUh ex. out of, d9,from (especially with 
proper names and singulars), or the Accusative with inter, among : Gallos prOvocat 
llnnm ex BOmSnXs, The Gaul challenges one of the Romans; Unns d 6 mtiltXs, one of 
the many (the masses) ; Croesus inter rSgSs opulentissimns, Croesus^ weaUMett qf 
kings. With ftnus« ex or d6 is the more common construction. 

6. On the Attribute used pariitlvely, s^e 287, R. 

7. Qualitative Adjectives are combined with the Genitive in later Latin : 
DSgenerfis oanum caudam sub alvum fiectunt. Plin. Currish dogs curl the ^oil 

tip under t/te beUy. 

In poetry and silver prose the Neuter of Qnalitative Adjectives is frequently used be- 
fore the Genitive : 

Ar4ua dum metuunt Smittunt v8ra viM. (27, R. 1.) Lucb. The while they fear 
the steeper road, they miss the true. 

So amSra cfLrfirum, bitter elements qf cares, bitter cares ; strfita viSrum, strfitas 
^riae, the paved streets. 

8. The Partitive Genitive as a Predicate is Greekish : 

PI6s nObiliumtfl quoque fontium. Hob. Thou too shalt count among the famous 

372. Cansft, grati&y ergO, and instar, are construed with the 
Genitive : 

i and grStiS, for the sake^ commonly follow the Gknitive. do also 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 

190 GKNinVE. 

mrgO, on aceouiU (in old formalae). Instar is an old Accosatiye, as it were, 
an "instead." 

Sophistae quaestua oausS philosophabantur. Cic. The prof 689- 
or$ of uisdom dealt in philosophy for the sake of gain, 

Tu mS am5ri8 magis quam hon5ris servavistl gratis. Enk. 
jThou didst save me more for lovers (sake) than (thou didst) for Jionor^s sake. 

Virtutis erg 5, On account of valor. 

Instar mentis equus. Vbrq. A horse to stand in mountain's 
stead (a horse that stood a m/>untain high). 

Plato mihi nnus instar est omnium. Cia Fiato hy himself is in 
my eyes worth them aU. 

RRMAnK.—So meSr tuS, suS oansS, seldom gritiS. 


373. Adjectives of Fulness, of Participation, and of Power, 
of Knowledge and Ignorance, of Desire and Disgust, take the 

Flenus rImSrum, full of chinks (" a leaky vessel ")• 

F artic eps c5nsilil, a sharer in theplan. 

Compos mentis, i/i possession of (one's) mind. 

Ferltus belli, versed in war, 

Cupidus gldriae, grasping after glory. 

Fastididsus Latlnarum lltersLrum, too dainty for Latin 

Omnium rerum in8cius,a universal ignoramus. 

Our n5n ut plenus Tltae convlva recSdis ? LucR. (268.) 

Sitque memor nostrl necne, referte miM. Ov. (195, R 7.) 

O o n s i a mens recti Famae mendacia risit. Ov. (329, R 1.) 

Agricolam laudat Juris legumque perltus. HOR. The hus^ 
bandman{*8 lot) is praised by the counsel learned in tlie law. 

VenStor tenerae conjugis immemor. HoR. The hunter of his teiu 
der spouse unmindful. 

Vis cdnsill expers mdle rnit sua. HoR. Force void of counsel 
tumbles by its own m/iss. 

Mentis inops gelidS formldine Idra renilsit. Ov. Senseless fi-om 
chUZfeary he let go tJie reins. 

Remarks.— 1. The following adjectlTes— refertns, stuffed; praeditnSi endowed; 
eontentns, satisfied ; frStos, supported— %}iovt their participial nature by being con- 
Btrued with the Ablative : 

vita referta bonis, a life filled to overfiowing with blessings. 

Membrls htimSnls esse praedittim, to be endoioed with human limbs, 

Frfitus opnlentiS, trusting in wealth. 

Uxor oontenta est qaae bona est flnS vir9. Plaut. A wife who is good is eon- 
lenied with one husband. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 

1 Flinti8,/tiff, sometimes takes the AbUttye ; 

Maxima qnaeqne domus servls est pl6na snperbli. Jut. Efoery great house ii 
flUsd with overbearing slaves. 

i. Dig^us, loorthy^ and indig^us, unworthy, are con^traed with the Ablatire: 
Bigpie pner meliOre flammS. Hob. Boy worthy of a better Jlanu. 
VltS tua dignior aetSs. Vbrg. Tour age is worthier qf 1\fe. 
The Genitiye S» rare. 

4. Liber, /rtf^t and vacnilS, empty, take the Ablative with or without ab (S) (388) : 
Llbemm (vacnnm) esse mettl (S mettl), to be free from {void of) fear. 

5. On alifintis, stntnge, 9ee 356, R. 5. 

On aequSlis, communis, oonsciiu, contrSrins, pSr, limilis, supentet, aiiA the 
like, see 3&6, R. 1. 

6. Verbs of Filling sometimes follow the analogy of plfinns, fuU, and take the Geni- 

On egSre and indigSre with the Gen., see 389, R. 3. 
The poets carry the analogy of Plenty and Want very finr. 
DItissimus agrl. Verg. Hich of domain. 
Solfttos operum. Hor. Loosed of {released from) work. 
Thns the Genitive in poetry comes near the Ablative or Whence case : 
DSsine mollinm tandem qaerSlfimm. Hor. Cease at last from womauMi com- 


374. Present Participles take the Genitive when they lose 
their verbal nature; and so do verbals in -ftx in poetry and later 
prose : 

EpamlnSndSs aded veritatis erat d 1 1 i g e n s ut ne Joc5 quidem 
mentXretur. Nep. Eipaminondas was so careful of iJie truth as not to tell lies 
even in jest. 

Omnium consensu oapax imperil nisi imperSsset. Tag. B^ general 
consent capable of empirct had he not become emperor. 

Remarks.— 1. The participle is transient; the adjective permanent The simple test 
is tiie substitution of the relative and the verb: amaxis (participle), loving {who is Uw- 
ing) ; axnans (adjective),/on^, (substantive), lover; patiens {pari.), bearing {who is bear- 
ing) ; patiens (adjective), enduring, (substantive), a sufferer. 

2. In later Latin and in the poet:* almost all adjectives that denote an affection of the 
mind take a (^nitive of the Thing to which the affection refers: aeger timOriSt sick qf 

fear ; amhigniis cOnsilil, doubfftd of purpose ; vltae dnbius, dou^fid of life. 

Here model prose requires the Ablative or a Preposition. 

The analogy of these adjectives is followed by others, so that the Genitive bcccmes a 
complement to the adjective just as it is to the corresponding substantive. 

Integer vltae. Hob. Spotless qf life; like IntegritSs vltae. (FSmS et forttnis 
integer. Sall. In fame and fortunes intact.) 

3. The seat of the feeling is also put in the Genitive, chiefly with animi (which is 
suspected of being a Locative). Aeger animl, sick at heart, heartsick ; audftz ingenil, 
daring of disposition : Plural, animls. 

4. Very rare i« the (Greek) genitive of exclamation. 

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192 OBNinvx.' 



875. Verbs of B^mindingy fiemembering, and Forgettiiig. 
take the Genitive : 

Ti Teteris amioitiae oommonSfaoio. [Cio.] 1 remind you of owr old 

Est propriam stultitiae alidrum vitia cemere, obllvisci suSrum. Cic. 
The fact is, it sJiows a fool to have keen eyes for Vie faults of otfiers, to forget 
oiu's own. 

Ipse Jubet mortis t8 meminisse Deus. Mabt. God himself hids 
you remember death, 

Rbmarks.~1. Vorbfs of Beminding also take the Ablative with d6 (io regulariy 
inoneo), &nd the Ace. Ncut. of a Pronoan or Nanieral Adjective : 

Oro ut Terexitiam moneStis dS testfimentS. Cio. I beg you to put TererMa In 
mind qf the will. 

DisoipulOs id fLnnm moneo. Quint. (831, R. s.) 

8. Verbs of RcmembcriDg and Forgetting als>o take the AccnMtiTe, especially Oa 

Haeo Olim meminisse jnvfibit. Vbbo. To remmiber these things ons day wUl giioe 
us pleasure. 

Dulc6s moriens reminisoitnr ArgOs. Vero. I>ying, he remembers sweet Argos. 

OhIIviscI nihil solfis nisi injfLriSs. Cic. Tou are wont to forget nothing except 

Becordor (literally = I bring to heart, to mind) Is commonly construed with the Ace: 

Et y 9 e m Anohlsae magnl vnltamqne recorder. Vero. And I recall (call to 
mind) the voice and countenance of Anchiaes the Oreat. With persons, d6. 

XeminX, I bear in mind, I (am old enongh to) remember, takes the Accnsatiyo : 

Antipatmm tfl probfi meministX. Cic You remember Antipater very wdL 

8. Venit mihi in mentem, it comes into (up to) my mind, may be construed imper 
•onally with the Genitive, or personally with a subject : 

Venit mihi in mentem PlatSnis. Cic. (or Plato.) I^ato rises before my mind's eye, 

CertiQrem aliqnem facere, to inform, follows the analogy of Verbs of Reminding. 


876. Misereor and miseresco, / pity, take the Genitive, and 
miaeret, it moves to pity, paenitet, it repents, piget, it irks, pndet, 
it makes ashamed, taedet and pertaesmn est, it tires, take the Ac- 
cusative of the Person Who Feels, and the Genitive of the Ex- 
citing Cause : 

Miserere sor5ris. Verg. Pity thy sister/ 

Snae quemque fortunae paenitet Gia Saeh wum tt diteotUe^iUed 
Ufith his lot. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 

GBNinyx. 193 

Mlieret tS alidrum, tuX 19 neo miiere t neo pndet. Plaut. 
Tcni are iorryfar oiherSy for yourself you are neiUier sorry nor asHiamed, 

Pndet is also used with tlie Genitive of the Person whose Presence 
excites the shame : 

Pndet dedrum hominumque. Lit. Bis a sliame in Vie sight of gods and 

Remark.— These Impersonals can also have a sabject, chiefly a DemonftratlTe or 
^c-iative Prononn: 

HOn t6 haec pudent ! Ter. 2>o not thes* tMngsput youtoths Uushf 

Other oonstmctions follow from general rulea. 80 the Inf. (4S3) and quod (EMQu 

H9n me paenitet viziise. Cic (S40.) 

Quintum paenitet qnod animnm tnnm oifendlt. Cia Qutntus i# sorrp thai he 
has vfounded yourfeellnffs. 


877. Verbs of Accusing, Convicting, Condemning, and Ac- 
quitting take the Genitive of the Charge: 

MiltiadSs accusStus est prSdltiSnis. Nep. MUtiades was accused of 

Oannensem exercitom quia pavdris inaimnlgre potest 7 Lit. Who can 
charge ilie army of Cannae with craven fear? 

Farce tuum vStem sceleris damnSre, Oupldo., Ov. Be slow to condemn 
thy bard of crime^ Cupid I 

Absolvere improbitatis, to acquit of disJionesty. 

So also kindred expressions : reum foeere, (to make a party) to indict^ to bring an 
action against ; sacrilegil compertnm esse, to be found (guilty) 0/ taerilege, 

Rrm ARKS.~1. Verbs of Condemning and Acquitting take the Ablative as well as the 
Clenttire of the (Charge and the Punishment, and always the Ablative of the Fine : 

AccfisSre capitis, or capite, to bring a capital charge, 

BanmSre capitis, or capite, to condemn to death, 
• BamnSrl decern mllibas, to be fined 10,000. 

Xnlt&re, to mvtcf^ is always construed with the Ablative : 

XnltSre pecHnifi, to mulct in (qf) money. 

Xanlins virttltem fllil morte mnltSvit Quint. Manliue punished the wdoraf 
hU son tpith death, 

S. For the Genitive of the charge may be substituted nOmine or crimine wltli tte 
Genitive or the Ablative with d6: nOmine (crimine) eonjUrStiOnis damnSre, to find 
guilty 0/ conspiracy ; aeensSre d6 vl, qf violence (no Genitive) ; d6 venSficiO, of poison* 
ivgj de rebns repetnndls, 0/ extortion. 

9, Destination and Enforced Labor are expressed by ad or in : damnSrI ad bestiSSi 
to be condemned (to be thrown) to wild beasts; ad (in) metaUa, to the mines; ad (in) cpna 
pUblienm* to hard labor, YOtl damnfirli to be bound to fulfil a vow, 


878. Verbs of Rating and Buying are construed with the 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 

194 GENinyx. 

Genitive of the general vahie or cost, and the Ablative of the 
particular value or cost (404.) 

Verbs of Rating are : aestimSre, to valtie ; put^e, to reckon ; ducere, 
to take ; habere, to hold; pendere, to weigh; iaceacef to make, put ; eiiaa, 
to be (worth). 

Verbs of Buying are: emere, to buy ; vSndere, to sell; vSnIre, to be 
for sale ; stSre and conatSre, to eost^ to come to ; prSstare, licere, to be ex- 
posed^ left (for sale) ; conducere, to hire ; locSre, to let. 

379. Verbs of Eating take: 

Magnl, much, pluris, more, pluriml, mairimT, most, 

Farvl, little, minSris, less, minimi, least. 

TantI, so much, quantl, how much, nihill, naught. 
Equivalents of nihill, nothing, are flocci, a lock of wool, naud, a trifle, 
aasisi a copper, and the like, and so also hnjus, tlvat (a snap of the finger), 
with the negative, which is omitted only in the earlier times. 

TantI is often used in the sense of operae pretium est = it is worth 

Dum ne ob malefacta, peream; par vl id aeatimo. 8o long as it be 
not for misdeeds, let me die : little do I care, 

Voluptatem virtus minimi facit Cic. Virtue makes little account cf the 
pleasure cf the senses, 

Judices rempublicam flocci n5n faciunt. Cic. Tlie judges do not care 
a Jig for the State, 

Ndn habeo nauci Marsum augurem. Ennius. / do not talue a Marsian 
augur a baubee. 

Est mihi tanti hpjiu invidiae tempestatem sublre. Cic. It is worth 
while {the cost), in my eyes, to bear this storm of odium, 

380. Verbs of Buying take tantI, quantl, plOris, and minOris. 

The rest are put in the Ablative : 

Vendo meum firumentum n5n pluria qaam oSterl, fortasse 
etiam m i n 5 r i a. CiC. I sell my corn not dearer than everybody else, per" 
haps even cheaper. 

Magis ilia juvant quae pluris emuntur. Juv. Things give more 
pleasure whicJt are bought for more. 

Emit Canius hortSs tantI quantl Fy thius Toluit CiC Caniv4 
bought the gardens at tlie price Pythius wanted. 

Quantl cSnas 7 WJiat do you give for your dinner f 

Quantl habitas 7 What is the rent of your lodgings? 


F a r V 5 fames c5nstat, m a g n 5 fastldium. Sen. Hanger eoete little 
daintiness much. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 

GXMinvx. 195 

Kkxarks.— 1. Aestlmo is foond with the AblatlTe as well ai with the Genlttfe. tto 
aestimSre magnO and magnli to value highly, 

2. Ob!>cn'c the phrases : honl (aequl bonlqne) facio« boni cOnsulOi I put up wUh^ 
take in good part, 

a. Bone omere, tobuy cheap; bene vendere, to eeU dear; inale emere, to buy 4ear; 
male y Qndere, to sell cheap. 


881. Interest and Eefert take a Genitire of the Person, seldom 
of the Thing, coucemed. 

C15dil interest. Crc. Jt is Clodius^s interest, 

RSfert compositidnis quae qnibua antepdnSs. Quint. It is of impoT' 
tdTieefor Vie arrangement of words^ tohic/t you put before whiclu 

Instead of the Genitive of the Personal Pronouns the 
Ablative Singular Feminine of the Possessives is employed : 
Mea interest, mea refert, lam concerned, 

Remauks*.—!. BjBfert Is commonly nsed absolutely, occasionally with meS* etc., set 
doni with the Genitive. 

3. Ini^tead of Apposition nse the Relative : 

Vehementer intererat vestrS. qui patr6s estis, UberOs vestrOs hlepotissimun 
discere. Plin. Ep. Jt were vastly to ihs interest qf you parents^ that your cliUdren^ \f 
poifsible^ were taught ai Jiome, 

8. No satisfactory explanation has been given of tliis construction. HeS seems to be 
an adverbial form like qtlS, hftOt eS. (Madvlg.) 

382. 1. The Degree of Concern is expressed by an Adverb, 
Adverbial Accusative, or a Genitive of Value : 

Multum (nihil) interest. It makes mucJi (no) difference, 
Qnid interest 7 What difference does it make f 

Magnl interest me nni n58 esse Cic. It is of great importance to me 
that we he togetlier, 

2. The Object of Concern is commonly put in the Infinitive, 
Accusative and Infinitive, ut or ne, with the Subjunctive, or an 
Interrogative Sentence. 

Quid Mildnis intererat iuterfici C15dium 7 CiC. Wliat interest had MUs 
in Clodius^ being killed, 

Oaesar dXcere solebat n5n tarn snS quam relpnblicae interesse ut 
salvus esset. Suet. Caesar used to say that it was not of so much impor- 
tance to 7tim(self ) as to tits State that his life should be spared, 

VestrS interost ne imperatSrem pessimi faciant. Tac It is to your 
interest that tJie dregs of creation do not make tJie emperor. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 


Quid rifert XSLSn veniUi qnS v5oe Ifgantnr. Jut. Whai maUentit 
what voice such f^ei'nes are redted with f 

Occasioually by the Nominative of a Neuter Pronoun : 

Quid (Ace) toS id (Nom.) rSfert 7 Ter. WJuit business is that vfyount 

3. The Thing Involved is put in the Ace. with ad : 
M jpiX ad honSrem noitmin interegt quam prlmum n5s ad urbem ve- 
nire. Cic. It makes a great difference tauefiing our honor Viat ice shoiUd 
come to the city as soon as possible, 


383. The Ablative is the Adverbial, as the Genitive is the 
Adjective case. It contains three elements : 

A. Where ? B. Whence ? C. Wherewith ? 

In a literal sense, the Ablative is commonly used with Pre- 
positions; in a figurative sense, it is commonly used without 

A. The Ablative of the Place Where appears in a figurative 
»mse jvs the Ablative of the Time When. 

B. Tlie Ablative of the Place WTience appears as: 

1. The Ablative of Origin. 

2. Tiie Ablative of Measure. 

C. The Ablative of the Thing Wherewith appears in a figu- 
rative sense, as : 

1. The Ablative of Manner. 

2. The Ablative of Quality. 

3. The Ablative of Means. 

RBMARK.~It is impoMible to draw the line of demarcation with ahiolute exactness. 
8o the Ablative of Caa^c may be derived fh>ni any of the three fundamental eigniflcatloas 
of Uic case, which is evidently a composite one. 

To these we add: 

D. The Ablative of Cause : 

E. The Ablative Absolute. 



Abldtttms loedlis. 
884. The Ablative answers the question Where? and takes as 
A rule the preposition in : 

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&1 portii nftvigo. Teb. lam saiUng nc harbor. 

Pons in Hib8r5 prope effectiu erat. Caes. Tfie bridge oyeb the Ebro 
was nearly finished, 

Histrio in scema est. Plaut. The actor is on tJie stage, 
Haeret in equ& senez. Cia T/ie old man sticks to his Jiorse, 

Rexabks.— 1. Verb? of Plaglng and kJndt-ed si^iflcations take tho Ablative within, to 
designate the result or the nfotioo: p5nere, to place; eoUocSrev to put; statuere, con* 
stituere, to set; conuldtTt, to settle ; dfiflgere, to plant; dSmergere, to plunge; im.- 
primere, to press upon; inscrlbere, to write upon ; iaeldere, to carve upon, 

Plato ratiOnem in capite posuiti Iram in peotore loeftyit Cxa Plato has pui 
reason in tAs head, has placed anger in the breast. 

LtlcrStia cultmm in eorde dSflgit- Lit. Lucretia plants a Jb^fe in {thrusts a kn\fs 
dawn into) her heart. 

FhilosophI in ils ipsis librls qaOs scrlbnnt d6 contemnendS gl0ri& sua nO- 
mina inscrlbant. Cia Philosophers write their own names on (the titles of) the verjf 
books which they write about contempt of glory. 

Index inolditnr in afinels tabnlls. Sobt. An index is engraved on tablets qfbronxs, 

Tlic same obt>crvatioii applius to sab: 

F9ne sub cnrrtl nimitun propinqol sOlis in terrS domibns negStS. Hon Put 
(inc) Hfider the c/iariot qf Vie aU-too neighboring gun, in a land denied to dwellings. 

So hnml, which Is a Wlicrc-case : hnml prOsternere, to throw Jtat on the ground 

S. The iK)ct8 arc free In omitting in, but regard must be had to 387. 

8. On the Locative Ablative of Towns and Small Island?, see 41S. 

385. In Citations from Books and in Enumerations, the 
Ablative of the Place Where is used without in : 

liibrS tertid, Hard book; versfi decimS, tenth terse; aliS locd, elsewhere, 

^KUAJiK.~-ljOOTUt place, xiBed. metaphoricatly, generally omits in: hOc looO, in this 
position, situation ; in ]v5c locS (or hOo locO)i in this place, part of the oo*intry, LibrO 
is used when the whole book, in librO, when merely a passage iu tlte book, is devoted to 
the subject In band. 

886. In designations of place with tOtus, lohole, and the like, 
the Ablative of the Place Where is generally used Avithout in : 

Menippns disertissimus t5tS AsiS fuit. Menippus was Vie most eloquent 
man in all Asia (Minor). 

BattiadSs totd semper oantabitur orbe. Ov. Battiades (Calllmacbufl) 
will always be sung througJiout the world, 

387. Ip all such Designations of Place as may be regarded in 
the light of Cause, Manner, or Instrument, the Ablative is used 
without a preposition : 

Ut terrS ThermopylSrum angostiae Oraeoiam ita marl fretum Eurlpl 
olandit Lrv. As the pass of Uiermopylae bars Greece by land, so theflith of 
Euripus by sea. 


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NSmo Ire quenquam pfiblicS prohibet viSu Plaut. 3^ manfof^iddM 
{qnp one to) travel by tlis puUie-road, 

Mfttris cinerSs Tiberl subvecti sunt. SuuT. His mothei*s cuifieswerB 
hmtgla up by the Tiber, 

Imperator mllitis (in) castrls tenebat (intra castra). Caes. The genertd 
kept Vie soldiers in camp, 

Recipere aliquem tecto, oppid5, portu. To receive a man into on^it 
hmse^ town, Jiarbor, 


Abldtivus Separdtlvus, 

888. The Ablative answers the question WJie7ice9 with or 
without the prepositions ex, out of, de,/rom, ab, off: 

Earn exturbSstI ex aedibus. Plaut. Tou Imsiled liim out oftJie house. 

Araneas dejiciam de pariete. Plaut. I will get tlie cobwebs down from 
ilte wall, 

Ndn ex ed loc5 sed ab ed loc5 me dSjecit. Cic. It was not out of thai 
place, but from that place that lie dislodged me. 

The prepositions are omitted chiefly with Verbs of Abstain- 
ing, Removing, Relieving, and Excluding, but with Persons a 
preposition (chiefly ab) must be used. 

Alien5 manus abstineat. Cato. Let him keep his hands from oilier peo* 
pie's jyj'operti/. But : 

Alexander vix & se manus abstinuit. CiC. Alexander Jiai^ly kept {coxM 
hardly keep) his Juindsfrom himf^f(from laying hands on himself). 

Fopulus Atheniensis Ph5cidnem patria pepulit. Nep. TJie AtJienian 
people drove Phocionfrom his country. But : 

lUom aemulum ab ea peUito. Ter. Drive that rival from Iter. 

MultSs fortuna Uberat poena, metu neminem. Sen. Fortune rids 
many of punishment, none of fear. But : 

Te ab e5 libero. Cic. I rid you of him, 

Amicitia nulld loco excluditur. Cic. Finendship is shut out from no 
place. But : ^ 

Ab ilia ezcludor, hue concludor. Ter. lam shut out from her (and) 
iliut up ?iere {to this, to live with her). 

Alcibiadem Athenienses e civitate expulerunt Kep. Tlie AUienians 
banislied Alcibiades from tlie State, 

Hannibal ex Italic dicedere coactus est. Cio. Hannibal was forced 
to withdrau) from Italy. 

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ablauvx. 199 

Orftde mihX, mSrSs distant S carmine n5sbr5. Or. BeLiete me, far 
my conduct differs from my song. 
Cdnsules se abdicant magistratu. Cic. TIte consuls abdicate their office. 

So also kindred Adjectives : 

Animus ezcelsns omnI est Uber oursL Cic. A lofty mind is free fr<nn 
eiU care. 

Cato, omnibus homSnls vitils immunis, semper fort&nam in snS po- 
tastate habuit. Vell. Caio, exempt from all Jiuman failings, alvoaye Iiad 
far lane in his own power. 

Remarks.— 1. Componnds with dl (dis) also take the Dative (in poetry) : 
PanUum sepultae dlstat inertiae c6lSta yirttls. Hob. Little doth hidden worth 
d^fer from buried doth, 

8. The Place Whence gives the point of view from which. In English a different trans- 
lation is often given, though not always necessarily: 5 tergO,iA the rear; ex parte 
deztrS. on the right side ; ab oriente, on the east ; fi tantS spatiO, ot such a distance ; 
ex fagS, on the flight ; £ rS firHmentSrifi labOrSre, to be embarrassed in the matter of 

3. The poets are free in the use of the Ablative as a Whence-case without a preposi- 
tion. On the difTerence of conception between Dative and Ablative, see 344, R. 2. On tho 
Genitive, sec 373, R. 6. 

4. On the Ablative as a Whencc-case in Names of Towns and Small Islands, see 41t 

889. Verbs of Depriving and Filling, of Plenty and Want, 
take the Ablative : 

D^mocritus ^citur ocuUs se privasse. Cic. Demooitus is said to 
have deprived himself of Ms eyes. 

Deus bonis omnibus explevit mundum. CiO. Ood has filed the uni-^ 
Terse with all blessings. 

Abundant dulcibus vitils. Quixt. TJtey abound in charming faults. 

N5n caret eflfectu quod voluere du5. Ov. Wliat two Mve resolved 
on never lacks execution. 

Amor vacat metu. Ov. Love is void of fear. 

Sapiens eget nulla re. Sen. The sage stands in need of nothing. 

Rexarks.— 1. Verbs of Filling are commonly referred to the Instrumental Ablative 
r&ther than to the Ablative of the Source, and are put here for convenience of contrast 
Bat observe that in the classic tongues the construction of opposites is identical. 

5. Egeo and (more frequently) indigeo also take the Genitive. 

KOn tanMurtis indigent quam labOris. do. Theif are not so much in need of skiU 
9t tif Industry. 

8. Adjectives of Plenty and Want take the Genitive, but some of them follow the 
Analogy of the verb (3T3, R. 1) : 

Asellus onustus aurO. Cic. A donkey laden with gold. 

PolUcitIs dives qullibet esse potest Ov. Anybody can be rich in promises. 

Amor et melle et feUe est fScundissimus. Flaut. Lore is (very) frtd^ both in 
honey and in goU (of acrimony). 

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300. Opus aud Vwam take the Dative of tlie Person who Wants 
and the Ablative of the Thing Wanted; but the Thing Wanted 
may be the subject and opus the predicate : 

Qpiis est mihi librS, librls, ItmrU a book, books. 
liber mihi opus est, a book is a want to me (is what Iteani), 
ZjibrI mihi opus sunt, books are a want to me {are what I want). 
Quid opus est speoolS tibi? Piaut. What do you warU to do with a 
mirror f 

EmSs n5n quod opus est sed quod necesse est } quod n5n opus est 
UMe c^rum est. Cato. Buy not wJiat you want, but wJiat is absolutely need' 
ful ; what you dfi not want (have no use for) is dear at a penny. 

So with the Perfect Participle Passive : 

Quod parSt5 opus est parS. Ter. Wliat must be got ready ^ get ready. 
VlcXn5 opus est convent5. Plaut. Hie neighbor must be caUed on. 
Usus est pecuniS or pecuni^ Plaut. Money is wanted (is, would ftt 
(246, R. 1) useful), 

N5n fact5 est usus. Plaut. II were better eet alone. 

Remark.— This constraction belongs to the Instramental, and is put here for con^ie- 
nience of reference : 

Opus estt iftere is worJi to be done loith. 

Vbum est. there is making %u$ Q^cliko tltor, 405). 

The Genitive is of rare occnrronco. Other constmctions arc the Infinitiye and ut. 
The Neuter AccasatiYc is often adverbial (331, R. 8) : 

Quid (Ace) digitOs opus est graphic lassSre tenend0 1 Or. What is the use of 
tirinff thejlngers by holding the stilus t 

Opus est t6 animO valOre ut oorpore possls. Cio. You must be wea in mind in 
srder to be well in body. 

Am culquam est Usus hoxninl s6 ut cruciet ? Tsn. Qf what good is it to any mem 
tsimimre himself 


Abldtlvus Socidilvus. 

891. The Ablative of Attendance takes the preposition emn, 
wiiJi : 

Oum bacuI5 pSraque senez. Mart. An old man with stick and waUeL 
Nee ticum possum vivere neo sine te. Mart. I can't live eii/ier with 
you or witJwut you. 

RcMAnKS.— 1. In military phrases, the troops with which a march is made are pat in 
the Ablative, with or without eum ; generally without cum wtien an adjective is nt^eo 
(AUative of Manner), with oum when nc adjective is nsed (Ablative of Attendance) 

B8z HeUffspontum cnm exercittl transiit, The king eroesed the UsUespoiU with 
on army. 

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IMetStor (emu) ingentl exerelttl ab nrbe profeetiu est. The dictator tet tnU fnm, 
ths city with a great army, 

9. Not to be confounded with the above is the Instramental Ablatirc : 

NSvibad proflcisci, to set out by ship. 

So al!«o with verbi* which denote other military actions : 

Hostfis sagittfirils et fanditOribns Un^^t^U he was frightejUng the erumy with 
archers and stingers. 

ArmStns ipse et armStIs saeptus. Liv. Armed himse^ and Judged about with 
trmed men. 

Nil actnm est nisi PoenO mllite portSs firang^mns. Jmr. Naught is aeeomplisked 
unless we break the gates toith the Punic soldiery (as if with a batterinff-ram). 

A. The Place Where is transferred to the Time When. 

Ablative of I^ine, 
392. Time When or Within Which is put in the Ablative . 

QtuL nocte natns est Alexander eSdem Si^ae Ephesiae templum 
dSflagrSvit. Cic. On the same night on which Alexander teas born, the 
temple of Diana of Ephesus burnt to the ground, 

SatumI Stella triginta fer§ annls cursum suum conficit. Cic. llie 
planet Saturn completes its period in about thirty years. 

Many adverbial forms of time are really locative ablatives : 

So hodie, to-day ; herl(e), yesterday ; mSne, in the morning, 

Hexarks.— 1. Time within which may be expressed by per and the acciiBative : 

Per eOs ipsOs diSs quibos Pbilippns in AcbfiiS fait. Philocles saltnm (Hthae- 
rOnis transcendit. Liv. DuHng those very days^ while Philip was in Achaia^ Philocles 
crossed tite range qf CUhaeron. 

2. Time Within Which may embrace both extremities ; so with tOtnSt all, whole: 

TOtS noote plait, redennt spectScnla mSne. Vebo. All night (Jupiter) rains , 
back come the shows in the morning. 

So with definite numbers (chiefly later) : 

Apnd Pythagoram discipnlls qninqne annls erat taeendnm. Sen. In the school 
Hf Pythagoras the disciples had to keep silence Jive years, 

8. When the Notion is Negative the En^^lish Time For Whkh is the Latin Within 

QnadrienniO (or per qnadrienninm) nOn mllitSvit. Liv. For four years he did 
^sot serve as a soldier {during, at any time within, four years'), 

4. Especlrilly to be noted is the Ablative of Time with hifc, this; ille, that : 

Ego ad tfi bis dn9bus mensibui n9n scripseram (344). Cio. I have not written to 
pcti these two rr/)nths {at any time within the last two manths). 

Hanc nrbem bOc bienniO QyertSs. Cic This city you wHl overturn in the next two 

Transferred to Orfitio Obllqna, bic becomes ille (663. 3) : 

i)iodOras respond^t illnd argentum s6 panels ilUs diSbns mislsse Lilybaenm* 
Diodorus answered that he Jiad sent that silver plate to Lilybaeum wi \hlin a few days {afe^ 


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893. The Ablative with the preposition in is used of points 
within a period of time, or of the character of the time: 

Bis in die, twice a day ; in pueritia, m hoy1u)od ; in adolescentiS, in 

Nall5 mod5 mihi placuit bis in die satumm fieri Cio. It did not suit 
me in any way to eat my Jill twice a day. 

Sometimes, however, bis di§, as dies = unus dies. 

FScI ego istaec itidem in adulescentilu Plaut. IdidtJiose tilings too in 
my youth. 

In may be omitted, chiefly with an adjective or in phrases : 

FrImS pueritiS, in early boyJiood ; ill5 tempore, at Viat time ; in ill9 
tempore, in those circumstances, at tJiat crisis; in tempore or tempore = 
at tJie light time ; bell5 FersicS, at Vie tijne of Vie Persian war ; in bellO| 
in war times; in pace, in peace times. 

Remark.— D6 is also used in designations of time: 

Ut jugnlent hominSs sorgant d6 nocte latrOnSs. Hoiu To kill people^ Mghwaih 
men rif^ by nighty i. c, while it is yet night. 

Inter, bettoeen: Qaot prandia inter contintmm perdidi triennixun. Plaut. 
now ffuiny luncheons Ihane lost during three years together f 

IntrS, within : SabSgit sOlos intrS viginti diSs. Tlaut. He quelled them aU 
alone in less than twenty day<. 

Or per, through^ sec 337, K. 

Com, with ; cum prImS IfLoe, with daybreak, 

394. B. The Place Whence is transferred : 
1. To Origin ; 2. To Measure, 

1. Ablative of Origin, 

395. Participles which signify Birth take the Ahlatiye of 
Origin, with or without the Prepositions ex and d6: 

Tanaquil summd loc5 nata. Lrv. TanaquU born {by birUi) of high de- 

Niunae Pompilil regis nep5s, fUiS ortus, Ancus Maidos erat. Lr^. 
King Numa PompiUus's grandson, a daughter's son, was Ancus Mafcius. 

Maecenas atavis edite regibns. Hor. Maecenas, offshoot of great-grand* 
W'e kir^s, 

Dls genite et geniture de58. Veiio. Begotten of gods and destined to 
beget gods ! 

Sate sanguine divam ! Vero. Seed of blood divine ! 

Ex me atque h5c natns es. Ter. Tou are his son and mine, 

OdSrunt nStSs dS pellioe. Juv. They Jiate t/ie offspring of tlte canaibinc 

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Ab Is employed of remote progenitore : 

Pl$riqae Belgae sunt ortl ab Omrmftiili. Cas& Belgiam are modlg of 
Oerman decent 

396. The Ablative of Material commonly takes ex : eonstftre, 
to consist, sometimes omits the preposition-, bat not in Giceio : 

Ex anima constHmua et coxpcre, constSmm ez animS et ooipore. Cic. 
We couMt of mind and body, 

Mediclna t5ta constat ezpmrlmantXi. Quint. AU medicine it made up 
of expetiments {is empirical). 

Bat : Statua ex anr5, ex aere, facta, a statue made of gcKd^ of bronee, 
Often aa adjective is used : aurana, golden, lignena, loooden, 

Rexarks.—!. a remnant of the old usage is fonnd with flo and fiteio : 
Qald IBcistl scIpiQiie t What have you done with the waiutf 
Quid me fiet 1 What wUl become of me r 
Quid mSfntllntm est 1 What is to beoome of me f 
Quid faoiSs 1l5c homine 1 Ihw wUt you dispote of this man f 
HiiSe hoittinl ? What will you do to this mam f Di ]v5c hoxnine, im this maiCs ease, 
FX68 d6 rhetore consul. Jvy. From chaving been) rhetorician you will become C(m- 

2. Otherwi!*e the simple Ablative of Material is poetic or late : 
XSvors eaelStiu ferrO. Vsro. Mars careen if irotu 
XeliOre latO ftnzit Jut. He fashioned U<tf better clay, 

2. ANaUve of Meaeure. 

397. The Ablative gives the Point from which a thing is 
measured or treated : Ablative of Measure or Eeference. 

Rex ARK.— Bat the Measure of Difference (400) Is perhaps better regarded as the 
AblStlVUS Loefilis. Comp. Greek Dat. Locative. 

398. The Ablative is put in answer to the questions From 
What Point of View ? According to What ? By What ? In Be- 

Ms^;n58 hominSs virtata metimur, ndn fortuna. Xep. We measure 
great men by toortfi, not by fortune. 

Bonis hominSs dlgndscimus ut aera tinnltfl. QniKT. We distinguish 
men by sound as coppers by ring, 

Descxiptus erat populus RomSnus censu, ordinibus, aet^tibus. Cia 
I7ie people of Borne was drawn off according to income, rank, (and) age. 

Ennius ingani5 maximus arte rudis. Ov. Ennius in genius great, in 
art unskilled. 
Anim5 ignSvus, procax 5re. Tac. Coward at heart, saucy of tongue. 
Orlne ruber, red-haired; captus ocuUs (Uterally, caught in tlie eyes). 

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MkUl; capias mants, insane; maS aenieiitii, oMording to my ^nkm: 
Jfir«, hy rig?U ; 19ge, bp law; and tbe Snpines in -u (437). 

RmABKfl.~l. PrppocitiouB are alfo need, which eenrc to show the conception : 

Caeiarit adraatM as colore reftltlU eognitus ett. Cam. The arHvol qf Canof 
WW known by (he color of his clothing. 

Bi gMttl intellego quid retpondaSt. Cia / undirsktna by your geshtn uhai 
answer you are giving. 

Ex iSge, according to law ; ex paotO« according to agreement ; ex (dS) BiOre, aeeont 
Ing to custom ; ex animi sententiS* acoordUig to {my) hearVs desire; ex lUtl, useful. 

Ah animO aeger fat Plaut. At heart I was sick. 

OtiOfnm esse ah animO. Tsr. To be easy in mind, 

S. Digniu (distinguished), worthy, and indlgnott unworthy^ are most conTcniently 
leferred to this head. (Examplet, see 978> R. 8.) 

8o al8o dignor> I deem worthy, 

300. The Ablative of Measure is nsed with the Comparative 
instead of qaam, iJia7i, with the Nominative or Accusative: 

Tanica propior pallid. Prov. 77ie shirt is nearer than tlie doah. 

Fhldiae idmulScxis (= quam ri nm lgcra) cdgit&ra possumtm pulchriSra. 
Cic. We can imagine more beautiful things than tlie statues of Phidias, 

So also after adverbs, but not so freely in prose : 

NSmo ast qui tibi sapiantios suftdSra posait t§ ipsd. Cic. Tliere is no 
one who can give you wiser advice ilian you yourself. 

Pulchrum omStmn turpSs mSrSs p^Jus oaan5 collinunt. Plaut. FaiU 
behavior doth bedraggle fine apparel worse than mud, 

RsxABKe.— 1. Tlie comparative is also employed witL the Ablative of certain abtUact 
■ah^tantivcs and adjective? n!>ed as »ab!*tantive9 : 

Consul serins sp6 (= qaam spfis fuerat) BOmam vinit Lit. The consul mwm 1c 
Home later than was hoped. So opIniOne. 

Amnis solitO citStior. Lit. The river running faster than uswU, 

ft. Alios, other tlian, with the Ablative, is poetic 

400. Measure of Difference is put in the Ablative : 

Turris d9nJs pedibns quam mtlrus alU5raa iunt. CuRT. The towers 
are (by) ten feet higlier than the wall, 

Tant5 ast accus^a quam d^fandara qoantO facara quam iftnfira tuL 
nara bacillus. Quint. Jtisas much easier to accuse than to defend as it i$ 
easier to inflict wounds than to heal them, 

Parfar at obdtirS : mult5 gravlSra tulistl. Ov. Endure to the end and 
be firm : you have borne much more grievous burden*. 

QuOqua minor spds est, b5o magia Ilia euplt Ov. And i/ie less 7Ut 
hope, Vu greater his desire. 

Bex ARKS.— 1. This role applies to verbs involving difference as well as to oomparatlvet < 
AescoU^piX templnm qoinqae miUibos passaom ah orhe EpidanrO dlitat Lrr. 
Tks temple of Aesculapius is Jive mUes from the city qfEpidaurus. 
S. The Accusative is sometimes employed. (See 888.) 

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a. Especially to be noted It tlie nie of the AldfttlTe of HeMnre witb uite, bcfbn, *a4 


Panel! ante di^bns. Panels diSbne ante, a few days be/or*. 

Panels post ditbns. Panels diSbns post, a few days (tfter^ qfterward. 

SnObns aanfii pestqnam BOma eondita est. Two yean qfter Home was founded, 

PanlO post Trojam eaptam« A little while <tfter the taking of Troy. 

The Accu^>ative can also be employed: post paneos annOs. ofter a few yean; ante 

paneOs annOSt a few years b^ore ; and tbe ordinal as well as the cardinal nambers: tWQ 

hundred years qfteriward) may be : 

Dncentis annis post or DneentSsimO annO post. 
Post dncentOs annOs '* Post dneentteimnm annnm. 

Ante hOs sex mensSs, six months ago (comp. 89S, R. S), more frequently abhine sex 
mensSs : abhinesexmensibns, means six months b^ore (Bfadvig). 

With a relative sentence the Ablatire may be nsed alone : 

Boseil mors qnatiidnO qnO is oeelsns est. CbrysogonO nftntUtnr. Cia Th4 
death qf Boedus was announced to Chrysogonuefour days after he was kUled (in the courm 
qf the four days tciihin which he was killed). See 89*2. 

llenee is ad : ad sex mensSs, six months lunce, 


Abldtlvus soddtwus. Ablative of Attendance. 

1. Ablative of Mannar. 

401. The Ablative of Manner answers the question How ? 
and is used with the Preposition omn when it has no Adjective ; 
with or without cum when it has an Adjective : 

Miltiad§s sommS aeqnitlte res oonstituit Oher8on§sL Net. Miltiades 
settled the affairs of i/ie Cliersonese with iJte greatest fairness. 

N5n facile eat aequS commoda mente patL Ov. It is not easy to hear 
good fortune with an even temper. 

Cum eura scrXbere, to write with care, 

AliignSourS, \ 

Oum magnli curS, y with great care, 

Magnii cum ctlr^ ' 

Bbmark.— Several Ablatives are nsed adverbially without an Adjective or Prepoil> 
tion: ordinOt in an orderly manner; silentiO* sUently; cftstl, by chance^ acHdentaUyf 
vis et ratiOne. methodically ; dolO, frande, fraudulently. It is sometimes hard to dls- 
Unffnish between the Manner and the Instniment: yl, violently and by violence; fl ft 
armis, by force of arms; pedlbns, qfoot ; nSvibns, by ship. Notice, also, the use of 
per« ViroagJit with the Accusative: per yim, by violence; per lltterfis, by Utter. 

2. AUative of Quality. 
(DescHpUve Ablative,) 

402. The Ablative of Quality has no Preposition, and always 
takes an Adjective or an equivalent: 

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AgitU&u slaturfi fait humill. Kef. AffeiUdtu was (a man) af low 

Oato singulSrl fuit prudentiS et industriS. Nef. Cato was (a man) cf 
unique foresight and energy, 

lata turpiculo puella naso. Cat. That girl of yours with die ugly nose, 

OlfivX ferreX digiti poUicia craaaitfidine. Cabs. Iron naUs of tfie thiek* 
ness of your thumb, 

BmABK8.-~l. External and tranelect qaalities are pnt by preference In the Ablative ; 
HMsare, Number, Time, and Space, arc put tn the Genitive only; partes of the body ia 
the Ablative only. Otheniv'ise there is often no difference. 

S. Of nnnatural productions earn maybe used: agnaf eum laillO aapita* Lnr- A 
Cdjnd wUh a twine's head. 

Z. AXdaHve qr Means. 

403. The Instrument is put in the Ablative without a Prep- 

The Agent or Doer is put in the Ablative with the Prepo- 
sition ab (&) : 

The Person Through Whom is put in the Accusative with 

Pyrrhtis lapide interfectoa eit, Pyrrhw was killed by a stone, 
P3rrrhu8 a muliere intexfectus eat, Pyrrhus was killed by a woman, 
Pyrrhus S* muliere lapide interfectua est, Pyrrhus WOA killed by a 
woman witli a stone, 

_ , , ^ 1. nunt]5, by a message, 

Xerxes certior factus est, ( « x ^^^»«x k.. » «.^.«-^«-« 
. ^ > 3. a nuntio, oy a messenger, 

Xerxes was informed, ) 3 ^^^ nunUmn, by means of a messenger. 

Nee bene prSmeritls capitur neqae tangitur IrsL LUCR. (218, R 3.) 
Ipse docet quid agam : 0s est et ab ho s t e docerl. Ov. (310.) 
Discite sanarl per quern didicistis amSre. Ov. Learn to be healed by 
means of (bim by) xchom yaa teaitied to love, 

nsMAnKs.— 1. When the Instmrnent is personified and regarded as an Ap^nt, or tbo 
Agent is regarded as an Iut>trament, the const mctions are reversed ; when an AdJectlTe is 
used, the construction may be doubtful, 3&2, R. 

&o jacent sals testihas. Cic. They are cast by their own witnesses; or, they art 
caet, their own men being witnesses. * 

2. Especially worthy of note under this head arc assuesoo and assuSfaoio : assnStas 
labOre. accustomed to toU, familiar with toil (the Dative is more rare) ; doctus GraeeXf 
Ulterls, learned in Greek; and the various words for sacrifice : 

QoinqaSgintS caprii iacrifioSySmnt. Liv. They saa'ijicedffty she-goats, 
Afficere, to treaty wiih the Ablative, is a favorite turn ; see the Lexicons. 

3. Nltor, I stay myself is construed with the Ablative, with or without in: HaitOI 
nizas, leaning on a spear (stayed by a spear). 

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[PompeniiiTltSnltlbStiirBallUelTiUtii. Cia TAi tMol qT UU StaU dipmided 
an Bmtpey^s life, 

l^otlce also itSre, with the Abl. : stSre condidOnibns, U> abide by ths termt. 

4. Ablative qf Price. 

404. Definite Price is put in the Ablative : 

Vigintl talentis unam drStidnem liocratis v§ndidit. Plik. leoeraies 
Bold one speech for twenty!/ talents. 

Emit morte immortSlitStem. QumT. JBe jmrdiased deaUdessnest with 

Kimimn rlsus pretium est sX probitatiB impendid constat. Quint. The 
price of a laugh is too high, if it costs Vie outlay of a man's upriglUness. 

Argentum accepi; d5te imperium v§ndidl. Plaut. The cash 1 
took,' (and) for a dowry sold my sway. 

Pevark.— MtltSre. to exchange^ Is pomctimcs Give, pometimes Get; eometlines Sell, 
somct imcs Buy. The Istter use it confined to poetry snd Uter proMti 

PSx misera yel bellO bene mUtStnr. Tac. a wretched peace is well exchanged even 
for war. 

Diinis qui potnit IncrO mtltSre paellam. Pbop. JIard (Ia the soal of the) man 
who could sell his eweetheart for lucre. 

Ctlr yaUe permfitem SablnS dlviti£s operOsiOrCs. Hob. Why should I exchange 
my Sabine vale for riches sure to breed (me) greater trouble t 

6. Ablative with Sundry Verbs. 

405. The Deponent Verbs Utor, Abfltor, Fruor, Fnngor, Potior, 
and Vescor, take the Ablative: 

Victoria uti niseis. Lrv. How to make use of mctory you know not. 

Qu5usque tandem abutere patientiS nostrS. Cic. IIow long, teU me^ 
will you abuse our patievte f 

Ijox qua fniimur S Bed nSbIs datur. Cic. T7ie light which we ei^foy is 
given to us by God. 

Fungor vice cdtis. HoR. / (icquit myself of, discharge the office of a 

Tutius esse arbitrabantur sine ulI5 vnlnere vict5ria potirl CAEa 
They thought it safer to make themselves masters of the victoj'y without any 

Nmnidae lacte vesoebantur. Sall. The Numidians made their food of 
milk {fed on milk). 

HsxARKs.- 1. These Ablatives are commonty regarded as Ablatives of the Instru- 
ment; but fruor* I get fruit, and yescor. I feed myse^ from (y6-ed-scoi)« and perhajM 
fungor seem to take the Ablative as a Whence-case. In older Latin they are sometimes 
combined with the Accusative. Hence they have a Gerundive : 

JUstitia dicet tS esse ixgHstum cum graviter ferfis tS quod tltendum aoc«- 

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peril zeddidisM. Ck. JuttieewUl say that you are w^utltinoeyaurttmtkavlmffret^^ 
what yoH fiave received (bnt) to u$€, 

2. Vtf (0 a fiivorite word, and has a most varied translation : 

Vtl aliquO amIeO, to avail oneseffofito er^y) a nuuCt friendthip {to have a friend in 

VtX oonsiliO, tofoUaw advice; ILtl bonO patre, to have the advantage of having a 
good father ; lltl iSgibus, to obey the laws. Sec the Lexicons. 

3. Vivo is cont>trued like vescor: aliSnS misericordift tIvo. /ffr^ on the charity 
of others. 

Potior, / poesete myMlf, sometimes takes the GenitlTo ; always potlrl Tttma. to 
foeeeee oms^f ^ 1>h/e supreme power. 


406. The Ablative of Cause may be referred to so many 
classes, that it is most convenient to regard it as a class by 

407. The Ablative of Cause is used without a preposition, 
chiefly with Verbs of Emotion : 

Castor gaudet equXs. Hon. Castor rejoices in /lorses, 

Quldam vitils aula gldriantur. Sen. Some make a boast of their vices, 

Pecunia fldens n5n dubitabat. N£P. Trusting in his money , lie had no 


InculpS sunt qui officia deserunt mollitiii animX. Cic. 27iey are to 

blame who shirk tlieir duties from effeminacy of temper, 

Oderunt peccare bonX virtutis amSre. UoK. The good hate to sin from 

love of virtue. 

So also Jussu civium, at the bidding of tJie citizens; mie5 rogfttii, at my 

request^ aud other verbal Ablatives. On causa and grSti^ for Vie sake of 

see 372. 

Remarks.- 1. The moving cause is often expressed by a participle with the Ablative: 
addactu8,/e<f; 9X^en», fired; eommHtVLB, stirred up ; in^t^tjxM, egged on ; iaorxisiis, 
irfiamed ; impalsus, driven on ; IrS. by anger ; odiO, by hale ; mBtVL^from fear ; metfl 
perterritus. sore frightened ; propter metumt on account qf^ {by reason of) feai: 

2. The preventing cau^ is expressed by prae,/or ; 

Frae gaadiO nbi sim nSscio. Ter. I know not where lam for Joy. 


408. The so-called Ablative Absolute is an Ablative com- 
bined with a participle, and serves to modify the verbal predicate 
of a sentence. Instead of tne participle, a predicative substan* 
tive or adjective can be employed. 

Rbxabk.— This Ablative, which may be called the Ablative of Circamstance, springs 
flom the Temporal Use oi the Ablative— the Temporaifrom the Local. 

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409. The Ablatiye Absolute may be translated by the Eng- 
lish Objective Absolute, which is a close equivalent : but for 
purposes of style, it is often well to analyze the thought, to 
change Passive into Active, to make use of an abstract noun. 

Xerze regnante (= Qaam Xerx§s ragn^et), Xerxei retgning. When 
JOerxes uas reigning. In Vie reign of Xerxes, 

Xerze vict5(=: Qmim XenL§s victus esset), Xerxes being, Jiaving leen, 
defeated. When Xerxes had been defeated. After Vie defeat of Xerres, 

Xence rSge (= Qunm XerzSs r§z esset]^ Xerxes [being] king. When 
Xerxes was king, 

Patre -vlv5, vfKVLR father is^ was alive (infathsf's lifetime), 

Mairimas virtutes jacere omnSn necesse est voluptSte domi- 
nant e. Cic. All the great (est) virtues must necessarily lie prostrate, if (or 
when) tfte plecuure (of tbe senses) is mistress, 

Romanl veteres regnarl omn§8 volSbant UbertStiB dnloSdine 
nondjom e x p e r t a. Liv. T/ie old Romans all wislied to hate a king over 
Viem (BECAUSE tbey had) not yet tried t/ie sweetness of liberty. 

Urbe ezpugnata imperStor rediit : 

Passh-e Form : The city [being] taken (after tlie city was taken), tliegene* 
rol returned. 

Active Form : Having taken Vie city (after he liad tdken tJie city), tfte 
general returned. 

Abstract Form : After the taking of the city. After taking the eity, 

HEX ARKS.— 1. As tbe Latin langaage has no Perf . Part. Active, except the Deponent, 
which is thus nsed, the Passive constroction is fkr more common tlian in Bn<;lish : 

Tune jnyenta veste potitfi corpora oleO peranxSnuit. Cia Then the youths, 
Qiaving) laid aside their clothing, anointed their bodies with oil: or, laid aside their doth- 
iMg, and anointed their bodies toith oil, 

2L The Ablative Absolute, though often to be rendered by a coordinate sentence, for 
ccmvenience* sake, always presents a subordinate conception : 

Lysander inSdet Lacedaemonili at rSgiS potestftte dissoltltS exonmibtu dnz 
dnigStnr ad beUnm gerendnm. Nbp. Lysander advises the Lacedaemonians that the 
royal jtovoer be done away with, and a leader be chosen from all, to conduct the war. Here 
the one is necessary to the other. 

8. As a rule, the Ablative Absolute can stand only when it Is not identical with th« 
■object, object, or dependent case of the verbal predicate. Manlius dew the Gaul and 
Stripped him qf his necklace, is to be rendered : Manlins oaei um OaUnm torqno spo- 

Tho role is most frequently violated when the dependent case is in the Genitive : 
Jugnrtha frfttre mod interfectO regnum 6j ns seeleris sul praedam fBcit- Saix. 
Jugurtha killed my brother, and (= after lulling my brother) made his throne the booty of 
kU crime, 

4. On the Ablative of the simple participle, see 438, R. 2. 

Names of Towns and Small Islands. 

410. Names of Towns and Small Islands are put- 
In the Accusative of the Place Whither. 

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So also rtto, t7ito the country, dommn, domds, Jiome. 

UgStI Ath§nSs rnisRl Bont. Lit. Envoys were sent to Athens. 

I«3tdQa conlugit Delum. Cia Latona took refuge in Delos, 

Ijaelius et ScXpio rus evoKLbant. Cic. LaeUus and Seipio used to hurry 
out into Vie country. 

InnmnerSbilSs philosophl nonquam do mum revertere. CiC. /9»» 
numerable phUosopJiers never returned home. 

So yerbals : domum reditos, a return home, 

Rbmauks.— 1. Domnm, Aoum, with a possessive pronoun, or Genitive, may or may 
not have in before it : domum meam or in domum meam, to my houn ; domum Pom- 
p6jl or in domum FompSjI, to Pompei/s house; also domum ad Fomptjum. Other- 
wit>e : in magnifloam domum yenire, to come into a grand Iwvm, 

2. When urbem, ^ty^ or oppidum, towny precedes the name of the city or town, the 
preposition in or ad \^ prefixed ; if urbem or oppidum follows, in or ad may be omit- 
ted : in (ad) oppidum Cirtam. io^ in, (at) the town (oO drta, 

Jugurtha Thalam pervSnit in oppidum magnum et opulentum. Saix. JugvT' 
ika anived al ThcUa^ a gt-eat and wealthy town, 

8. Ad means to the neighborhood qf^ ofr.en before^ of military operations. AdMutl- 
nam, to l/ie neighborhood (Hege of) Mutina (Modena). 

4. 01)ser\'c that there must be motion^ not merely extent^ which requires a preposition : 
A SalOnli ad Oricum portfls. Caes. The harbors from Satonae to Oricus, 

5. Motion To a Place embraces all the local designations : 

Fhalara in sinum MSliacum prOcesserant Liv. They had advanced to Pkalara 
on the Jlaiiac Gulf, 

Tarentum in Italiam inferiOrem proficisci, to set out for Tarentitm in Lower 

411. Names of Towns and Small Islands are put — 
In the Ablative of the Place Whence : 

Demaratus fugit Tarquinids Corinth5. Liv. Dem^iratus fled to Tar- 
guiniifrom Corinth, 

Dolabella Del5 proficiscitur. Cic DolabeUa sets out from Delos, 

So also dom5, from home; humS, from ilie ground; rure, from the 

Remarks.— 1. The prepositions ab (S) and ez (6) arc sometimes used for the sake of 
greater exactness. So regularly ab with the Place from which distance is measured : 

AesculSpil templum quinque mllibus passuum ab urbe EpidaurO dlstat Lit. 
(400, R. 1.) 

When the common nouns urbe, city, and oppidO, totvn, are employed, the use of the 
^position is the rule : 

Aulide, ez oppidO BoeOtiae, /rt>m Aulis^ a town of Boeotia. 

Ez AponOniS Font! urbe,/w/» Apollonia, a city ofPontus. 

Ez oppidO Gergovi5,/wm the toion of Gergovia. 

2. Tli« Place Whence embraces all the local designations : 

AgrigentO ez AesculSpil fSnO, whereas we should say, from the tempts qf Aeseuta 
plus at Agrigentmn. 

IJnde domO 1 Vkbo. F^xtm what homef 

8. Letters are dated/Vvm rather than at a place. 

4. The poets are free in using the Ablative as a Whence*CMe. 

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412. Names of Towns and Small Islands are put 
In the Locative of the Place Where. 

The Locative coincides in the Sinpfular with the Genitive of the Second 
Declension, with the Dative of the First and Third. In the Plural, Dative, 
Locative, and Ablative coincide, and the Ablative is blended with the Lo- 
cative in Syntax and, in the Third Declension, often in form. (See 23, R. 1.) 

Locative S. 1. Rdmae (R5mSI) PI. 1. AthSnIs 

2. Corinth! 2. Delphls 

3. Sulm5ni(e) 3. Cnribus. 

Ut Rdmae oonsules sic EarthaginX (CarthSgine) quotannls bin! rSg9n 
creSbantor. Nep. As at Home (two) consuls^ so in Cartilage two kings^ were 
created yearly. 

Artemisia ndbile fecit HalicamassI sepolcrum. Cic. Artemisia built 
a famous sepulchre at Ilalicarnassus. 

Tarquinios Superbns mortuus e&t Cnmls. Lrv. Tarquin the Over^ 
bearing died at Cumae, 

Tbnotheva laesbl vlxit. Ngp. Timotheus Hoed in Lesbos, 

Bbivarkb.— 1. Otber locative forms arc, doml* at home^ (Oonitivc, domfls) baxnlt on 
the ground, and al90 belli and mllitiae, in combination with domi: 

Farvl sunt forls arma nisi est consilinm d o m I. Cic. 0/ little value are arms 
abroad unless there is wisdom at home, 

Hnml jacSre, to lie on the ground, 

Homl prOsternere, to throw flat on the ground. 

DomI mllitiae^ae, belli domlque, in peace and in war^ in war and in peace, at home 
and in thefleld, 

Btlrlt in the country, is also generally considered a locative form (bat rSre meO* on my 

On animl. see 374, n. 3. 

2. Appot>itloii9 are put in the Ablative common^ with in : 

MllitSs Albae canstitfirant in orbe opporttLnS, the soldiers halted at Alba, a con- 
veniently situated toivn, 

ArchiSs Antiochlae nStns est celebri quondam urbe, Archlaa was bom at AnU- 
och, once a poptdous city. 

NeSpoU in celeberrim9 oppidS. at Naples, a very populous townr— in the popuUms, 
celebrated town of Naples. 

When nrbe, city, oppid9« town, or insolSt island, precedes, the proposition is always 

In nrbe B9m5, in the city (of) Home. 

In oppidO NeSpoU, in ihe tmpn of Naples, 

In insolS Sam9, in l/ie island (of) Sariwa, 

3. DomI talces the Pojfsosjfivo Pronoun !u the Genitive : 

Marcns ^rdsas osclsos est doml suae, M, Drusus was killed at hie ow% house, 
AIxo doml aliSnae, in a strange lumse. 

Mctnis at doml meae ctLrdtor dlligenter^ Ter. You fear that the wiU not be care- 
fully nursed at my house ; otherwise, in domO castSi in apurehouH. 
In dom9 Periclis« in the houseOxoMi) of Pericles, 
In domO, in t/ie tu)us€ (not, at home). 

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213 PRBP08ITI0KS. 


413. The Prepositions are local adverbs, which serve to define 
more narrowly the local ideas of the cases. The only cases that 
convey local ideas are the Accusative and Ablative. The Accu- 
sative, as the case of the Direct Object, represents the relation 
whither? the Ablative represents the relations whence? and 
where ? 

Bexarks.— 1. la Verbs of Motion, tho result of the motion is often considered m 
Rest in a place (wliere) : 

FOnere in locO, to put in a place, 

3. In Verbs of Rest, tho Rest is sometimes conceived as tho Result of motion 
(whither) : 

HabSre in potestStem, to have (got) In (to) one'^t power. 

In carcerem asservSre* to keep in Jail, 

3. Prt'po:«iti(>a8 derive their name fn>m the fact ttiat they are prefixed in composition. 
Many of the Latlu preiHMitioiis are not used in composition, and tliunc may be called im- 
proper prepositions. The prefixes amb- (am- an-), dis (dl), port- (porr-, por-, pol-). 
red- (re-), l6d- (S6-) and y6- are sometifnes called inseparable prepositions. 

414. Position of the Preposition. The Preposition generally 
precedes the case. 

Remarks.— l.Yerfus, -ward^ and tenns. ae far ae, arc postpositive, and so Is am* 
with, in combination with the Personal Prouoims and Relative : 

Mficnm. ivith me. 

Hoc tScnm possum vivere nee sine tS. Mabt. (391.) 

SScom, loUh one«t{f, 

QnOcom (also quIcnmO with whom (likewise, cnm qnO). 

Qaibnscnm, with wtunn^ wherewith (also, cam qnibns). 

2. Other prepositions are postponed chiefly after the relative: qnem OOnttS, OQiUnti 
whom; qnOs inter, among whom; qnO d9,/ivm whom, 

8. Poets and alTected writers are very free in patting tho Preposition alter its c&s«. 

415. The Preposition is often put between the Attribute and 
the Case : 

Magn5 cum metn, uith great fear. 

Whereas the Genitive and other forms of the Attribute and 
connecting particles are often put between the Preposition and 
its case : 

PoBt v5r5 Bullae victdriam, hut qfter SuXUCs vidory, 

BxvABK.— Especially to be noted is the position of per, through (by), in a^nrotlons : 
X^^ftdleperomntaTSdeOiOrO, Hon. LifdUm,UU^bi/aUth$godi,lpra^thet. 

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416. llepetition and Omission of tJie F reposition. — ^With 
diflferent words^which stand in the same connection, the Prepo- 
sition is repeated, when the Preposition is emphatic, or the indi- 
vidual words are to be distinguished ; so always after et — et, neo 
—nee: ct ex urbe et ex agrU, both from (the) citi/ and from (the) , 
country. Otherwise it is omitted ; so always with que. 

Olddins S Blildne oandid&tS consuHitui JugulStus est Yell. Clodiiu 
UHU killed by MUo, a candidate for the consuWiip. 

Cim5n in eandem Invidiam Incidit (in) qoam pater suns. Nep. (296). 
XMsdtte sSnSrX per quern ( = per emn per quern) dididstis amSre. Ov. 

Remark.— Several Prcpoeitionr, such «8 oontrft, oh the other hand^ extrS, outside, 
infrftt belowt inprS, above^ nltrS, beyond, are nsAd aleo as adverbs witboat a ca»e : 

IliaeOf intrS mftrOi pecefttnr et txtri. Hob. Jnekte the watte pf lUum ein it 
wrought^ and outeide {too). 

Othcruii^c two Prepositions cannot be used with one case: For and against Sdpio, 
Pro SelpiOne et advert tu ScIpiOnem. Btfore and qfter the battle^ ante pngnam et 
post earn. 

417. Prepositions construed with the Accusative are : 



















post and 









Rkmarks.— 1. To these we may add clanit unknoum to, hidden from (e6l-0« OO-CUl-O) 
which i^ commouly used as an adverb secret:!/ and is construed with the Ablative as well 
as M'ith the Accusative : in classic prose with Abl. only Cabs. B. C. 2, 32. 

% The detailed consideration of the Prepositions belongs to the Dictionary. 

Ad, at, to (comp. ad-do, I put to), up Oircum, ) 

io--opposed to Ah, Circa, \ <^round, about. 

Adversus, {[turned to], towards, Oirciter, about (seldom of place, 

Adversum, ) over against, against. sometimes of time, cbiefly with 

Ante [over against, facing], befo7*e numerals), 

(most frequently of time). Ois, } this side, short of, correlative 

Apnd (chiefly of persons), at, near, Oitrfi, i of ultr^ 

in the presence of (official), wii/i OontrS ( = cum + tra), opposite to 

(French, cliee), at the house of, in over against, opposed to, against, 

thsti&wef, BrgS, opposite, towards, seldom of 

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place ; generally of friendly rela- 

SztrS, without^ outside of^ beside, (op- 
posed to IntrS). 

InfrS, beneath, lower down, later, 
' Inter, between (reaching from one to 
the other), among, during. 

Intrfi, within, 

JvLxiSi [a^oining], 7iard by, near, next 

Ob (over against, op-posits to), rigid 
before, with a tiew to, for. 

Penes, mth z= in Vie /lands of. 
Penes enm est potestas, 77ie 
power lies wiili Jiim, ito, by. 

Per {along), through, by way of, owing 

Pdne, beHdnd (rare). 

Post, behind, after. 

Praeter, on before, past, beyond^ be- 
sides, contrary to. 

Prope, near. 

Propter, near, on account cf. 

Secundum [folloufing], next to, imma* 
diately behind, after, along, accord" 
ing to, 

SuprS, above, JUglier up (earlier). 

Trans, on Vie other side, beyond^ 

UltrS, on iliat side, beyond (opp. to 

Versus, -ward (always postponed). 
R5mam versus, Homeward, 

418. Prepositions construed with the Ablative are 
A, ab, and abs, off, of, from, by (op-Bx, fi, out of, from (opposed to In) 

posed to ad). 
Before vowels and h, ab ; before 
consonants, & or ab ; abs, used 
cliicfly before tS, tliee. 
Absque (off), without (antiquated). 
05ram,/acd to face with, in t/ie pres- 
ence of (accidental). 
Cum, with, 
D«, down from, from, of= about. 

Before vowels and consonants, ez^ 
before consonants §. 
CVTho nee Is often cooTentloiially fixed. 
Prae, in front of, side by side uith, for 

(preventive cause). 
Pr5, before, for. 

Sine, without, opposed to cum. 
Tenus (to t/ie extent of), as far as 

(occasionally with the Genitive). 

Rbmabk.— Ill iK>cti7 and later proro palam^ openly, takes tbo Ablative ; prooult (tfar, 
follows the analogy of ab ; simnl, at the tarns time, that of cnm. 




419. Prepositions construed with the Accusative and Abla- 

tive are : 

In, in. 
Sub, under, 
Sup«r, over, 

Sobter, under. 


into, for (puri>ose), 
about (of time), 
over, above, 

over and above, 
undcr^ beneal/i, 


about (of time) [rarely]. 
about z= dS, 

over [in prose rarely], 
under, beneath [rarelyj. 

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iNPiNrnvB, 215 

The IxpiNimn! as a Substantite. 

420. The InGnitive is the snbstontive form of the verb. 

RcxARK.— The Infinitive differs from a verbal substantive. In that It retains the ad- 
verbial attribate, the designations of voice and time, and the re.dmen of the verb : 

AmSre. to loce ; yaldS amSre, to love hugely; amirl, to be loved ; amSTitso, to ham 
loved ; amSre aliqnem, to love a man ; noeSre alicnl, to hurt a man. 

Bat the great claim cf the Infinitive to be cons^idcred a verb lies in the involntlon of 
firedicatc find snbject. Lilce the finite verb, the Infinitive involves predicate and »ubJoct ; 
tftt the subject is indefinite and the predication is dependent 

421. The Infinitive, when it stands alone, involves an indefi- 
nite Acensative Subject, and the Predicate of that Subject is, of 
course, in the Accusative Case. 

RSlcem esse, To he king, 
Bonum esse, To be good. 

So in tlie paradigm of the verb 

AmStunun esse, To he about to love. 

K km ab k .— On the Nominative with the Infinitive by Attraction, eee 888. 

In consequence of this double nature, the Infinitive may bo used as a 
substanlive'or as a verb. 

422. The Infinitive, as a Noun, is used regularly in two 
cases only — Nominative and Accusative. In the other cases its 
place is sui)plied by the Gerund and the Ablative Supine. 

Hexark.— The only adjective attribute which it takes in model prose is Ipsnnu 
Oi5e ipsam). 


423. The Infinitive, as a Subject, is treated as a neuter sub- 
stantive : 

ErrSre humSnum est. To err is human (that man should err is human). 
In ci p er e mtiltS est qnam imp e t r S r e facilius. Plaut. Begirt 

fdng is much easier (work) than winning, 

NOn lam turpe fait vincI quam contendisse decSrum est. Ov. (375.) 
SsBe bo nam facile est quum quod vetet esse remdtum est 

Ov. Be a good woman — *tis easy when xohat would prevent it is distant, 


424. The Infinitive is used as the Objeijt of Verbs of Creation, 
commonly known as Auxiliary Verbs. 

TlMse Veils help the InflniUve into czisteneo. 

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316 nrFiNmvic 

Such verbfl denote Will, Power, Duty, Habit, Inclination Rcsolrv, Con- 
tinuance, End. and tlie like, with their opposites : 

Smorl cupio. Tbr. I want to die, 

Oato esse quam vid§rX bonus mSlSbat. Sall. Cato preferred 
being (good) to seeming good. 

St precor ut p o s s i m tutius esse miser. Or. And I pray VuU I 
may he more eafdy icretclied, 

Vincere scis, Hannibal; victdriS uti nSscIs. Lvr, How to 
win victory^ you knoWy Hannibal ; Iww to make use of victory^ you know noL 

Qnl morl didicit, serrlre d§didicit. Sen. He w?io 7ias learned to 
die has unlearned to be a slave. 

MaledictXs dSterrere n§ scrlbat pat at Teb. He is preparing 
(trying) to frighten (him)/re>?;i writing^ by abuse 
So par&tus, ready, 

Qnl mentXrX solet, p^erSre consuSvit Cia He who is wont ioUe i$ 
aeeustomed to swear falsely, 

Vulnera quae fecit debuit ipse patL Or. The wounds hegaw he 
should himself Jiave suffered, 

Vereor tS laudare praesentem. Cic. I feet a delicacy about praising 
you to your face, 

Religidnum animum n5dl8 ezsolvere pergo. LucR. I go on to 
loose the spintfrom the bonds of superstitious creeds, 

Atque nt i^vSmus vivere d§sinimus. AIaet. And that we may 
live, we cease to live. 

So habeo, / Iiave (it in my power). 

Tantnm habeo pollicerl m5 tibi cumnlSte satisfactumm. Crc. So 
mucli lean promise that I will give you abundant satisfaction, 

Rbxauks.— 1. Notice that coepX, I hate begiiriy anddSsinOt Iceag^^ have VstAje Per- 
fects with Passive Inflnitivcs : 

Ath^niensSs nndiqne premX bellO sunt coeptl. Nep. The Athenians began to feel 
iht pre$mire q^ tvar on ifrom) allHdes, 

TeterSs OrStiOnSs legX sunt dCsitae. Cic. The old speeches have ceased to be read. 

When the Passives are reall}' Reflexives or Neuter, the active forms may be used. 

S. Verbs of Will and Desire take at as well as the Inf. So regularly optO* I choose. 

8L Verbs tvhicb denote Hope and Promise are treated as Verbs of Sayhig and Think- 
ing (SaO) (occasionally as in En^^Ush) : 

8p6ro m9 h9e adeptHmm esse* I hope to (that I shall) ebtcAn this. 

PtOmittSbat sS ventfbmm esse, he kept promising that he would com* {to come), 

Doeeo, / teach^ jnbeo, Ibid, yeto, 1 forbid, sine, Ilet^ take the Infinitive as a Second 
Aocnsative : 

Bionysius n6 eoUnm tonsOrl eommitteret t o n d 9 r e flliSs snSs d o e u i t. Cfa 
DionyHifs, to keep from trusting his neck to a barber, taught his daughters to shave (tanght 
them shaving). 

Ipsejabet mortis tS meminisse Dens. Mabt. (9RL) 

Yltae Bomma breyis spem nCs yetat inoohSre longam. Hon. Hfe^s Mtf sum 
forbids us open (a) long (account with) hope. 

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OBBUXD. 217 

Hen M9d0s sinSs eqoitSre inultOi. Hon. Nw M tkeMedUmrUU and rUUtm- 

4. PoBTiCAi. UsKt OF THB iNnRirxYB : The poets use tho Infinitive as an Object with 
gnat freedom: 

1.) After many verbs whicli are not auxiliary in Prose : 

Ardet mere. Oy. Be glows {he bums) to rush. 

Quid sit fatHmm crSs foge quaerere. Hou. 'What wUl be to-morrow^ Jly Vu fptex- 

Farce tuom vStem sceleris damnSre, CupIdO. Ov. (8T7.) 

S.) For the Genitive of the Gerond and Gerundive, see 439, R. 4. 

8.) For the Accnsative of the Gerundive : 

Queiii virum ant Ii6r9a lyrS vel Scrl tIbiS sOmM oelebrSre, ClI0 1 Hon. 
What man or hero loUt thou undertake to celebrate on harp or ehiiUyJlute^ CUo t (sllxnSe 

But dare is need with tho Infin. even in prose, in ihmillar ptirascs! dare bibere, to 
give to drink, 

4.) For at, of purpose ; ad with the Gerund, or Gerundive ; or Supine: 

Tune ego : nOn oonlOe eed yentrem pascere ySnI. Mart. Then I: I'm come to 
feed my belly ^ not^ my eyes. 

Semper in dceaniim m i 1 1 i t mSqnaerere gemmSs. Pbop. 8he is alwaye 
sending me to the ocean to look for pe<iris. 

5.) For the Supine in -% ad with Gerund, or the like : 

BOma capl facilis. Lucan. Home is easy to be faken^ to take (facile capitar>. 

6.) In fine, the Infinitive is often used because the word or phrase is considered an 
equivalent to a verb of creation. In all these points the Post- republican prose follows 
poetry more or less closely. 


425. The Infinitive, as a verbal Substantive, may be used as 
a Predicate after the copula esse, to ie, and the like : 

DoctS homini at erudlt5 vivere est cdgitSre. Cic. To a learned and 
cultivated man to live is to think. 

GsBimD AND Gerundive 

426. The other cases of the Infinitive are supplied by the 
Gerund. With Prejoositions, the Gerund, and not thelnfinitivo, 
is employed. 

Bkmabk.— Of course the Infinitive may be quoted as an abstract notion : 
MoUam interest inter '' dare " et " accipere." Sen. There is a vast dUTerettce 
between ''Oive'' and *' IlecHve:' 

NoM. liOgere difficile est, rending {to read) is liard to do. 
Gen. Ars legendl, tJi£ art of reading, 

Puer studiSsus est legend!, tlie hoy ift iealous of leading. 
Dat. Puer operam dat legendo, (he hoy devotes himself to reading, 


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Aoc. Puer oupit legere, the bay is dmratu to read, 

Puer prSpensus est ad legendmn, tJi/e hoy has a bent towa/rd read' 
Abl. Puer discit legends, Ui^ hoy learns by reading, 

427. As a verbal form, the Gerund, like the Infinitive, takes 
the same case as the verb. 

Studium obtemperandX ISgibus. ZeaXfor obedience to the laios, 

BEVABK8.-1. The Gerund is the Sab^tantive of the Gerondive. (243, R 1.) The tif^ 
niflcation of necessity comes mainly Arora its use as a predicate. Verbal Nouns are ActiT6 
or Passive according to Ihe point of view. (Comixire 361.) So tlie Greeic Active Infini- 
tive being ultimately an abstract noun in tlie Dat., is often translated passively. 

S. Gerandive and Perfect Participle Passive are often translated alilce ; but in the one 
case the action is progressive or prospective, in the other it is completed. 

Caeiare interfteiendO Brfttos et Cassiiis patriae UbertStSm restitnere eOnStf 
g«nt. By the murder of Caesar (by murdering Caesar), Brutus and Cassius endeavored to 
hstore their country's freedom to her. 

Caeiare interfectO, Brfltus et Caiiius patriae llbertStem nOn reBtituSnint 
By murdering Caesar^ Brutus and Cassius did not restore their country^ s freedom to her, 

428. Gerundive for Gerund. — Instead of the Gerund, with 
an Accusative Object, the object is generally put in the case ol 
the Gerund, with the Gerundive as an Attribute. 

Gen. PlScandl Del, of appeasing Ood. 
Dat. Piacand5 J>eQ,for appeasing Ood, 
Abl. Placand5 De5, by appeasing God. 

In the model period this construction is invariably employed with Pre- 

Ad plScandSs DeSs, for appeasing the gods. 
In plScandls Dils, in appeasing the gods, 

Rbmarks.— 1. It is impossible to make a distinction between the Gerund and the 
Gerundive Form. They are often used side by side, where there can bo no diflTcrcnoe. 
Lit. xxi. 6; xxv. 40; xxviii. 87; xxxi. SO. The preference for the Gerundive is of a 
piece with the use of the Perf. Pass. Participle in preference to an Abstract Noun. 
(«57, R. 2.) 

2. Neuter Ac^ectives and Pronouns are not attracted: ■tndiam agendl aUquld. 
desire of doing something ; cnpiditfii pltlra habendl, greed for having more. But when 
ihe Neuter Adjective has become a substantive (11)6, R. S), the Gerundive form may be 
ued : modus inyestlgandl v6rlt the method of investigating the truth, 

8. The Gerundive can be formed only from Traniitlve Verbfl, nke ether passives. (9tt, 
R. 2.) Hence the impersonal form must be used for all verba iliat do not take th» 
Accusative,bnt with such verbs prepositions are rarely found. 

Ad pSrendum DeO,/or obeying Ood, 

Exceptions.— tTtendus, to be used; fruendus, to be enjoyed; potiendiu, to be poo- 
aeteed ; fungendus, to be discharged ; veseendoi, to be eaten (405) ; which, however, art 

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oxBUirD. 210 

used only * in fhe obUqae ctsei. FBrthef, m^dwdHt to bi hsoki; pMnitendofv fl^Ai 

Expetuntur dlTitiae ad pw ft — iff ■ f i duj i Uta k Cla Bkkm wn mmgh i J^ At 

¥HriBW wt aetata, cit8 pede HMtur >tffi. Or. LV(fiteaaomhiobii/^o^$g, 

tm^-fooUd gUdes that teatan. 

The Impersonal Nominatiye with the Aoens. If rare and antlqaated ; 

AetamSs qnoniam poenfii in morta timendviii att Luob. Slme$w$mutiftv 
eternal punishmenU in death, 


429. The Genitive of the Gerund and Oenmdiye is lied 
chiefly after suhstantives and adjeotiyes which require a com- 

Sapientla an vXvendX putanda eat Cia PhdoBophy it to be contkUred 
(he art of living, 

Et propter vltam vXvendl perdere cansSa. Jut. And on aeeoufU €f 
Ufe, to loee the reasomfor living, 

Raucaque gamilitSs staditunqne immfine loqnendX. Or. And Ikoarm 
c/iatUness, and a momtrous lote of talking. 

Triste est ipaum n5men carendL Cic. Dismal is Hue mere word 
"carSre" (go without), 

Ndn est plaoandX spSs mihi nulla DeL Or. / am not mVunU Iwpe of 
appeasing Ood, 

IgnSrant onpldX maledloendl plus invidiam quam convldnm posse. 
Quint. TJutee who are eager to abuse know not that envy has more power 
Vian bHUngsgaie. 

Titos eqnitandl pexltissimas fidt SuBT. Titus was exceedingly skiUful 
in riding. 

Neuter nfl prdtegendl corporis memor erat. Lit. Neither tlumght of 
shielding Ms own body. 

Qui hlb m5s obsidendl viSs et vir5s aliSnds appellandX? Lit. What 
sort of way is this of blocking up the streets and calling upon other women^i 
husbands f 

Snmma ilfidendl oooasio est mihi nimo senSs. Ter. I have a tip4op 
chance to fool t^ie old chaps now. 

Rbmarks.— 1. As mel, toX, inlf nostrit yestrl, are, la their origin, neater singalars, 
from menm, my being ; tnom, thy being; snnm, one'^s being^ etc, the Geraudivc is put 
in tlie pame form: conseryandl snI, qf preserving themselves; yestrl adhortandl. qf 
exhorting youj and no regard ia had to number or gender. 

C9pia plScandl sit mode parra tul. Or. Let (me) only have a aighi chance qf try- 
ing to appease you (feminine). 

Eztemally similar forms are found with other words, which may be regarded as de> 
pendent on a gemnd : Migandl ezamplOrum, qfehooOng (qO exan^^lee. 

• Or eUedy. In Cio. Fin. 1 • 1, 3, fr aenda (Nom.) it used for the aake of paraadib 

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Agitur ntnun AntOniO fiMoltSt dttur agrOmin inli latrOnibm oondSnaadl. 
Cia The question is whether Antony shall be empowered to give awajf lands to Ms pet 

8. Very common is oauBS (with the Gon. of Gcrand and Qerand\re)^/or the sake qf^ 
to express deelgii : dolOrnm effdgie&dOnuii etLU9E, for the sake qfesec^ioffetifer' 
k^; but sometimes tlie Genitiye alone is nsed : 

Lepidus arma e9pit UlMrtMi sii1ivert«ndae. Ball. LqAdus took tip arms as m 
wmlUm'qf (Jor the pwrpose of) tiuXnertb^ freedom. 

More commonly ad, larely ob. See 433. 

Esse with this Genitiye may be translated by seroe to. 

Omnia dUerbniiia tfilia concordiao minnendae tunt Lnr. AU such disOnetkm^ 
mre matters cf (belong to) the dimUnishing qf concord (serve to diminish concord). 

Comp. Cabs. B. O. v. 8: MStAi qofis lul qnisqne oommodX fteerat Shipe whiek 
each one had (had) made (as a matter) of personal convenience. 

3. Tempos est, it is (higb) time ; oonsiliom est Uismy (your, hit) plan; and a few 
others, may be nsed with the Infinitive : Tempos abire tibX est, It is time for you to go 

But when tempos is nsed in the sense of season C'a time to weep and a time to 
laogh^^), the Genmd, or Gerandivc, is retained : 

Lysander tempos rel gerendae nOn dlmisit. Nep. Lysander did not let the oppor* 
imUty of aeUon slip. 

4. The poets are very free in the nse of the InfiniUye for the Genitiye of the Genmd, 
inasmnch as they oonstme the A^iective or Sabstantive like the Cognate Verb. 

(At) sScllra qoiSs etnSsciafallere (^qoae nSsciat IkUere) vita. Yero. 
Quiet without a care^ and a l\fe thai knoweth not how to disappoint (ignorant of disa^ 


430. The Dative of the Gerund and Gerundive is used 
chiefly after words which imply capacity and adaptation : 

Aqua nitrSsa utUis est bibendS. Plin. Alkaline water is good for 
drinking {to drink). 

Lignum Sridum mSteria est idSnea eliciendls ignibus. Sbk. Drjf 
wood ieaflt substance for striking fire (drawing out sparks). 

Referundae ego habeo linguam nStam grStiae. Plaut. I Iiave a 
totigtte thaVs horn for showing thankfulness. 

Rarer is the Dative in combination with the Accusative . 
Oonsol plScandls dis dat operam. Liv. The consul does M endeavor t6 

appease the gods. 

Especially to be noticed is the Dative with ease, and in names 
of Boards : 

SolvendS dvitStSs n5n erant. Cic TJie communities were not equal t6 
{ready for) payment [were not solvent). 

Sapiens vires suSs n^vit, scit se esse onei^ ferendd. Sen. 77ie wise 
man is acquainted with his oton strength ; lie knows that he is (equal) io beat' 
ing the burden. 

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Rkmark.— Later wrlten treat the Dathre of the Geraad or QenmdlfO •■ IT eqthrakat 
load and the AccnaatlTeor GerandorGemndlTa. 


431. The Oenmdiye is used in the Accusatiye of the Object 
to be Effected^ after snch Verbs as Oiving and Taking, Sending 
and Leaying. (Factitiye Predicate.) 

Znvitt homiiil id anrum Mnrandum dedit Plaut. JBa gat$ HuUgM 
i0arich man iokeep. 

OonOn moras reficiend5i cfirat Nep. ConofihoithewaiUrebuUi. 

Patriam dXripiendavi reUnqnimua. Cio. We leave our eauniry io be 

Carviliiui aedem laclmtdain locftvit Liy. CfartSiui lei the (contract of) 
JmUding the temple. 

Of course tbo Passive form has the Nominative : 

FUiiis PhilippI DSmdtrius ad patrem redticendvia ISgSUa datus aat 
Lnr. The eon of PJUUp^ Demetriiu, woe given io the envoys to be taken back to 


432. The Ablative of the Gerund or Gerundive is used as 
the Ablative of Means and Cause, seldom as the Ablative of 
Manner or Circumstance. 

Unns hom5 nSbIs ounctandd restitnit rem. Enkius. One man by 
lingering raieed our eauee again. 

08de repttgnantl, c8dend5 victor ablbifti Ov. TMd to her v)hen she 
reside J youHl come off victor by yielding, 

Qidd digit5a opaa eat graphia lasaSre tenenda 7 Ov. (300, R.) 

XSzercenda quotidiS mlUte hostem opperiSb^tnr. Liv. DrilUng the 
soldiers daily he waited for the enemy. 

Occasionally with the Comparative. 


433. The Accusative of the Gerund and Gerundive takes the 
prex)ositions ad and inter, seldom ante, circ&, in, ob. 

Nulla x9s tantnm ad dioendum pr5ficit quantum aoriptlo. Cic. Ifoihr' 
ingieas profitable for speaking as writing. 

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222 SUPINE. 

Attioiu pbiloiophanun praeceptis ad vltam agendam nfin^ad osten- 
tSti5nem utSbStor. Nbf. Atticus made use of the precepts of p/Ulosopher$ 
for the condv4st of life, not for display. 

Inter spoliandum corpuB hostis ezsplravit. Liv. Wliile in the aU ef 
stripping t/ie body of Vie enemy lie gave up the ghost, 

434. The Ablative of the Gerund and Gerundive takes the 
prepositions ab, d6, ex, often in, seldom com and prO, and sine 

Prohibenda mazimS est Ira in pnniendS. Cic. Especially to he for^ 
bidden is anger in punishing. 

Brntni in UberandS patriS est interfectus. Gic. Brutus was dain in 
tlie effort to free his country. 

PhilosophI in ils ipsis libxls qnSs scrlbnnt d8 oontemnendS gl5riStraa 
n5mina inscrlbont. CiC (384, R. 1.) 

X!z discenda oapimns voluptltem. Cic. We receite pleasure from learns 


436. The Supine is a Verbal Noun, which appears only in 
the Accusative and Ablative cases. 


436. The Accusative Supine (Supine in -um) is used chiefly 
after Verbs of Motion : 

Gain galUnScel cum s61e eunt cubitum. Plin. Cocks go to roost at 

Spect£tum veniunt, veniunt spectentur ut ipsae. Ov. They come to 
see the show, Uiey come to he tliemselves a sJiow. 

Stnltitia est vSnfitum ducere invltas canSs. Plaut. 'Tis foolisHineiS to 
take unwiUing dogs a-hunting. 

Hostis est uz5r invita quae ad virum nuptum datur. Plaut. 
(844, R. 1.) 

Rexabks.— 1. The Accusative Sapine may take an object, bat the constrnction is not 

very common : 

Hannibal patriam dfifensum (more usual : ad dfifendendam patriam) revoeStui 

est. Nep. Hannibal was recalled to defend Ms country. 

2. Especially common is the as3 of the Supine after the verb Ire, fo go : 

Cflr tS Is perditum 1 Tbr. Why are you going to ruin yourself t 

Turpissiml virl bdnOrom praemia fireptum eunt. Sall. The scoundrels are 

going to take away by force the rewards of their betters. 

The Future Inflnitive Passive id actually made up of the Passive Inflnitlve of liei tS 

go^ Irl, and the Supine : 

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PABTIdPLE. 22*6 

Dlcnot isenm daxnnStnin Irl. Tkey toy that the dtfendant wUt be condemned^ (that 
people are going (Irl from Xtur, 199, B. l.)» that there is a movement^ to condetnn the aecused). 

The conscionsuces of this is lost, as is shown by the Nominative (528). 

Beni daxnnStnin IrX yidfibStnr, Quiwr. The aecueed seemed to be about to be eot^ 


437. The Ablative Supine (Supine in -ft) is used chiefly with 
Adjectives, as the Ablative of the Point of View From Which : 

MIrSbile dictn, Wonderful {in tJie telling) to teU, vIsQ, to behold. 
Hoc dictft qiiam r$ facilius est, Liv. This is easier in the saying than 
in the fact {easier said than done). 

RiXABK8.^1. The use of the Ablative Snpine is confined to a Ibw verbs, chiefly: 
dietft, toteU; facttl, to do ; andlttl, to hear ; ylstl, to see; cognittlt to know. Aathon 
vary much. The adjective? generally denote Ease or Difficulty, Pleasare or Diepleasare, 
Right or Wrong. Add the indeclinables {£• and nefiU (7^ 
S. Ad. with the Qerundive, is often need instead^ 
Cibni faeillimns ad conooqaendtun,/MH^ (thai is) very easy to digesL 
The Infinitive, facilis concoqnl, i» poetical Common is fkoile concO(|nitir* 
S. The local use of the Ablative Snpine is very rare : 

YXlicni primns onbittl snrgat, postrfimni cubitnm eat Cato. The steward 
must be the first to get out qf bed, the last to go U> ped. 
4. The Snpine in -fl never takes an object. 


438. The Participle may be used as a Substantive, but even 
then generally retains something of its predicative nature. 

Nihil eat magnum somniantL Cic. Nothing is great to a dreamer {to a 
man, vihen Jie is dreaming). 

R$gia,cr§de mihl, rSs eat succurrere lapals. Ov. It is a kingly 
thing ^ believe me {to run to catch tliase who have slipped), to succor thefdXlen, 

Rexabks.— 1. The Attribute of the Participle, employed as a Substantive, is gene- 
rally in the adverbial form : reetfi facta, right aetkms ; fao6t6 diotnm. a witty remark. 

2. Especially to be noted is the Ablative of the Participle without a Substantive : 
andltO, it having been heard ; oompertO, it having been found out. 

So also an adjective used predicatively : the Substantive is commonly supplied by a 
sentence. The conet ruction is of limited use. 

Alexander andltO Dfir9nm mOvisse ab Eobatanls fagientem inseqnl pergit 
CuBT. Alexander, {it) having {been) heard that Darius had decamped from Ecbatana^ pro- 
eeeds to follow him up on hisfiight, 

439. The Participle, as an Adjective, often modifies its ver- 
bal nature, so as to be characteristic : 

BpamlnSndas erat temporibus sapienter n t e n a, Epaminondas voas a 
man, who made^ to make, wise use of opporiumties (= la qui nterStnr). 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 

224 nbgahye advsrbs. 

RB]iARK.~Bi*pectal attention U called to the paralleUsm of the Faiticlple or AdJectiTe 
vrith the Bolotive and Sabjonctive : 

B8f panra diett. Md quaa studili in magnum oertSmen exeesierit. Lnr. A 
tmaU thing to mention^ bui one which, by the exditmetU of the partiu^ ternUnatid In a great 


440. 1. The Predicate may be qualified by an Adverb. 

2. Adverbs qualify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs, and 
sometimes substantives, when they express or imply verbal or 
adjective relations: 

Male vivit, he lives iU; bene est, it m weU; fer$ omnSs, dlmoBt aU; 
nimis saepe, too often ; admodnm adnletcena, a mere youlh^ guUe a youth ; 
IStS r$z, Vero, wtde-ruUng; bis consul, twiee eoMul; dno simnl bella, 

tioo simultaneous wars, 

Hexark.— The form of the AdvA'b docs not admit of any Airther inflection, and there* 
furc the Adverb requires no rales of Syntax except as to its position. 

441. Position of the Advert). — Adverbs are commonly put 
next to their verb, and before it when it ends the sentence, and 
immediately before their adjective or adverb, 

Injnst^ facit, he acts unjustly. 

Admodnm pulcher, handsome to a degree^ tery Mndsome, 

ValdS dlligenter, nei^ carefully, 

£xccptio]is occur chiefly in rhetorical passages, in which great stress is 
laid on the Adverb, or in poetry : 

Lram bene Bnnins initinm dixit insSniae, Well did Ennius call ang$r 
the beginning of madness. 

Vixit dum visit bene. Teii. He Uted tchUe tie lived (and lived) 

One class of Adverbs demands special notice— the Negativef. 


442. There are two original negatives in Latin. Hfi and Hand 
(hant, han). From ne is derived nOn (nd-oinom (ttunm), no^ohit, 
not). He is used chiefly in compounds, or with the Imi)erative 
jiiul Optative Subjunctive. The old use appears in nfi — qoideniL 
N6n is used with the Indicative and Potential Subjunctive; 
hand, mainly with Adjectives and Adverbs. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


443. 1. The regular Negative of the Indicative and of the 
Potential Subjunctive is nOn, the absolute not. 

Quern amat, amat| quern n5u amat, ndn amat, Whom tlie like$, M# 
Wees; whom ihe does not like, the does not Wee. 
N5n au«im, Islumfd not veniure, 
Bbxark.-^HOii as ttie emphatic, specific negaUvemay nogativoanyUiing. (Soo 968,R.) 

2. Hand in model prose is used chiefly with Adjectives and 
Adverbs : hand magnns, not great ; hand male, not badly. 

Hand scio (Hansdo), in hand ado an, is the chief exception 
(459, R) 

In antitheses nOn is used, and not hand: 

N5n est vlvere sed Talere vita. Mahti^l. Ifot Uving, but being well^ u 

Hemark.— other negatiye expressions arc: haudquS^oaoL ii6qiiSqiiaill« neuU- 
quaaii by no nuana; nihU* nothing. {*' Adam, with such counsel nothing swayed.'') On 
aaUus, see 804, R. S. 

444. SuMivision of the Negative. — ^A general negative may 
be subdivided by neqne — ^neqne, as well as by ant — ant, or 
strengthened by nd — qnidem, not even : 

Nihil unquam neque insolena neque glSriSsum ex 5re Tlmo- 
leontis prdcessit Nep. NoUiing insolent or boastful ever came out of the 
mouth of Timoleon. 

OoniciSrum nemo aut latuit aut fugit. Lrv. Cf t?ie accomplices no one 
eitlier hid or fled. 

Nnnquam Bolpidnem nS minima quidem re offendL Cia / never 
wounded JScipio's feelings^ no, not even in the slightest matter, 

(** I will give no thoosand crowns iwi^A^."— Shakbs.) 

RsMAiuc—In the same way nego, / say nOy is continued by neque— neque (nee* 
nee) : 

Hegant nee virttLtSi nee vitia erAicere. Cio. They deny that either virtues or vices 

445. Negative Combinations. — ^In English, we say either no 
Ofw ever, or, never any one; nothing ever, or, never anything; in 
Tjatin, the former turn is invariably used : ndmo nnqnam, no one 
ever : 

Verr$8 nihil unquam ficit sine aliqu9 quaestu. Cic. Verres 
never did anything mOunit some profit or other. 

^KMAVK.—Nd one yet is nSndam quisquam; no more Is Jam ata. 


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446. TXego (/ say no, I deny) is commonly used instead of 
dico ndii, I say — 7ioL 

Negat haeo flliam m5 suam esse. Plaut. She eaye thai lam not Tier 


Bemabk.— The positlye (SjOi / soy) Is sometimes to be supplied for a eabscqaent 
clause. Caes. B. Q. 1 10. The same thing happens with the other negatives. 

Position of the Negative. 

447. The Negative natai'ally belongs to the Predicate, and 
usually stands immediately before it, but nmy be placed before 
any emphatic word or combination of words : 

Potes n5n revertt. Sen. Possibly you may not return, 
N5n potes revertl, Tou cannot possibly return. 

Saepevirl faUunt; tenene nSn saepe puellae. Ov. Often do men 
deceive ; soflJiearied maidens not often, 

N5ii onmis aetas, liude, lad6 oonvenit. Plaut. (346.) 

Bbiiabks.— 1. As the Copula esse, to be, is, strictly speaking, a Predicate, the Nege- 
tive generally precedes it, contrary to the English idiom, except in contrasts. The differ- 
ence in position can often be broaght oat only by stress of Toice : ftllx nOn emt, he 
wamH happy; nOn fBlix erati he was not hcimf% he was vab vbom happy. 

S. H6— qiddem bestrides the emphatic word or emphatic groap (444). 

448. Two negatives in the same sentence 'destroy one 
another, and make an affirmative: 

Hon nego, I do not deny {I admit). 

Bbxabks.— 1. NOn possum nOn, I cannot but, {I must). 

Qui mortem in malls pOnit nOn potest eam nOn timSre. Cio. He who dassee 
death amonff misfortunes cannot but (must) fear it, 

2. The doable Ne^^ative is often stronger than the opposite FositiTe : 

NOn indoctnSt a highiy-educated man ; nOn sum nSscios, I am weU aware. 

NOn indeoOrO puWere sordidl. Hon. Swart (soiled) with (no dis)honorable dust. 

NOn ignSra mall miserls sucenrrere disoO. Vebo. Not unacsuaUUed (= but too 
well acquainted) with misfortune^ I learn to succor the wretched. 

This is a common form of the flgnre LItotOs (^f rdn/O or Vnderstatemmt, bj 
which more is meant than meets the ear. 

8. It follows ftom B. 2. that nec nOa is not simply eqaivalent to et, and: neo belongs 
to the sentence, nOn to the particular word : 

Nec lioc Z6no n On yidit. Cic. Nor did ZenofaU to see this. 

4. Of especial importance is the position of the Negative in the following combioa- 

Indefinite Affirmative. General Affirmative. 

nOnniMl, somewhat; nihil nOn, every IMng; 

nOnnfimo, soms one, some ; nfimonOn, everybody; 

nOnnnUI, somapeop^; nnlUnOn, aH; 

nOnnnnqnam, sometimes ; nonqnam nOn, alww0 ; 

nOnnnsqnam« somewh^e; nnsquamnOn* ecerywkKrs* 

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nrrBBROGATiyB sbni-ences. 237 

In ipiS ellriS nOzmfimo hoBtii est. Cia In ths tenoMumae lU^ th^n are mmOrn 
Cn6mo nOn hoftii est, everybody is an enemy). 

HOn est plScandl spSs xnilii nulla Del* Ov. I have some hope tf o^ppeaAng 
Goa (nulla spfis nOn est, /Aat» every Ju^h). 

H6mo nOn didioisse mSynlt quam discere. Quurr. Everybody prtfcre having 
teamed to leandnff, 


440. Hfi is the Negative of the Imperative and of the Opta- 
tive Subjunctive: 

N§ cSde malls. Vebg. Yield not thou to mitforiunes, 
NS tranjdezli HibSnun. Lrv. Do not crosi tiie Ebro 
N§ vlvam, May I cease to Uve, 

RE i f ARK.~The Negative nOn is sometimes used instead of n9* when contrast is 
emphasized : 

Ant nOn tentfirls ant perftoe. Or. EUher attempt not, or aehUve 

450. He is continued by nfive or nen: 

N8 illam vSndas neu me perdas hominem amantem. Plaut. DofCi 
ieU her, and don't ruin me, a fdloio in love. 

Incomplete Sentence. 

Intebbooatiye Sentences. 

451. An interrogative sentence is necessarily incomplete. 
The answer is the complement 

452. A question may relate : 

I. To the existence or non-existence of the Predicate: Pre- 
clicate Question: 

VIvitne patet ? Is myfaiJier alive f 

II. To mm'z undetermined integrant of the sentence, such as 
Subject, Object, Adjective, Adverbial modifier : Nominal Ques- 

Quia est? Wio is itf Qnid ais? Wliatdoyou sayf Qui hIom5s7 
What sort of way is tiiis f Our n5n discadia 7 Why do you not depart f 

For a list of Interrogatiye Pronouns see 1(VI« 

REXAnK8.~l. The second class requires no rules except as to mood (484). 
S. The form of the question is often used to imply a nei^tive opinion on the part of 
the speaker 

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Quid interMt inter pexjftmm et menofieem 1 Cio. What is tk$ digerm» Utmetn 

All qaestions of thii kind are called Rhetorical. 

453. Interrogative sentences are divided into simple and 
compound (disjunctive). Am If (simple) ; Am /, or am I not f 

Rem ABK.— ^trlGtly speaking, only the simple interrogatiye sentence belongb to thla 
sa.iion ; bat for the sake of completeness, the whole sabject will be treated here. 

454. Interrogative sentences are further divided into direct 
and indirect^ or independent and dependent. Am If (direct) ; 
He asks whether I am (indirect). 


455. Direct simple questions sometimes have no interrogative 
sign. Such questions are chiefly passionate in their character, 
and serve to express Astonishment, Blame, Disgust 

InfiUz est Fabricius quod rus saum fodit? Sen. Fabricius U wihappp 
because he digs Jits own field f (Impossible 1) 

Heus, inquit, linguam vl» meam praeolddere? Piiabdb. Hoi hoi 
quoth he, you wish to shut my moulh, you dot (Tea shall not) 

Tonm paraBltum n5n n5vistl 7 Plavt. Ton don't know ycmr mm par* 
OM^ef (Strange I) 

Rbxahk.— When serertl questions follow In immediate saccession, only the ilKt gone- 
rally takes the Interrogative Prononn, or -ne. Repeated questioning is passionate. 

456. Interrogative Particles, — -Ne (enclitic) is always ap- 
pended to the emphatic word, and generally serves to denote a 
question, without indicating the exi)ectation of the speaker: 

Omnisne pecunia solnta est 7 Cic. Is all the money pcddt 
Bitne omnia pecunia solnta 1 If^aU tlie money paid? 

Rbmarks.— 1. -Ne is originally a negative. Questioning a negative leans to the 
affirmative ; and -ne is not always strictly impartial 

S. 'Ne sometimes cuts off a preceding -s, and shortens the long vowel of the same, aii4 
ofU*n drops iu own e. Yiden t Seestf Titn 1 Toaf 

AST. Nonne cxi)ects the answer Yes : 

N5nne meministX ? Cic. Do you not remember f 
N5nne is generdsissimus qui optimus 7 Quint. Is he noi the trued 
gentleman who is tJie best man t 

So the other negatives with -ne: nfimOne, nihilne, and thd like. 

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458. Hum expects the answer No : 

Num quia hlo alius praeter me atque U ? NSmo est. Flaut. 1$ an§ 
My liere besides you and me f No, 

Num \Xbi quum fauces urit sitis, aurea qnaeiis p5oula 7 HOR. Wkmi 
ffurst bums your tliroatfor you^ do you ask for golden eups f [No.] 

459. An {or) belongs to the second part of a diqniictive 

Sometimes, however, tlie first part of the disjunctive question is sup- 
pressed, or rather involved. Tlie second alternative with an serves to 
urge the acceptance of the positive or negative proposition involved in tlie 
preceding statement This abrupt form of question {pr^ then) is of frequent 
use in Remonstrance, Expostulation, Surprise, and Irony. 

N6n manum abstinSs 7 An tibi Jam mSvIs cerebrum dispergam hXo 7 

Tbr. Are you not going to keep your hands offf Or would you rather Jiave 

me scatter your brains over the place now f 

(Vir cast5dit absens.) {My hutband keeps guards though absent.) 

{Is U not so?) An nSscIs longas regibus esse manfUi7 Ov. Or per- 

haps y^u do not knoto {you do not know, tJien) that kings have long handi 


Rkikark.— Especially to be noted, in connection with aUi are the plirasee, nSsoio an, 
hand seio an, I do not know but ; dubito an, / doubts I doubt bul = Iam indined to 
CMfii;; which give a modest affirmation. Negative particles, added to these czpreasioni, V y^ 
give a mild negation : ^ 

Hand sci o an ita sit. Cic. Ido not know but it is so. 

Haudsoioan nulla senectUs befitior esse possit. Cic. J do not know but it 
if impossible for any old age to be happier. 

Dubito an ThrasyblLlum primum omniom pQnam. Nsp. 1 doubt but I should 
( xl am inclined to think I should) put Thrasybulusjlrst of tdl. 

So forsitan. perhaps^ regnlarly with the Potential Snbjnnctive : 

Porsitan et PriamI fuerint quaefSta requIrSs. Vebo. Ferhaps you may 
9sk what was VU fate qf /Yiom, too. 

In later Latin an is nscd as a simple interrogative, and nSsoio an = nSseio num. 


460 Direct Disjunctive Questions have the following forms: 

First Clause. Second and Subsequent Clauses, 

utrum, w7i€ther, an, (anne), or 

ntmmne, an, 

-ne, an, 

— ^— an (anne), 

ne (chiefly in indirect qucntioiia)L 

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U tr um nSscIs qaam altS ascendeA, an id pr5 nihilS habis? Cia 
Are you not aware how high you have mounted, or do you count that as 
notJiing f 

V5sne Iii&ciuiii Domitium an vSs Iiucius Domitius dSaernit? 
Caes. Have you deserted Lucius Domitius^ or has Ludus Domitius deserted 

Bloqnar an . sileam 7 'SvxlQ, Shail I speak, or hold my peace t 

tJtrum h5o tfi parom meministl, an ego n5n satis intelleid, an 
inutSsU sententiam? Cic. Do you not remember VUs^ or did I misunder- 
stand you, or Iiave you dianged your view f 

Sunt haec tna verba necne ? Cic. Are tliese your words, orno f 

I J Bbmark.— Aut (or), iu qaestion?, ii not to be confoanded with an. Ant giveu another 
* ^ p»rt of a eimple qaeetiou, or another form of it (or in other words). 

Yoluptfis meliOrexnne effidt ant landSbiliOrem ▼imm I Cio. Doespleaturemaks 
M better or more praiseworthy man f (Answer: neither,) An exdndef* ant extends. 

TIM ego an td mihi serms es t Plaut. Am I slaw (o uouor uou tome— which f 
(The MS. reading ant would expect the answer: neither). 

yf '\ 461, In direct questions, or not is annOn, rarely necne; in 
indirect^ necne, rarely annOn : 

lane est quern quaero, a n n 5 n 7 i« HuU the man lam looking for, or 

Sitqne memor nostrl necne, referte mihL Oy. (195, R. 7.) 

Rbmabk.— ntmm ii somethnes nacd with the sappression of the second danso foi 
whether ornof 


462. Indirect questions have the same particles as the 
direct, with the following modifications: 

1. Hum loses its negative force, and becomes simply whether : 

Specular! JussI sunt num soUioitStl animi 80ci5rmn essent. Lnr. 
I7iey were ordered to spy out w/ietlier the aUies had been tampered witli. 

2. SI, ify is used for whether, chiefly after verbs and sentences 
implying trial : 

Tent&ta res est si prlm5 impetu capl Ardea posset. Lnr. An attetnpt 
was made (iu case, in hopes ^liat, to sec) (f Ardea could be taken by a dash 
(coup-de-main). Compare O si (254). 

i M 3. An is sometimes used for nam and ne, but neyer in model 

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Consaliiit deinde Alexander an tdUiia orbii imperium ilbi dHHnfc 
ret pater. CuBT. Alexander tlien caked t/ie oracle whether Am father det 
lined for him the empire of the whole world* 

4. The fonn ne is found chiefly in the indirect qne»- 

tion : 

Tarquinins PrU^ Tarquinil rSgia filiiui nepdsne iuerit pamm liquet 
Lit. Whether Tarquin was the son or grandson of king Tarquin the Elder 
does not appear, 

HiMABK.— The form ne— ne is poeticaL 


463. Direct: 

Is the last syllable sJiort or long t 
PostrSma syllaba u t r am brevig est a n longa ? 
brevisne eel an longa? 


In a terse it makes no difference wfiet/ier Vie last syUMe be short or long: 
' at ram postr$ma syllaba brevis sit ao 
postr$ma syllaba brevis n e sit an longa. 
postr$ma syllaba brevis an longa sit. ClO. 
^ postrSma syllaba brevis sit longa n e. 4 . ^- 

In, versil nihil r8f ert ' 

Moods in Interrogative Sentences. 

464. The Mood of the question is the Mood of the expected 
Of anticipated answer. 

466. Indicative questions expect an Indicative answer, when 
the question is genuine. 

A. Qois homo est 7 B. Ego sam. Ter. W/io is that f BisL 
A. Vivitne [pater ?J B. Vivum Uqulmas. Plaut. Is 7iis father living f 
We left him alive. 

466. Indicative questions anticipate an Indicative answer 
with the negative when the question is rhetorical. 

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Qiiii paupartfltem n5n eztlmescit 7 Cio. Who does not dread poverty f 

Kemahk.— NOnne and num in the direct question are often rhetorical. With i 
a negative answer is anticipated to a negative, hence the ai&rmative character. Oompare 
further, 463, R. 2. 

467. Subjunctive questions expect Imperative or anticipate 
Potential answers. Subjunctive questions that expect Imper- 
ative answers are put chiefly in the First Person. 

A. Abeam? B. Abt Plaut. SliaU I go awa/y f Oo. 

RcxARK.o&o in the representative of the First Person in dependent dlsoaarae. <SS8.| 

488. Subjunctive questions anticipate Potential answers in 
the negative when the question is rhetorical. 

Quis hoc or$dat7 WIio would believe t/iisf [No one.] Quid fiacerat 
aliud 7 What else was lie to dot [Nothing.] 

Quia tulerit Qracch5s de sSditiSne querenUi ? JuY. (251.) 
REXAKK.-On the Exclamatory Question see 584, 600. 


469. The Dependent Interrogative is always in the Subjunc- 
The Subjunctive may represent the Indicative: 

OonsIderSbimiui quid ficerit (Ind. £§cit), quid faciat (Ind. facit), quid 
lactunis sit (Ind. faciei or fact&rus est). Cia We wtU eoneider what he 
hoe done, wliat lie is doing^ what lie is going to do (toill do). 

EpamlnSndas quaeslvit salvusne esset dipeus. CiC. S^aminamtku 
asked whet/ier his shield was safe, (Salvusne est ?) 

The Subjunctive may be original:. 

Ipse dooet quid agam (210) ; iSs est et ab hoste dooSrL Or. (Quid 
agam, what I am to do ; not, wIuU lam doing). See 258. 

\^ Y Remarks.— 1. When the leading verb is disconnected from the IntcnogatiTe, the Iii< 
dicative form is employed : 

So often with dio, saj/, vidfi, see^ quaere, ask. Die, quid est t Tell me, what i$ Uf 
(Bio quid sit, 2'eU me what U is.) 

Qnin tU UnO verbO die : quid est quod m6 veils t Tbr. WonTt you tell me In one 
word: What is it you want qf me f 

Die mihi quid fSel nisi nOn sapienter amfivl. Or. T€U me what have I4on$, mm 
that I have loved unwigely. 

The early poeta go even farther than this. 
; 9L Nfisoio quis, ntecio quid, nSscio qui, n6soio quod, I know not who, what, whkti, 

arc used exactly as indefinite pronoons, and have no eflbct on the constractloa. 

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80 also, nftMio qnOmodo, I know not how s itrmgdy ; and mlmm qnaatnm, U iSK 
marveUous how muA. = toondetfiiUy^ are OBed as adyerba : 

• JClnun qaantimL prOfoit ad conoordiant Liv. R served wonderfvUy to pnmxot* 

NSscio quid m^ni nfiscitur lUade. Prop. SometMng^ I know not whaL, is rising 
greater than t/te HUtd, 

HStcio quo pacts vel magis hominSt juvat glOrialfita quam magna. Pun. Ep. 
Sutnehow or other^people are even more charmed to have a wide-spread reputation than a 
grand one, 

Tho position exdudes a conscioas ellipsis of the Sabjnnctive. 

& The Belativc has tho same form as the Interrogative quig ? exc^t in the Nom. Sing. ; 
hence the importance of distinguishing between them in dependent sentences. The in- ,'' ^^ 
terrogathre depends on the leading verb, the relative belongs to the antecedent (618; /^ 

Interrogative : dio quid rogem, TeU me what it is lam asking, 

Xelative; dIo qiMrTO|^ Tbb. TeU me that which I am asking (the answer tn 
my question). * 

The relative is not nnfreqnently used where we should expect the interrogative, espe- 
cially when the facts of the case are to be emphasized : 

DIoam qaod sentio, IioiU tell you my real opinion. 

Incorporated relatives are not to be confounded with int^rrogatives : 

QuaerSmni ubi (s ibi nbi) malefidum invenXrl potMt Cia. Letw ieokj^ <^ vj; Jl 
misdeed in the place where it can l>e/ound. ' '^ 

f^r At this point let the beginner review and take up omitted lecUont, 


470. The subject of the dependent clause is often treated 
as the object of the leading clause (Protopsis) : 

N5stl MaroeUum quam tardus ait. Cic Ton know Mareellus, wJiat a ^ 
slow creature he is, 

471. Contrary to our idiom, the interrogatiye is often used in 
participial clauses. In English, the participle and verb change 
places, and a causal sentence becomes final or consecutive. 

Quam atUitStem petent§8 Bdixe oupimus ilia quae oconlU n9bl8 sunt 7 
Cic. What advantage do we seek wJien we desire to know those things which 
arc hidden from us f 

Sol5n PIsistratS tyrannS quaerenti qusl tandem 8p$ fretus sibl 
iam audaoiter resisteret respondisse dloitur, seneotute. Sen. 8olon^ 
to IHsiatratus the usurper, asking him (= when Piaistratus the usurper 
asked him) on what earthly hope relying (= on what hope he relied that) 
hi resisted him so boldly, is said to Iiave answered ** old age." 

473. Final sentences (sentences of Design) are used in ques- 
tions more freely than in English : 

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EkMnm it praetor. QiddiitJfidicStiir? Cia The judge U gah^ to ttUU 

his seat. Wfiat is to he ac{judged t (2b a^udge what t) 

Rbxabk.— The Latin langna^^e goes farther than the English in combining interrogs- 
tivc word! in the name clauee 

473. Yes is represented : 

1. By 8Sn$, (literally) soundly, sSnS qtiidem, yes indeed, etiam, even (so), 
vSr5, of a truth, ita, so, oiniiIn5, by all means, certS, surely, cext^for eer^ 
tain, admodum, to a degree. 

2. By c§TkB90^ Ithink 90. 

8. By repeating the emphatic word either with or without confirmaUMT 
particles : 

Bftisne? Sumiu. Are you f We are. 
DSsnef D6nSnS, Doyougranlt I do indeed. 

No is represented : 

1. By n5n, n5n vdr5, n5n ita, minimS, by no means, nihil, notMng^ 
minimi v$r5, nihil slUiS, nihil minus. 

2. By repeating the emphatic word with the negative : 

N5n IriLta es 7 N5n sum Irftta, You are not angry t lam nou 

Yea or Nay : Immo conveys a correction and cither removes a doubt 

or heightens a previous statement— ^es indeed, nay rather. 

Bcquid plaoeant aedSs mS rogfis 7 Immo. Flaut. Do lUke the heusi^ 

you ask met Yes, indeed. 

Oausa igitur n5n bona est 7 Immo optima. CiO. The eauee, 1k0m, is a 

bad one f JUay, U is an excellent one. 

BswABg.^ Tst, ftr, and no, for, are often expressed simply by nam and ^nlm: 
Turn AntSnini : HerX e n i m, inqnit, h5c mihi prOpoineram. Cio. Then quoth 

Antony : Ytt, for I had propoted tlUs to myself yesterday. 


474. 1. A compound sentence is one in which the necessary 
parts of the sentence occur more than once, one which consists 
of two or more clauses. 

2. Coordination is that arrangement of the sentence accord- 
ing to which the different clauses are merely placed side by 

3. Subordination is that arrangement of the sentence accord- 
•^ to which one clause depends on the other. 

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ffe beecanepoor and we became richf is a coordinate sentence. 

He became poor that we might be rich, is a subordinate sen- 

4. The sentence which is modified is called the Principal 
Clause, that which modifier is called the Subordinate Clause. 
^He became poor" is the Principal Clause, "//*a/ we might he 
rich" is the Subordinate Clause. 

REiiABX.~Logicttl dependence and gnunmmtical dependence are not to be confounded. 
In tlie conditional sentence, yfyam ll Tlvet, let tm Uve if the Uvee, my living depends 
on her living ; jot ** Tlyam'* l» the principal, ** il yfyet ** the tabordinate claoae. It 
U the dependence of the introductory particle that determines the grammatical relation. 


475. Coordinate sentences are divided into various classes, 
according to the particles by which the separate clauses are 
bound together. 

KBSiJDL— Co-ordinate sentences often dispense with oonjnnctions iAejfndeUm). 
Then the connection most determine the character. 0r Beginners may omit to 606 


476. The following particles are called Copulative Conjunc- 
tions : et, -que, atqa6 (ac), etiam, quoque. 

477. Et is simply a7id, the most common and general par- 
ticle of connection, and combines likes and unlikes : 

FSnem et aquam nStara dSsIderat. Sen. Bread and water (is what) 
nature caUsfor. 

ProbitSs laudStur e t alget. Juv. Honesty is hepraised and— freezes. 

478. -One (enclitic) unites things that belong c losely to one 
another. The second member serves to complete or extend the 

SenStus popultui que R5mSntui, The Senate and people of Borne. 
Ibi mortmu sepultiuqae Alexander. Liv. Thei-e Alexander died and 

Combinations: et — et; 
-que— et; 

et ^ que (only for two words) ; 
-que— que, chiefly in poetry (also Lit. and Sall.) 
Xt do]iiin5 Mtis et nimium flirlque lupOque. Tib. Mfumgh/br owner, and Ujo 

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^y: 479. Atque (compounded of ad and -que) adds a moreJm^OT* 
tant to a less important member. Bat the second member often 
owes Its importance 'to the uecessity of having the complement 
(•que). Ac (a shorter form, which does not stand before a 
vowel) is fainter than atqne, and almost equivalent to et : 

IntrS moenla atque in linfl nrblB Bunt hottSu. Sall. Within the waQ^ 
ay^ and in tlis heart of the city, are tlie enemies, 

A. Ego 8«rTbs? (29.) B. Atque meng. Flaut. /—a ^tef And 
mine to boot 

Atque or ac is often used to connect the parts of a clause in 
which et has been already employed : 

Et potentis sequitur invidia et humilfis al^ectdsqite contanptna et 
turpSs ac nooentii odium. Qmin?. The powerful are followed by envy; the 
low and grovelUng^ by contempt; tlie base and hurtful^ by hatred, 

RcnABKs.— 1. Adjectives and Adverbs of Likeness and Unllkeness may take at^va or 
ae. See 646. 

2. On the Latin pronencss to sabordination by means of the participle, see 40Q, B. 8^ 
and 667, R. 1. 

480. Etiam, even (now), yet, stilly exaggerates (heightens) and 
generally precedes the word to which it belongs : 

N5bla r$s famiUSiia e t i a m ad necataSria deatl, We lack means eten 
for necessajies of life. 

Ad Appil Clandil senectutem accedebat etiam ut caecoa esaei 

Cic. (558.) 

Of time : 

N5n satis pernSstl mS etiam qnSUs sim. Ter. Tou sHU do not know 

weU enough (= little know) what manner of person lam. 

Rbxark.— £t Is sometimes n§ed for etiam, bat sparingly. Boat ipsa, and kbiAicd 

481. Qaoque, so also, complements (compare -que) and always 
follows the words to which it belongs : 

Cuum patrl ^mothel populus statuam posniaset, filiS qnoqna 
dedit. Nep. The people, Jiaving erected a staive in honor cf the father cf 
TimotheuSy gave one to tlie son also (likewise), 

RfenARK.— The difference between etiam and qaoaue Is not t~ be Insisted on too 

Grande et oonipiouam nOitrO q n o q u e tempore manstmm. Jut. A huge and 

eotupicuou* prodigy, even in our day. 

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482. Cojnilaiion ly means of the iVi9!ira/tV^— Instead of et 
and the negative, neque (nec) and the positiye is the rule in 

OpIiii5ne vnlgl rapimur in err5rem neo TSra cemimiis. Cic. Bg 
the pr^ttdice of ilie rabbis we are hurried into error ^ and do not distinguish 
Ihe truth, 

Oaesar substitit neqne hostem laceialvit. Gaes. Caeaar Iialted amd did 
not harass the enemy (without harassing the enemy). 

Bkmabks.-oI. Et— nOn, (xnd .... not, is ased nvhen the negation is confined to ■ 
sin^ word, or \» otherwise emphatic : 

Et mllitSTi n n line glOriS. Hon. And Ihav€ been a soldier not without ghrf. 
On nee nOn, the opposite of et nOn, see 448, R. 8. 

2. Combinations: Neque — neque ; nee —neo, neque — neo. 
neqne — qne. (neo — neqne.) 

et — neqne; nee- et. 

S. Paradigms : ^}Mf no OM, neqne qnieqnanit nor any one. 

And no— neqne nllns, nor any. 

And nothing^ neqne qnidqnam. nor any thing. 

And never t neqne nnqnam, nor ever, 

Heqne amet qnemqnam neo ametnr ab nllO. Jcnr. MayJie love noone^ 
and be loved by none, 

4. Heo is often nearly equivalent to neo tamen« and yet not : 

ExItS inTidiam neo extrS glOriam erat, Tag. He woe beyond the reach of envy, 
and yet not beyond the reach qf glory, 

483. 1. Insertion and Omission of Copulatives. — When mul- 
tnSy tmtch, many, is followed by another attribute, the two ai'e 
often combined by copulative particles : many renotoned deeds, 
miilta et praed&ra fiudnora; many good qualities, mnltae bonae- 
qne artte. 

2. Several subjects or objects, standing in the same relations, 
either take et throughout or omit it throughout. The omission 
of it is common in emphatic enumeration : 

Phryges et PXsidae et GUlces ; or, Phry gei, Pliidae^ CUioes, Phry- 
gianSf Pisidians, and Cilieians, 

3. Et is further omitted in climaxes, in antitheses, in phrases, 
zxAbx formulae: 

Virl nOn eat dSbilitarX doldre^ frangi, snccnmbere. Cic. It is unmanly 
to aUow oneself to be disabled (unnerved) by grief to U broken-^rited, to suo- 

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Di£Bcilii laciiii, Jdcondns acerbns, ei Idem. Mabt. (296.) 

PatrSs Oonscrlptl, F(Uher$ (and) CoMcHpt (Senators). 

Jnpiter Optimus Mazimus, FcUJver Jove^ supremely goad (and) great. 


484. Other particles are sometimes employed instead of the 
copulative in the same general sense. 

1. Temporal : Turn — turn, t?ien — then ; nunc — none, modo — mode, 
now — now; simnl — simul, at the same Um^ Tam OraecS — tnm 
Latins, partly in Oreek, partly in Latin, 

HorStiuB Codes nunc singulds prdvocSbat, nunc increpSbat om- 
nes. Lrv. Horatius Codes now cJudUnged them singly^ rum taunted them 

Modo hnc, modo illnc, now hitlier, now Uiither (hither and tlUther), 

Simul spem$bant, simul metuSbant, tliey despised and feared at tlie same 
time (they at once despised and feared). 

On Quum — tum, see 589. 

2. CJomparative : ut — ita, as-^so : 

Dolabellam ut TarsensSs ita I<aodic§nI ultr5 arcessierunt, As the 
people of Tarsus so the people of Laodicea (= Both the people of Tanma 
and those of Laodicea) sent for Dolabella of their own accord. 

Often, however, there is an adversative idea : 

Haec omnia ut invltls ita n5n adTersantibus patricils transacta 
Lit. AU this was done, the patricians, though unmlling^ yet not opposing 
(= against the wishes, but without any opposition on the part of the patri- 

3. Advei-sative : NOn modo, n5n s51um, n5n tantum, not only : sed 
etiam, TSrum etiam, but even, but also (sometimes simply sed) : 

Urbis maritimae n5n s51um multls perlcuUs oppositae sunt sed 
etiam caecls. Gic. Cities on the seaboard are liable not only to many 
dangers^ hut even (also) to Jddden (ones). 

N5n docerl tantum sed etiam dilectfirl volunt. Quint. Tfiey wUh 
not merely to be taught but to be tickled to boot. 

In the negative form, n5n modo n5n, not only not; sed ne . . . quideni 
but not even ; sed vix, but Jiardly. 

JBgonSnmodo tibi n5n Irascorsed ne reprehendo quidem 
factum tuum. Cic. I not only am not angry vsith you, hut I do not evetififid 
fault with your action. 

Remarks.— 1. Instead of nQn modo (sQlum) nOn— Bed n6— quidem, the latter n0n 
is generally omitted, when the two negative clauses have a verb In common, the negative 
of the first claura being supplied by the second : 

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PltOne coxiBiile lenStiil nOn lOliim JQTlre rempftblioam led nB lllgire qvidem 
lieSbat. Cic. When FUo was consul, it was not only not Itftjfve/or the senate (s tho senate 
was not only not free) to help the commonwealth, but not even to mourn (for her). 

2. Nfidam, not (to speak oO yet, much less. Is also u^cd, either with or withont a Yerb 
In the sabjnnctiTe : 

tetrapa nanqaaiii lofEiBrre ejus snmpttls qaeat, nSdiim ttl postU. I'va. A, 
ttabob could never stand that girVs expenditures^ much less could you. 

NOdom from Livy on is used after affirmative clauses as welL 


485. The adversative particles are: autem, sed, vdniiii, vfirO, 
aty atqnl, tamen, cdtenun. Of these only sad and tamen are really 

486. Antem (postpositive) is the weakest form of but, and in- 
dicates a difference from the foregoing, a contrast rather than a 
contradiction. It serves as a particle of transition and explana- 
tion (= moreover, ftirthermore, now), and of resumption {= to 
come back), and is often used in syllogisms : 

Rnmdribus mecmn pngnao, ego autem S iS ratidnSs reqnSro. CiC. 
Ton fight me with rumors, whereas I ask of yo^i reasons. 

Quod est bontim, omne laudgbile est ; quod autem laudabile est, omne 
eat honestum ; bonum igitur quod est, honestum est Cic. Everything 
iJiat is good is praiseworthy ; hut everything tliat is praiseworthy is virtuous ; 
therefore, wliat is good is virtuous. 

Bbxabk.— Autem commonly follows tho first word in the sentence or clanse ; but 
when an nnemphatic est or sunt occupies tho second place, it is put in the third. So 
igitur and enim. 

487. Bed (set) is used partly in a stronger sense, to denote 
contradiction, partly in a weaker sense, to introduce a new 
thought, or to revive an old one : 

Ndn est vivere s e d valSre vita. Maht. (443.) 
DomitiusnuUftillequidein arte sedlmtlnS tamen dicgbat GlC. Ikynu- 

tius spoke with no art it is true, but for all tJiat, in good Latin. 

488. Vemm, if is true, true, always takes the first place in a 
sentence, and is practically equivalent to sed in its stronger sense : ^ ^ 

SI certum est facere, facias ; verum ne post conferSs culpam in 
mS. Ter. If you are detei*mined to do ity yov may do it; hut you must noi 
afterward fay the blame on me. 

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489. Vfir6, of a truths is generally put in the second place, 
asserts with conviction, and is used to heighten the statement: 

Plat5nem X)i5n ade5 admlratus est ut sS tStum eX trSderet. Nequa 
▼ Srd minus Plato dSlectStua est Didne. Nbp. IHan admired Plato ie 
sttch a degree that he gate himeeff MolMy up to him ; and indeed Plaio was n4 
less deliglUed with Dion, 

rl^ 490. At (another form of ad = tw addition to) introduces 
startling transitions, lively objections, remonstranceSy questions^ 
wishes, often by way of quotation : 

SI gravis dolor, brevis. At Philoct§ta Jam decimum annum In spS- 
luncS Jacet. Cic. Jf pain is sfiarp^ it is slurrt But Philoctetes has been ly* 
ing in his cave going on ten years, 

''At mnltis malls aflfectus?" Quis negat? Cic. ** But Jiehas suffered 
mucfi r Who denies it t 

81 scelestns est at ml infidelis ndn est Ter. If he is a scamp^ yei 
{at least) he is not unfaithful to me. 

At videte hominis intolerSMlem andSdam! Gic. WeU, hut see Ihefe^ 
low's insufferable audacity ! 

A t Tdbls male sit ! Gat. And HI luek to you ! 

Rbxark.— Ast = at -I- set (sed) ie antiqnated and poetic. 

_ J 491. AtquI {But at any rate, hut for all tltat) is still stronger 
than at, and is used chiefly in argument : 

AtqoX perspicaum est hominem e corpore anim5que constare. CiO. 

But it is dear that man consists of body and soul ; igitor, therefore, 

492. Tamen (literally, even thus), nevertheless, is often com- 
bined with at, vemm, sed. 

It is commonly prepositive, unless a particular word is to bo 
made emphatic : 

Notoram expellas fiiroS, tamen usqne recurret Hon. Tou may drivfi. 
out Dame Nature with a pitclifork^ for all that s7ie wiU ever be reluming. 
Domitius nnllS quidem arte sed I<atln9 tamen dIoSbat (487). 

493. Cdtenun, for the rest, is used by the historians as an 
adversative particle. 

RBXABK.~In lively disco^irse, the adversative particles are often omitted. 

494. The disjunctive particles are ant, vel, -ve, sive (sen). 

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495. Ant, oVf denotes absolute exclusion or substitution . 

Vincexis aut vincis. Prop. Tou are conquered or conquering, 

Aut is often = or at least (aut saltern) : 

Concti ant magna pars fidem mutavissent. Sall. All^ or at least a 
great part, would have changed their allegiance. 

Duo aut sommum tr$8 jnvenes. Lit. Tuo^ or at most tJiree, youths. 

Aut— aut, etVAer — or: 

Quaedam tezrae partes aut frigore xigent aut &imtar cal5re. Cia 
ihme parts of tlie earth are either frozen with cold or burnt with Jieat, 
Ant die aut accipe calcem. Juv. Either speak or take a kick. 

496. Yel (literally, you may choose) gives a choice, often with 
etiam, even, potius, rather : 

Ego V e 1 Cluvienos. Juv. /, or, if you cfwose^ Cluvienus. 

Per tne vel stertas licet, n5n modo qui§8cas. Gic. Fbr all I care, you 
foay (even) snore^ if you choose, not met^y take your rest {sleep). 

Satis vel etiam nimium multa. Cic. Enough, or even too much, 

Epicurus homo minime malus vel potius vir opUmuBy Epictirus 
(was) a person by no means bad, or, rather, a man of excellent cliaracter, 

Vel — vel, either — or (whether — or) : 

Miltiadis dixit ponte rescissS regem vel hostium ferr5 vel inopi^ 
paucis diebus interiturum. Kep. J^Ultiades said that if tlie bndge were cut 
the king would perisJi in a few days, whet/ier by tlie sword of tlie enemy, or for 
want of provisions. 

497. -Ve (enclitic) is a weaker form of vel (with numerals, 
at most) : 

Our timeam dnbitem v e locum dSfendere 7 Juv. Why thottld I fear 
or Itesiiate to maintain my position f 

Bis terve, tunce or at most Uirice (bis terque, twice and indeed as much as 
fhrice, if not more), 

498. Sive, (seu), if you choos?, gives a choice between two 
designations of the same object : 

Urbem mStrl seu novercae rellquit. Lrv. He left tlie city to his mother 
vr (if it seems m^ore likely) to his step-motlter, 

499. Slve — Blve (seu— seu) tvhether — or (indifference) : 


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SI TO til medicum adhibuens sive ti5n adhibneilB nda convalSsces. 
Cic. Whether you employ a physician, or do not employ (one), you will not get 

Sen visa est catolls cerva fidelibus sen rtipit teretes Marsns ap«r 
plagSs. Hon. WJiether a doe hath appeared to the faithful ^lounds, or a Jfcw- 
•ian hoar lutVi hurst the tighily-twisted toiU. 


500. A. The causal particles are nam, enim, namqne, and 
etenim, for. 

Sensiis mlrifice coUocatl sunt. Nam ocull tanqnam speculItSres al- 
tissimmn locum obtinent. Cic. Tfie senses are admirably situated. For 
the eyes, like watchmen, occupy the highest post, 

ThemistoclSs mur5s Atheniensium restituit sno pezicuIS. Namqu^ 
Lacedaemonil prohibSre c5natl sunt. Nep. Themistoeles restored Vie walls 
of Athens with risk to himself For the Lacedaefnonians endeavored to pre- 
vent it. 

Pisces 5va relinquunt, £cicile enim ilia aqua sustinentur. Cic. Fish leave 
tJteir eggs, for they are easily kept alive by the water. 

Remarks.— 1. Nam is always put at the beginning cf a Bcntcnco ; enim I^ always 
po8tpo!<itive (486, R.): namque and etenim are commonly put in the fliift place: 

J/\)r what can y<i*i do f JUtkm qTdd9^§,9^ Quid enim agSsT Namque qnid 
agSs ! E t on i m quid agSs 1 

2. The<>e particles are originally asseverative, and are often used not only to fVimiah n 
reason, bnt al^o to give an explanation or illnstration {as/or instance). Quid enim ag£9 1 
What-for instance^ can you dof This is especially true of enim* 'jnt a broad d:flbrenc€ 
between nam and enim (which is derived from nam) cannot bo proved. Etenim \a 
often used to carry on the argument, and gives an additional ground. Nempe (from nam) 
natneltf, to wU, t/iat is, of course, is often used ironically. 

Bed qufilis rediit 1 Nempe tinfi nSve. Jut. Svt in what style did he return/ With 
one ship, forsooth. 

3. In atenim, sed enim, vfirumenim. enimvfirO, y37amenimTSr5. as. in etenim, 
enim gives a ground or an illustration of the leading particle, but translationby an ellipsis 
would be too heavy, and enim is best lea untranslated: 

A. Audi quid dicam. B. At enim taedet jam audlre eadem milliSs. Trr. A. 
H9ar what I say. B. JBut {IiDonH,for) I am tired of luating the same things a thousand 
Umes already. 

601. B. Illative particles are itaque, igitur, ergO, ideO, idcircO, 

508. Itaqne (literally, and so), therefore, is put at the "begin- 
ning of the sentence by the best writers, and is used of fads 
that follow from tne preceding statement : 

N§mo ausus est liber PhSciSnem sepellre. Itaque S servis sepal tna 

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est Nep. No free man dared to bury Phochn, and w he wu buried by 

503. Igfitur, therefore^ is generally postpositive, and is used of 
opi?iio7uS which have their natural ground in the preceding 
statement : 

Mihi n5n satisfacit Sed quot hominSs tot sententiae ; fialU igUnr 
poBsomus. Gic. Mb it does not satUfy, But many men many minds, I 
may therefore be mistaken, 

Kevabk.— In historical writers, igitnr is nsed both in porition and nlgnlflcation at 
itaque. When emphatic, igitnr is found even in the best authors at the head of tlie 

504. ErgO denotes necessary consequence, and is used espe- 
cially in alignments, with somewhat more emphasis than igitor. 
Med, idcircO, means on iliat account; proinde, accordingly, is 
employed in exhortations, appeals, and the like: 

Negat haec filiam me suam esse ; n5n erg5 haec mater mea est. 
PiiAUT. She says i/iat I am not Jicr daughter, ilterefore site is not my motlier. 

Quod praeceptum (n5sce te ipaum) quia m^jus erat quam ut ab ho- 
mine viddretur idcirco adsignatum est de5. Cic. Tliis precept (know t/iy^ 
self), because it was too great to seem to be ofman, was^ on Hiat account, attri- 
buted to a god. 

Proinde aut ezeant aut quiescant. Gic. Let them tlien either depart 
or be quiet. 


505. Subordinate sentences are only extended forms of the 
simple sentence, and are divided into Adjective and SuhstaJiHve 
sentences, according as they represent adjective and substantive 

506. Adjective sentences express an attribute of the subject 
in an expanded form : 

Uxor quae bona est (636) = uxor bona. 

507. Substantive sentences are introduced by particles, 
which correspond in their origin and use to the Oblique Cases, 
Accusative and Ablative. 

These two cases furnish the mass of adverbial relations, and hence we 
make a subdivision for this class, and the organization of the subordinate 
sentence appears as follows : 

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608. A. Substantive sentences. 
T. Object sentences. 
11. Adverbial sentences : 

1. Of Cause. (Causal.) 

2. Of Design and Tendency. (Final and con. 


3. Of Time. (Temporal) 

4. Of Condition and Concession. (Condi- 

tional and concessive.) 
B. Adjective sentences (Relative). 

3fooDS m Subordinate Sbhtxncbs. 

509. 1. Final and Consecutive Clauses always take the Sub- 
junctive. Others vary according to their conception. Especially 
important are the changes produced by Or&tio Obllqaa. 

2. Or&tio Obllqna, or Indirect Discourse, is opposed to Or&tio 
Recta, or Direct Discourse, and gives the main drift of a speech 
and not the exact words. Orfttio ObUqua, proper, depends on 
some Verb of Saying or Thinking expressed or implied, the 
Principal Clauses being put in the Infinitive, the Dependent in 
the Subjunctive. 

S5crat§8 dlcere solSbat : 

O. R. OmnSs in e5 quod s c i u n t satis sunt Sloquentis. 

0« R. Socrates used to say : *' AU men are eloquent enough in wluzt ihcy 


d. O. Omnes in eo quod s ci r ent satis esse eloquentSs. 

d. O. Socrates used to say tliat aU men were eloquent enough in wliat tJtey 


3. The oblique relation may be confined to a dependent 
claase and not extend to the whole sentence. This may be 

>^- called Partial Obliquity : 

O R. Nova nupta dicit : Fleo quod Ire necesse est I7ie bride says : I 

weep because I musi needs go, 
O. O. Nova nupta dIcit s§ flere quod Ire necesse sit. The brid^ soits 

that site weeps because s7ie must needs go, 
O. R. Nova nupta flet quod Ire necesse est. Cat. 

The bride weeps because site mtist go. 
P. O. Nova nupta flet quod Ire necesse sit 

I7ie bride is weeping because *' she must go *' (quotU she). 

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4. Akin to 0. 0. is the so-called Attraction of Mood by which 
clauses originally Indicative are pnfc in the Subjunctive because "^ 
thoy depend on Infinitives or Subjunctives. (C66.) 

Non dubito quXn nova nupta fleat quod Ire necesse sit. I do not doubi 
that Vie bride is toeeping because she must go. 

Remabk.— The fall discussion of 5. O. must, of course, be reserved for « later period 
See 651. 



510. In those dependent sentences which require the subjunc- 
tive, the choice of the tenses of the dependent clause is deter- 
mined by the form of the principal clause. Principal Tenses 
are followed by Principal ; Historical, by Historical. 

the Present Subjunctive 
(for continued action) ; 

the Perfect Subjunctive 
(for completed action). 

the Imperfect Subjunctive 
(for continued action) ; 

the Pluperfect Subjunc- 
tive (for completed ac- . 

Rkxark.— The action which Is completed with regard to the leading ver1j,may be in 
Itself a coutinncd action. So in Eiiglit'h : 7 have been dding^ 1 had been doiog. Hence, 
the Imperrcct Indicative {I watt doing) is reprcHenled in this dependent form hy tlie Per 
fed and Pluperfect, when the action Is completed as to the leading verb. 

All forms that relate to 
the Present and Future 
(Principal Tenses) 

All forms that relate to the 
Past (Historical Tenses) 

arc followed by 

are followed by 

511. rsKs. 



FuTUBB, coguoscami 

FuT. FsRF., cognovero, 

I am finding out^ 
I Mte found out 

(I knotc), 
I sluxll (try to) 

find out, 
IsIuxU hate found 

out (sltall know\ 

Ikfert., cogn58cebam, I was finding out. 

Vlwemw^ cognSveram, 

/ had found out 

quid facias, 
whcU you are doing; 

quid leceris, 
what you have done, 
toliat you have been 
doing {wJiat you did), 
what you were doi?^^ 

quid faceres, 
wJiat you were doing; 

qidd fecisses, 
wliat you had done^ w?uii 
you had been doing, 
what you were doing 

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Hnr. Psitr., Caesar cognSvit, Caesar found out. 

quid faoereiLt hostte, 

wluU live enemy toot 

doing ; 
quid fScissent hostSs, 
wfmt Vie enemy 7iad 
^ done. 
Principal Tenses. 

Nihil r S f e r t postrema syllaba brevis an longa sit. Cic. (1^.) 
N$mo aded ferus e s t ut xi5n mltescere p o s s i t Xlon. (556.) 
Rusticns ezspectat dum defluat amnis. Hon. (574.) 
Post mortem In morte nihil est quod met nam mall. Plaut. 


A r d e a t ipsa licet, tormentis gaudet amantis. JuT. (609.) 
Utmm neso^s quam alte ascenderYs an id pr5 nihild habes? 

Cic. (460.) 

L a u d a t Panaetius Africanum quod f u e r i t abstinens. CiC. (542.) 
N5n is e s ut te pudor unquam a turpitudine revocarit. CiC. (556.) 
Quern mea Calliope laeserit unus ego (s u m). Or. (633.) 
Sim licet eztremum sicut sum missus in orbem. Or. (609.) 
Multl fuerunt qui tranquillitatem expetentes a negotils publicis 

se rem5verint. Cic. (634.) 

Nee mea qui digitis lumina c o n d at eri t Or, (634.) 

Historical Tenses. 

Epamlndndas quaeslvit salvusne e s s e t clipeus. Cic. (469.) 

Noctu ambulabat in for5 Themistocles quod somnum capere ndn 
posset. Cic. (541.) 

Ad Appil Claudil senectutem accedebat etiam ut caecus e s s e t. 

Tanta opibus Etruria erat ut Jam n5n terras s5lum sed mare etian 
(amSn5minis sul implSsset Liv. So great in means {=so powerful 
toas Etruria that she had already filled not only tlic land but even the sea with 
the reputation of her name. 

Quum primi ordines hostium conci dissent, tamen acerrime re- 
liqul resistebant. Cabs. (588.) 

Acciditut una nocte omn§s Hermae dejicerentur. Kef. 
(513, R. 2.) 

AgesilausquumezAegyptS r everteretur decessit. Nep.(586.) 

Deleta est Ausonum gens perinde acsl intemecivd belld c ertas- 
set. Liv. (604.) 

Hannibal omnia priusquam ezcederet pugnS erat ezpertus. 
Liv. (579.) 

. RBXA.BK8.— 1. The HiBtorical Present is treated according to its Tense, or according to 
its Sense ; the iattcr is far more common when the Hist Pres. foilowi. 

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/ --«•»'"».-■/'-- 


' 1. faciant fBcerint. U doinff, h<u done, 

3. facerent f^isient. was doing, had 
done, etc. 

Caesar cognOseit quid hOBtes 


/ Caesar finds out (found out) whai the enemy ' 


TeoBe : Ubil Caesarem Qrant at sibi parcat. Caes. The Vbii beg Caesar to spare 

Seuge: AthfinifinsSs creant decern praetorSs qui exercituX praeessent Nep. 
The Athenians make ten generals to command their army. 

Sense and Tense: Agunt grfitiSo quod sibi peperoissent ; quod arma com ho- 
minibus cousanguinels contulerint queruntur. Caes. 7'hey return thanks to than ^- . 
for having spared thetn, and comi^ain that they had crossed swords with kinsmen. 
So of authors : 
^ Chrysippus disputat aethera esse eum quern homines Jovem appellSrent. Cio. 
\ Chrysippus maintains that to be aether which men caU Jove. 

^^^—^ 2. The Pure Perfect is often treated as an Historical Perfect in tlie matter of sequence : >c 
Hodifi experfiis sum quam cadtlca ffillcitSs esset- Cubt. This day have I found -' 
out how perishable happiness is. 

512. Seqtie7ice of Tenses in Sentences of Design. — Sentences 
of Design have, as a rule, only the Present and Imperfect Sub- 
junctive. The Roman keeps the purpose and the process, rather 
than the attainment, in yiew. 

ut vivaut, ^C 

tliat tliey may Uxe (to live). 

PuESENT, edunt, they are eating, 

PuBB Pehp., ederunt, tJiey Iiau eaten, 

FuTDRB, edent, iliey will eat, 

FuT. Perp., Sderint, tJiey will have eaten, 

Imperfect, edShant^ they were eating, t utvlverent, 

Pluperfect, ederant, tJiey had eaten, { ^j^^ ^j^ ^^^;^^ j^^^ ^^^ j.^^,^ 

Hist. Per., SdSrunt, they ate, \ 

Principal Tenses. 

Atqueut vlvamus vivere desinimns. Mabt. (424) 

Et precor ut possim tutios esse miser. Ov. (424.) 

Galllnae pennis f o v e n t pullSs ne frigore laedantur. CiC. (545.) 

Legem brevem esse oportet, qud facilius ab imperitis tenea- 

tur. Sen. (545.) 

Me praemlsit domain haec ut nuntiem ux5rl suae, Plaut. 

He has sent me home aliead of him, to take tlie news to his wife, 

Oculds effodiam tibi ne observare possXs. Plaut. I loiU 

gouge out your eyes for you, to make it impossible for you to watch me. 

niSTORicAL Tenses. 

Xiaelins veniebat ad cSnam ut satiSret deslderia nSturae.'Oia 
LaeUus used to go to table, to satirfy the cravings of nature, 

Pha8Ui5n ut in currum patris toller$tur optSvIL ClO, (546.) 

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Bbmabk.— The Perf. and Jnaperf. Sabj. are lometlmes found in sentences oi Design, 
chiefly in earlier and later Latin, when stress is laid on completion, or when an element 
of Hope or Fear comes in : Ut slo dizeilia, if I may be aUowed to we the expression. 

Id agendmn est at satis vizer^os. Sen. We mvet aim at ha/ting lived enough. 

Affirmftre audeo in6 omnI ope adnlsfLmm n6 frtlstrS yOs hanc spem dS mS eon* 
e6p«r¥tis. Lit. I dare assure you that I will strain every nerve to keep you from having 
'xmceived this hope of me in vain, (After a past tense, xi6 Conc6pi8S6ti8.) 

513. Exceptional Sequence of Tenses: — Sentences of Result 
(Consecutive Sentences). In Sentences of Eesult, the Present 
Subjunctive is used after Past Tenses to denote the coi tinuance 
into the Present, the Perfect Subjunctive to imply final result 
This Perfect Subjunctive may represent either the Pure Perfect 
or the Aorist, the latter especially with the negative : the action 
happened once for all or not at alL 

Present Tense: 

Siciliam Verres per triennium ita vezavit ut ea restituX in antlqaum 
statam niill5 mod5 p o s s i t. Cic. Verres 90 Iiarried Sicily for three yean 
08 to make it utteiiy impossible for it to be restored to its original eondiiion. 

Perfect Tense (Pure) : 

Murena Asiam Ac obiit at in e§ neque avaritiae neque Inzuxiae ▼••- 
tigiam rellquerit. Cic. Murena so administered Asia as not to Mte 
{that he has not) left in it a trace eitJur of greed or debaucJiery, (TUore is no 
trace tliere). 

Perfect Tense (Aorist) : 

Xjqoites hostium acriter com eqoitStu nSstrd conflizSrunt tam«n 
at nSstrl eSs in silvSs collesqae compalerint. Gaes. The cavalry of 
the enemy engaged the cavalry on our side hri4dy, and yet (tlie upshot was 
that) cur me^ forced them into the woods and hills, 

Neque ver5 tarn remissd ac langaid5 anim5 quisquam cmniam fait 
quiea nocte 00 nq ui ev erit Caes. And indeed tJiere was no one ataU 
of so slack and indifferent a temper as to take (a wink of) sleep tluU night. 

Remarks.—!. Anthers Tary mnch in the use of this Aorist Cicero nses it rery rarely ; 
some abase it. 

S. After accidit, contigiti and other Verbs of Happening, the Imperfect Is always 
Qsed, the result being already emphasized in the Indicative form. 

Accidit at anS nocte omn6s Hermae dSjicerentar. Nsp. It happened thai in <ms 
Mght all the Hermae were thrown down. 



514. The Subjunctive has no Ful ure or Future Perfect which 

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ore represented either by the other Subjunctives, or in tha 
Active by the Subjunctive of the Periphrastic Conjugation. 

KuLE I. — After a Future or Future Perfect Tense, the Future 
relation is represented by the Present Subjunctive, the Future 
Perfect by the Perfect Subjunctive, according to the rule. 

ftkaU (try to) find out, 

FshaU have found out (shaU know), 

quid faciJii, wliat you are doing (will 

be doing). 
quid liDceriB, w?uU you luite done 

(will have done). 

But wlienever tlie dependent future is subsequent to the lending future, 
Uie Periphrastic Tense must be employed. 

/ thaU (try to) find out, 
/ tHioll hate found out (shall know). 

quid factunu sis, 
. whU you are going to do (what you 
will do). 

[Oomaderabimus], [we shall consider], 

A. Quid fScerit aut quid ipal acciderit ant quid dizerit, 
Wfiat heJias done^ or telmt has happened to him, or what Ite luis said. 

B. Aut quid facial, quid ipsi accidat,quid die at, Or, wJiat Jie is 
doing, what is happening to JUm^ wfiat lie is saying, 

C. Aut quid facturus sit, quid ipal cSsurum sit, quS sit 
n sur us 5xati5ne. Gic. Or what he is going to do (wiU do), wliat is going 
to (will) liappen to Jiint, wluU plea he is going to employ (will employ). 

Ta quid sis acturus si ad m§ scrips dr Is perg Stum erit. 
Cic. It will be a great fator if you will write to me wIuU you are going to do, 

RcifARK.— In pome of these forms, ambiguity Is unavoidable. So A may represent a 
rsal perfect, B a real present. 

515. EuLE II. — After the other tenses, the future relation 
is expressed by the Active Periphrastic Subjunctive, Present or 

Oogn5sco, r 

lam finding out, J quid facturus sis, {what you are going to do), 

Oogn^i^ j wluit you will do, 

I haw found out (know), 

Ivoi trying to find out, 

I had found out, 

Incertum est quam longa cujusque nSstrum vita futura sit CiO. 
His uncertain how long the life of each one of us is going to be {will be). 

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quid facturus essSd, {uJiat you were going to do\ 
wliat you would do. 


T^ Antes dub its bam ▼entfiraene assent legi5n§8. CiC. Bs- 
fore^ I was doubtful tohetJier Hie legions woutH come (or no). 

Nunc mihi n5n est dubium quin ventiirae n5n sint. Cic 

J>fow Jliave no doubt tJiat tliei/ will n/>t come, 

IlEMARK8.~1. The Perfect and Pluperfect Sul^anctive of the Periphrastic are used 
Vv r-^ only to represent the Apodosis of an Unreal Conditional Sentence. 

CognOseo, CognOvI, quid faetUnu faent , {what you have been 

I amfjuiing out^ I have found out (know), what you would have done. going to do), 

CognOfcSbanif CognOveram, [quid factftms fnisifis, {what you had been 
I woe trying tojlnd out, I had found out, y^hat you would have done, going to do), 


2. There is no Pcriplirastic for the Future Perfect Active, no Periphrastic for Passive 
avd Supiiicless Verbs. The Grammars make up a pcriphra^tin for all these from fatfLrom 
tit, et set at, as : 

I nt redieriti I do not doubt that he will have returned. 

KOn dubito qnin fatftrum sit ] at maereat, that Ju will grieve. 
' nt neoetnr. that he will be killed. 
, >f. For the dependent Fat Pcrf. Pass. Cickro says (Fam. vl. IS, S.) : 

KOn dnbito qoln eonfecta r6s fatOra sit, I do not doubt bnU the matter wU 
have been tt-itled, 

lu the abocnce of the Periphrastic forms, use the proper tenses of posse. CMO» B. 8.) 
^ 3. When the preceding verb has a future character (Fear, Hope, Power, Will, and the 
like), the simple iinbjanctive is sufttcient : 

Oalll nisi perfrfigerint mflnlti0n6s d6 omnI salflte dfispSrant ; BOmSnl si 
rem obtinaerint finem omniam labSmm exspectant. Cabs. The Gauls despair of 
all sqfefy vnUne they break through (shall have broken thtvugh) the fortijications ; the Ro- 
mans look forward to an end of all their foils, if they hold Uieir own {shall liave held). 

Y6n6mnt qnerentSs spem nnllam esse resistendl nisi praesidinm BOmSnns 
mlsisset. Liv. They cami with the complaint that there was no hope qf resistance unless 
the Roman sent a force to protect them. 

Of course the Dulibcrativo Subjunctive is future: Examples, 258. 

516. Sequence of Tenses hi Or&tio Obllqna: In Or&tio 
Obllqoa and kiudred constructions, the attraction of tenses applies 
also to the representatives of the Future and Future Perfect 

In [scytalS] erat scriptum nisi domnm reverters tnr se capitii 
enm damnatords, It was written in tlie scytaU iJiat if lie did not return 7iome^ 
tTiey would condemn him to death. Nep. (Oratio Recta : Nisi domum re* 
verteris te capitis damnabimus, unless you (shail) return home, we will con* 
dcmn you to death) 

Fythia praecepit ut Miltiadem sibi imperatorem sumerent ; id id £&* 
cissent inoepta prdspera futura. Nep. IVie Pythia instructed tliem to take 
Miltiades for tJieir general ; that if tliey did i/iot, their undertakings would b4 
successful. (Oratio Recta : si id feceritis, incepta pr5spera erunt 

Iiacedaemonil, Fhilipp5 minitante per litteras se omnia quae o5nA* 

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rentnr XQ. R., c5nSbiininI) prohibitCiruin, quaeilvSrunt nnm i < atMl 
eliam mori p r o h i b i t ii r n b. (O. R., prohibdhis). Cic. T/ie LaeddaerM^ 
nians, when Philip threatened t/iem by letter, that lie would prevent everytfunff 
Uiey undertook {should undertake), asked w/iet7ier lie was going to (would) jn^e- 
tent Hiem from dying too, 

617. Sequence of Tenses after tlie other Moods, — The Imper- 
ative and the Present and Perfect Subjunctive have the Se- 
quences of the Principal Tenses ; the Imperfect and Pluperfect 
have the Sequences of the Historical Tenses. 

[Ne] compdne comSs quia sis venturuB ad illam. Or. Do not 
arrange (your) locks because (forsooth) you are going to see her, 

SzcellentibuB ingenils citius defuerit arB quS clvem regant quam 
quS hoBtem Buparent. Liv. Oreat geniuses tcould be more likely to lack the 
skill to control the citizen than tlie skiU to overcome t/ie enemy. 

Quid me prohibSret EpicurSum esse, bI probfirem quae ille diceret ? 
Cic. W?iat would prevent me from being an Epicurean if I approved wliat 
ke said (says) ? 

Turn ego te primus hortSrer diu pensitSrSB qnem potissimum SligerSB. 
PiiiN. Ep. In tJiat case Isliould be tJie first to exhort you to weigh long wliom 
you sFiould choose above all otJiers. 

Quae vita Priamd foisset, si ab adulescentia s c I s s e t qu5s eventus 
senectutis esset habiturus? Crc. What sort of life would Priam 
have led if he had known, from early manhood, wlmt were to be the closing 
scenes of his old age f 

Remarks.— 1. Of couree when th^ Fcrf. Subj. rfeprescuts an historical ten*e, it takes 
the historical Sequence : 

Magna culpa Pelopif qui nOn docaerit fllium qufitenus esset quidque cllraii- 
dam. Cic. Greatly to blame is Pelops for not having taught his son how far each thing 
was to be cared for. 

So also in the conditional proposition, when the action is past Forvarying conception, 
■^ Cic. Off. lit 24. 

2. The Imperfect Subjanctive, being used in opposition to the Present, might be 
treated as a Principal Teniae, but the construction is less usual : 

Vererer n6 ImmodioaEi OrStiOnem putfirfis nisi esset generis ejus nt saepe in- 
eipere saope desinere TideStnr. Pmn. Ep. / should be qfraid of your thinking ths 
speech of immoderate length, \f it were not of such kind as to produce the effect of qften be- 
ginning qftm ending, 

518. Sequence of Tenses after an Lifinitive or Participle. — 
AVhen a subordinate clause depends on an Infinitive or Partici- 
I'jle, Gerund or Supine, the tense of that clause follows Ihe 
tenses of the Finite verb. 

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Onpio scire, 
Tarn destitms of knowing ^ 

Oupi^bam scire, 
/ was desirous of knoicing^ 

Mihi interroganti, 

wlien I ask him, 

(literally : to me asking), 

qiiid agSs, xtlhal you are doing. 

quid Sgexls, vJiat you Juite done, 

quid acturus sis, wJmt you are going to do 

(will do). 
' quid agerSa, what you were doing, 

quid dgisses, what you liad done, 

quid acturus essis, whcU you were going to do 

. (would do). 
quid agat, wTiat he is doing,'] nOn . v- 

quid dgerit, wImI lie has done, 

quid acturus sit, what he is going 
to do {yt ill do), 

Mihi iuterrogantl, 
when I asked him, 

< quid Sgisset, 

w7uU he was do- 

wJiat lie had done, 
\\^what he was go- 
ing to do. 

he gives 
no an- 
ndn re- 
lie gave 
no ai^ 

Oiterally : to me asking). | quid acturus 

Apelles pictaris e5s peccSre dicebat qui nSn sentlrent 
quid e s s e t satis. Cic. Apelles used to say that tliose painters blundered 
who did not perceive what was (is) enough. 

AthSnidnses C3rndlum quendam suadentemutin urbe mauSrent 
lapidibus cooperuirunt. Cic. (546.) 

Cupldo incessit anim5s juvenum sclscitandl ad quern eOrum 
regnum Rdmanum esset venturum. Liv. T/ie minds of tlie youtig men 
were seized by the desire of inquiring to wlach of them the kingdom of Rome 
would come. 

MUrunt DelphSs consultum quid £scerent. Nep. They sent to DetpJU 
to ask the oracle what they should do. See 258. 

ExcKPTiON. — A Perfect Infinitive or Participle, dependent on a present 
Tense, commonly takes the sequence of the Past Tenses, because these 
usually represent Perfect Indicatives. See 277, 511, R 2. 

Satis mihi multa verba fioisse ▼ideor quSr< esset h5c bel* 
lum necessSrium. CiC. I think I Tune said enough (to show) why tltis war 
IS necessary. 

519. The Potential of the Pa^^.— The Potential of the Past 
may depend on a Present Tense : 

Video caussLs esse permultSs quae Titum Roscium impel* 
1 e r e n t. Cic. I see tliat there are very many causes which might have in^ 
pelled Titus liosdus. 

Quaero a te cur O^jum Comelium n5n dSfenderem. CiG. / 
ask you why I was not to dtfend Oc^us Cornelius, But see 469, K. 1. 

Rbxark.— The Sequence of Tenses is not nnfreqnentlj deran}|:ed by the attractloa of 

DArcnthetlc clanww or bv the «hf ftinc of the conception. . ...».,. .^ 

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520. In subordinate clauses, the Reflexive is used with refer- 
ence cither to the subject of the principal, or to the subject of 
the subordinate, clause; and sometimes first to the one aud then 
to the other. 

521. The Reflexive is used of the principal subject when ref- 
erence is made to the thought or will of that subject ; hence, 
in Infinitive Sentences, in Indirect Questions, iu Sentences of 
Design, and Sentences which partake of the Oblique Relation : 

Animus sentit sd vX suS, ndn aliSnS movSrL Cic. The mindfeeU 
thai it moves by its ownforce^ (and) not by thai of another, 

QoaeidTirunt ntim 8 d esset etiaxn morX prohibitiiras. Cic. (516.) 

PompSjus S me peUvit ut s e c u m et apud b § essem quotldii. Cio. 
Pompey asked me to be toith him^ and at his house^ daily, 

Faetus omnes librds qoSs frSter 8 u a b rellquisset mihi ddnSvit. Cro. 
Paetus presented tomeallt/ie books (as lie said) tliat his brother /uxd left (quds 
Irater ejus rellquerat, would bo the stAtcmeut of tlie narrator). 

Rrxarks.— 1. Sentences of Tendency and Uesnlt have forms of is: 

Tarquinins bIc Serrium diUgfibat nt ii ejus vulgO habfirfitur filioB. Cio. Tot' 
guin loved Sertius so t/uU he was oommotUy considered his son. 

2. The Reflexive may refer to the real agent, and not to the grammatical sabject of the 
principal clansc: 

A Caesare invltor sibi at sim IfigStus. Cic. lam incited by Caesar (= Caesar in- 
▼itef* me) to be lieutenant to him. 

Especially to be noted Is the freer ase of buiis (395, R. 1). The other forms are em- 
ployed chiefly in reflexive formulae : 

Bnl eolUgendl hoitibiu facnltStem nOn reliaqnunt. Cass. They do not leavs 
the enetny a chance to raUy. 

So §6 reciperOi to withdraw. 

8. The Reflexive is used in general sentences, as one, oneself, etc. : 

Btforme est d6 80 praedicSre. Cia It is vnseemly to be bragging about oneself. 

With the Inflnitive this follows naturally from 4*20. 

4. In Indicative Relative Sentences, which are mere circumlocations (506), is is the 

BQcratSs inhonestam sibi erfididit OrStiOnem quam el LysiSs re9 composuerat 
QrxNT. Socrates believed the speech which Lysias had composed for him when he was ar- 
raignedn dishonoring to Aim. 

Sometimes!, however, the Reflexive is put contrary to the rule : 

Hetelliu in ils nrbibns quae ad s6 dCfScerant praesidia impOnit Sall. Ms- 
ieUus put garrisons in those towns which had gone over to him ; regularly, ad eum. 

Ille liabet quod sibi dSbfibStnr, He has his due; regularly, el. 

5. Sometimes the Demonstrative is used instead of the Reflexive, because the narrator 
prei*ent8 his point of view: 

SolOn, quo tfltior vita ejus esset, ftirere s6 simalSvit Cio. Sokm feigned madness^ 
mat his life might be the safer, (The notion of Result intrudes.) 

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tf. Examples of Keflexives pointing: both ways: 

BdmSnl iSgitOi mlB6nint qui S PrtUiS peterent ne inisUoissimani miiiii 
f= BOmSnOmxa) apad s 6 [FrfLsiam] habSret- Nep. The liomara sent anUxuMuion to 
ask Prufias not (o keep their bitterest enemy at his court. 

Agrippa Atticum flenB OrSbat atqne obsecrSbat ut 86 sibi sulaqne re- 
•errSret Nep. Agrippa begged and conjured Attlcus with tears to save himself [Atticasl 
for him [Agrippa] and for his own family [Atticu««]. 

Ilopclesi* ambiguity: 

H9r68 mens damnSs estS dare illl omnia sua. Quint. My heir U to give him aU 
Oat is his. 

7. For the Bake of clcaraeos, the enbject of the leading sentence is not unfieqaeolly ro- 
ferrcd to in *he form of the Demonstrative instead of the Retlexive: 

Helvetil AUobrogibtis 8086 pereuSstlrOs eilstimSbant vel 7l coaetHrSs nt pet 
8a58 finSs e 8 Ire paterentnr. Caes. The Helvetians thought that they toould persuade 
or force the AUobrogts to let them [the Hclvetianp] go through their territory. 

8. Ipse i!» always used in its proper distinctive sense: so when it represents the 
speaker in 5* 0. 

Sjns and Snl. 

522. Alexander morions Snnlum b n u m dederat Perdiccae, AleX' 

ijtnder^ [when] dying ^ had given his ring to Perdiccas, 

Perdiccas acceperat ejus anulum, Perdiccas had received his ring. 

Quar^ Alexander dSclaraverat s S regnum e I commendSsse, There- 
by^ Alexander had declared that he had committed the kingdom 1q him. 

Ex qu5 Perdiccas conjecerat eum regnum sibi commendasse, 
From this, Perdiccas 7tad gathered that he Juid committed ilie kingdom to him. - 

Ex qud omnes conjecerant eum regnum el commendSsse, From 
this, all had gathered Viat he had committed tlie kingdom to him. 

Perdiccas postulavit ut s e regem haberent quum Alexander anu- 
lum sibi dedisset, Perdiccas demanded that they sJiould Jiave him to king^ €U 
Alexander lurd given the ring to him. 

' Amid postulavSrunt ut omnis e u toi rigem habirent qutim Alexan- 
der anulum e I dedisset, {Ills) friends demanded tliat all should luive JUm tc 
king, as Alexander had given tlie ring to him. (Lattmanii and MQller.) 

Ita se gesserat Perdiccas ut e I regnum ab AlexandrS commendSre 
tur, Perdiccas had so behaved himself that tlie kingdom teas intrusted to him 
hy Alexander. 

Object Sbntbnczs. 

523. Verbs of Doing, Perceiving, Conceiving, of Thinking 
and Saying, often take their object in the form of a sentence. 

Rejiarks.— 1. These sentences are regarded, fframmaticaliy, as neuter substantives. 
The accnssative of neuter sub^itantivcs i^ employed as a Norn! native, nence, a Passive 
or Intransitive Verb may take an object sentence as a subject. 

X. To object sentences belong also Dependent Interrogative clauses, which haye been 
treated elsewhere for convenience of reference. See 453, R., 463, 469. 

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524. Clauses Tvliich serve merely as periphrases (circumlocu- 
tions) of elements in the leading sentence are introduced by 
qnod, that, 

RBSffARK«i.—1. The Icadinsr sentence often contains a demonstrative, such a^hdo* (hU; 
Iliad, id, that; and then the whole stractare may be considered as a relative. 

^7* As these sentences present difficulties to the beginoer, U may be well to postpone 
the consideration to the Ilelutivc. 

2. In some of the combinations, quod may bo considered an adverbial accusative of 
extent. (Inner Object.) Quod, in that (= because). 

525. Quod is used to introduce explanatory clauses chiefly 
after a Demonstrative, after verbs of Doing and Happening with 
an adverb, and after verbs of Adding and Dropping: 

Here quod means ^^ the fact VuU" *^ tlie circumstance tJiat,** 

H 5 c s515 propior quod amIcoB conjugis odit. Juv. In tJiia alone 
(is the wife) nearer (than a mere neighbor), that she hates the friends of litr 

NU habet infSliz paupertas durius in se quam q u o d (s= id quod) 
rldiculos homines facit. Juv. Unluippy poverty hath in itself nothing Iiarder 
(to bear) t/ian tltat it makes people ridiculous, 

Magnum beneficium est naturae quod necesse est morL Sen. (195.) 

Quod splro et placed, si placed, tuum est Hon. TJiat I do breathe and 
please, if tliat I please, is thine. 

Bene facis quod m< adjuvas. Cic. You do tDcll (in) tliat you help 

Bene mihi Svenit quod mittor ad mortem. Cic. It is fortunate for me 
that lam sent to death (execution). 

Adde quod ingenuas didioisse fideliter artes emollit mdres nee 
■init esse ferSs. Ov. Add (the fact) that to have acquired faithfully the ae- 
complishments (education) of a gentleman^ softens the character ^ and does not 
let it be savage. 

On nisi quod, sec 592, R 8. 

The reigning mood is the Indicative. The Subjunctive is 
only used as in Oratio Obllqua. 

Cum Castam accusarem nihil magis pressi quam quod accusator 
^*us praevaricatidnis crimine corruisset. Plin. Ep. WJten I accused Casta, 
there was no point that I laid more stress on tJian the fact (that I stated) " that 
her accuser had been cruslied under a cliarge of collusion." 

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Ji j«-ir 


ih snr e jumiaTC as 

^^^^^ _ ^» «r— r T— - ■an-?'** o^dKr give tkt 

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Medici causa morbl inventa curStiSnem esse InTentam 
putant. Cic. Physicians think that^ (when) the cause of disease (is) diS' 
covered. Vie method of treatment is discovered. 

Volucres vidamus fingere et construere nld58. Cic. We see that birdi 
fashion and huud nests, 

Andiet elves acuisse ferrum. Hob. [The youth] shaU hear iliai eitizeni 
gate edge to steel, 

Tlm&genes anctor est omnium in Utterls studidrum antlqxdsiimam 
musicen ezstitisse. Quint. Timagenes is tlu authority (for tho state* 
ment) that of all intelleetual pursuits music was Hie most andent. 

The sentence very often passes over into the Ace. and Inf. (O. O.) with- 
out any formal notice. 

nEXARKs.- 1. Verbs of Perception and Representation take the Participle to express 
the actoal condition of the object of Perception or Representation (536). As there is no 
Present Participle Passive the Infinitive must l>e used, and thus the difference between 
intcllcctnal and nctnal perception is effaced, sometimes even in the Active. 

Audio civfis acuentfis ferrumi I hear citizens sharpeniing) the steel. 

Audio S civibus acul ferrum, I hear that Uie steel is sharpened by citizens; or, tht 
steel as it is sJtarj^ned by citizens. 

OetSvium dolOro confici vidl. Cic. 1 have seen Octavius (when he was) wearing 
out with anguish. 

VIdl Iii8tri5n6s flentSs 6gredl. Quint. Ihavsseen actors leave the stags weeping, 

Kotice facio, I make out^ rejtr^sent^ suppose : 

Plato S De5 aediflcSrI muadum facit Cic. riato tnakes out that the iinl- 
verse is built by God. 

Isocratem Plato laudSrl fScitS SOcrate. Cic. rtatb has represented Isocratet 
as praised by Socrates. 

P a c, quaeso, qui ego sum e s 8 e ti. Cic. Suppose^ 1 pray^ yourself to be me. 

2. When the snbject of the Infinitive is a personal or reflexive prononn, that scbjoct 
It sometimes omitted— chiefly with Future Infinitive— and then esse also is dropped : 

BefraettrOs carcerem minSbantur. Liv. They tlireatened to break 02>en the Jail. 

8. The simple Infinitive is often used in English, where the Latin takes Ace. and Inf. 
See 434, R. 8. 

The (Greek) attraction of the predicate of the Inf. Into the Nominative after the Verb 
1^ Saying or Thinking, is poetical : 

Pliasfilus ille, quern videtis, hospitSs, ait fuisse nSvium celerrimus. Cat. 
7%atj)innace yonder y which you see^ my stranger guests^ declares she used to be the fastest 
craft afinat. 

4. When the Accusative with the Infinitive is followed by a dependent accusaUve, 
ambiguity may arise : 

£jO t6, AeacidS, B5mSn58 vincere posse, in whicli t6 may be snbject or object. 

Real ambiguity is to be avoided by giving the sentence a passive turn : 

£jo S t8. AeacidS, B0mSn5B vincI posse, laffirmthat the Somans can be conquered 
by thfe^ son of Aeacus. 

Ajo tS, AeacidS, S BOmSnIs vinel posse, / qffirm that thou, son of Aeacus, canst be 
conquered by t/te Romans. 

When the context shows which is the real sabject, formal ambiguity is cf no import 
Anoe. itoi see Q.uint. vii 9. 10. 

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528. Passive verbs of Saying, Showing, Believing, ind Per- 
ceiving, prefer the personal constrnction, in wLicli the Accusa- 
tive Subject of tlie Infinitive appears as the Nominative Subject 
of the leading verb. 

Active : 

TrSdunt HomSmm caecum fuisse, tliey 8ay tluU ITomer was Uina, 

Passive : 

TrSditur HomSrus caecos foisse, Ilomer is said to liave been blind, 
[Traoitur Homerum caecum fuisse], iC is said Viat Uomer was hUtvd. 

But when the leading verb is a form compounded with ease, 
to Jc, the impersonal construction is preferred: 

Traditum est Homerum caecum fuisse. Cic. TJiere is a tradition (liai 
Ilomer was blind. 

Aristaeus inventor olel fuisse dicitur. CiC. Aristaeus is said to 
have been the inventor of oil, 

TerentI (29, R. 1.) fabulae propter elegantiam sermdnis putSbantur 
j5 Laelid scrlbl. Cic. Terence's plays, on account of the elegance of the 
language^ were thought to be written by Laelius. 

SI V^dsmigr§bimu8 amisisse patiiam ▼idibimur. Lrv. If 
we remote to Veji, we sfiall seem to have lost our country. 

Reus damnitum Irl vidSbStur. QamT. (436, R. 2.) 


Venerem AddnidI n^psisse prdditnm est. Cic. It is rec4yrded 
(fiat Venus married Adonis, 

O r § d i t u r Fythagorae audltSrem fuisse Numam. CiO. It is 

believed that Numa was a hearer of Pytliagoras, 

REXARK.~In Verbs of Saying, except dico, the personal constrnction is confined to 
the third person. The poets and late writers are free in treating verhs under this head- 


529. The Infinitive denotes only the stage of the action, and 
determines only the relation to the time of the leading yerh 

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530. After verbs of Saying, Showing, Belieying, and Perceiy- 
iog, and the like, 

The Present Infinitive expresses contemporaneous action; 
Tlie Perfect Infinitive expresses prior action ; 
The Future Infinitive expresses future action. * 

Remark.— Tlie action which \» completed with regard to the leading rero moy be in 
itself a con tinned action. So in Englii^h : / kave been studying^ 1 had bun etudying. 
Hence, the Imperrect Indicative {Iwat Undying) Is represented In this dependent form bjr 
the Perfect Infinitive, becaose it Is prior to the leading verb. 

^^ In this table the Present is taken as the type of the Principal, the Imperfect aa 
the type of tlie Historical, Tenses. 

531. Active. Contemporaneous Action, Passive 

P. T. IMcit : t§ errare, tS dScipI, 

He eays^ that you are going wrong^ that you are deceived (217, It). 

H. T. Dicebat : te errSre, te dScipI, 

He was eaying^ that you were going that you were deceived^ 


Prior Action, 
P. T. 'Dlcil : te errasse, te dSceptum esse, 

Ueeaye, that you have gone wrong^ that you have been (are) deceived, 
that you went wrong^ that you were deceived (Aon.), 

that you have been going (that people have been deceiving you), 


H. T. IMcebat : te exrisse, td deceptum esse, 

He woe saying, that you had gone that you had been deceived, 

that you went wrong, that you were deceived (Aon.), 
thcU you had been {that people had been deceiving yoUi 

going wrong, 

SubsequerU Action, 

P. T. DIcit: teerraturumesse, te deceptum Irl, 

He says^ that you (are about to go that you (are going to) will be de- 

wrong), will (be) go(ing) wrong, ceiced, 

H T. DIcSbat : te erraturum esse, te deceptum Irl, 

He was saying, that you were about that you were going to (would) be 

to (would) go wrong, deceived, 

PeripJirasiio Future, 

The following form (the Periphrastic Future) is necessary when the Verb has no Sn^. 
pioe or Fntnre Participle. It is often used from other verbs to intimate an inter?al| 
which cannot bo expressed by other forms, and is mere common in the Passive than the 
Future Passive Inf. of the paradigms. 

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• 260 AOCUBinvE and inpinitivb. 

AcrriVB. Penphrastie Future. Passitb. 

P. T. IMcit : fore (futunun esse) nt fore ut decipilxis (metnariB), 
erris (metuSs), 

fore (fatOrum esie) ut errS- fore at deceptos sis (rnrc), nsnaliy 
▼erls* (rare), deeeptoxii fore (not Aitlinia 

* esse). 

H. T. l^Sbat : fore at erraris fore ut decipereris (metuerS - 

(metueris), xis), 

errfisses (mre), dSceptiim fore (rarely: fore at 

dficeptas essfis). 

Rbxarks.— 1. For examples of the Periphrastic, Bee 240. 

CartliSginieases dfibellStam moxfore rfibaatar. Lit. Ths Carthaginians thought 
that iks war would toon be brought to an end. From dfibellStTiia erit, it uiU be (have 
been) brought to an end. So in the deponent adeptam fore* 

3. Posse* Telle, etc., do not require the Periphrastic, and seldom take it. (340, R. 3.) 



532. Verbs of Will and Desire take a dependent Accusatiye 
and Infinitive : 

The relation is that of an Object to be Effected. 

SI vis me Aire, dolendum est prlmtim ipid tibL Hon. J^ you wish me 

to weep^ you mvst first feel the pang yourself, 

Utrum Mildnis corporis an Pythagorae tibi mills vltSa ingenil darl 9 

Cic. }V7uch (wJuthtr) would you ratlier /lave given to you, Milo*a strength of 

body or Pytliagoras* strength of mind f 

Ipse jubet mortis nds meminisse Deus. Maht. (375.) 

Vltae summa brevis spem n&i vetat incohare longam. HoR. (424, 


N8mo Ire quenquam publicS prohibet via. Plaut. (387.) 
OermanI vlnum ad se omnino importirl n5n sinunt. Caes. 

T%e Germans do not permit wine to he imported into tlieir country at tUL 

Rrxark8.-«-1. On the constriction of this class of verbs \7ith ut (n6. qaOmlnos)* 
iee 546. Impero« I command^ in ordinary prose talces only the Passive Infinitive : 

HaanibalimperSvit qaam plflrimSs veafinStfis serpentfis vIySs colligl, Kkp. 
HannibcU ordered as many poisonous serpents a* possible to be caught alite. 

Permitto seldom take?* the Infinitive. Jabeo, Ibid ; sine, / let; veto, I forbid ; pro- 
Mbeo. I prohibit^ always have tlic lofinitivc of Pasi^ive Verbs. These verbs may them* 
selves be turned into the Passive : jabeor, siaor, vetor, prohibeor. 

* Heavy periphrastics are of rare occurrence. So FCtlUSs dSerBvBraat atran 
eBrom fSeisset reetfi faetOram (Liv. xxxi. 8) ; not fore at fBdsset* althongh the G. & 
requires atram fBeeris. reetS fSeeris. (236, it 4.) See Weissenborn^s note. 

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t. After jnbeo, / bid, and veto, IforfAd, the Infinithre Active can be used without to 
imaginary or Indcfinlto ^nbject : 

Jnbet reddere, A« lAd9 return {orders the returning). 

Yetat adtibCce medicinam, he forbids the administration of medicine, 

Infandum, reglna, jubfis renovSre dolOrexn. Vsiia. Kot meetjor speech, queens 
ihe angvish which you lid (me, uh) retite. 

8 When the subject of the Infinitive i9 the eame as the subject of the leading; verb, 
the snbject of the infinitive is not necessarily expressed : 

KIpSrfirevellB, pereundiim erit ante lueernSs. Jmr. Unless you reaoive to 
obey, you will Itare lo perish before candlelight. 

Et jam mSllet eqnOa nunquam t etigisse paternOi. Ov. And now he 
CtrMd have wished rather never to have touched hisfather^s horses. 

Bnt the snbject may be expressed, and commonly Is expressed, when the action of th« 
Infinitive is not within the power of the snbject : 

TlmoleOn mSlmt 8 6 dlligl quam metul. Nep. TimoUonprtf erred that he should 
be loved rather than that he should be feared. 

Et fiigit ad salicSs et 8 6 capit ante vidfirt Vkro. AndfUes to the wiSows, and 
desires that she should first be seen. 

4. The poets go much further in using verbs and phrases as expressions of Will and 
Desire. See 424, K. 4. 


533. Verbs of Emotion take a dependent Accusative and In- 
finitive, inasmuch as these verbs may be considered as verbs of 
Saying and Thinking: 

Salvum t e advenXsae gaudeo, T rejoice tJiat y<m slkould hate arrived safe 
{to ifank that you have a)*rived safe, at your arriving safe). 

Quod salvns adveniatl, that you Jiave arrived safe. 

Quod aalvus adveneris, that (as you say) you Jiave arrived safe. 

Oldriatur Epicurus 8§ n5n t5t5 asse pascL Sen. Epicurus brags of 
dining for not quite one copper. See 542. 


534. The Accusative with the Infinitive is used in Exclama- 
tions and Exclamatory Questions as the object of an unexpressed 
thought or feeling: 

Hem, mea lux, te nunc, mea Terentia, sic ▼ezarl Cic. (341.) 
Hominemne Rdmanum tarn Oraec$ loquX 7 Plin. Ef. A Roman speak 
snich good Greek f ( To think that a Roman sliould speak such good Greek). 
Mene incept5 desistere— 7 Vekg. I—desist from my undertaking f 
Hinc abire matrem 7 Ter. Mot/ier go away from Jieref 

Remarks.— 1. DifTcrent is quod, which gives the ground : 

Hel mihi quod nulUs amor est madicSbilis berbls. Ov. Woe's mt that {in that, 
because) love is not to be cured by any herbs. 

t. On uti with the subjunctive, in a similar sense, see 660. Both forms object 

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i62 AccusAHVB and ikfinitivk. 


535. The Accusatiye with the Infinitive may be the Subject 
of a sentence. The Predicate is a substantive or neuter adjec- 
tive, an impersonal verb or abstract phrase. 

InusitStum est ragem capitis reum esse. Cic. It is an extraordinary 
thing tliat a king sliould (for a king to) be t}Hedfor 1m life. 

Faciniis est irinclrl dvem RomSnpjn. Cic. It is an outrage Uuita 
Roman citizen sJiould be ptit in chains, 

Necesseestfaoere sumptum qui quaerit (= earn qui quaexit) 
lucrum. Plaut. Neid is tJiat he make ouiUiy wlw an income seeks, 

liSgem brevem esse oportet, qu5 faoilius ab imperltis teneStur. 
Sen. It is proper tJiat a law sliould be brief (a law ouglU to be brief), t/uU it 
may the more easily be grasped by the uneducated. 

Quid Mildnis intererat interfici Clodium. Cic. (383.) 

Opus est td animS valere. CiC. (890, R.) 

Rbmarks.—!. Oportett it behooves^ and necesse est* miut needs, aro often used vritii 
the Subjunctive. So aim) many other phrases with ut. (See fi59.) 

ITecesse also takes the Dative of the I'erson : 

Hoxninl neeesse estfnorl. 3fan must needs die. 

Ut culpent alll, tibr-me laudfire neeesse. Or. Let (Ohers Uarns^ but you must git 

8. When the indirect object of the leading verb is the same as the snbjoct of the Is • 
finitive, the iiredicate of the subject is pat In the case of the object: in standard prose 
chiefly with Uoet. it is Itfl {free) ; in poetiy and later prose with necessei with satins 
estv ii is better^ oontinglt, U happens^ vacat there is room : 

Mihi neglegentl esse nOn Ucet, I am not free tobe negUgenL 

The Accusative may also be n^ed : 

Mihi neglegentem essenSnUcet 

The Accusative is regularly used when the Dative is not expressed: 

Neglegentem easenOnUcet, One is not free to be negUgmL 

In p«»eiry, the Dative is allowable even then: 

KeglegentI esseUcet 

SOlns erO qnoniam n5n lieet esse tnO. Prop. I sAaU be alone. Ones 2 may not 
be tMne. On licet with the subjunctive, see 006. 


536. The Participle Is used after verbs of Perception and 
Representation, to express the actual condition of the object of 
perception or representation . 

Catdnem vidl in bibliothScS sedentem multls St5icdrum circumfusuiq 
Ubrls. Cic. I saw Oato sitting in Vie library with an ocean of Stoic books 
about him. 

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Pr5diga n0n sentlt perenntem fiSmina ciniiim. Jvv. TJie lavish tMnan 
iocs not perceive (how) the income (is) dwindling, 

Saepe illam audlvl fOrUvS v6ce loquentem. Cat. / 7iave often heard 
lier talking in a steaWiy tone. 

Gauds quod spectant oouU tS mille loquentem. Hon. (542.) 

Polyphemum Homerus cum axiete colloquentem facit. Cia 
Homer represents Polyphemus (as) talking wiVi the ram, 

Reu ARK.— On the Infinitive, see 527. R 1. The Greek participle agreeing with tht 
leading Nominative after verbs of Perception and Emotion, is rare and poetical : 

Sensit mediOs delapsiu in hostfig. Ykro. Ue perceived at) having fallen ilhat he had 
fallen) ^mUlst the enemy, s.. 

Oaudent perfUsI sanguine frStrum. Verq. Hejoice, bedrenched with brothers' Uood, 

537. The Perfect Participle Passive is used after verbs of 
Causation and Desire, to denote impatience of anything except 
entire fulfillment: 

Caligula LoUiam missam fScit. Suet. Caligula turned LoUia off 
(for good and all). 

Prudenti mandSa A quid rectS erratum veils. Ter. You must intrud 
to a sensible man whatever you want properly attended to, 

HEMARK.—After verbs of Will and Desire, the Infinitive 6886 is occasionally found 
with this Participle, and hence it may be considered a Perfect Infinitive (375X 
Compare, however, Perfect Participle Passive with opus est. ttSUS est. (390.) 

Causal Sentences. 

538. Causal sentences are introduced: 

1. By Quia, because^ quod, (in thai) because, \ /Q«„go 

2. By Quoniam (quom iam), rww iliat, quando, quandS- I i>roiKjr \ 

quidem, since (rarely in this sense). ) 

8- By Quum, as, (Inference.) 

4 By the Relative Pronoun, partly alone, partly with ut, utpote, quippe, 
etc (Sec 626, 634.) 

Rexauks.— Quia and qnod diflcr chiefly in tbat qnod is nsed, and not quia, vhen the 
cansal sentence is at the same time an object sentence. Qnod— -the Ace Neat Siii|(. . 
qtiia the Ace. Nent PI. of qui, — often have a correlative demonstrative, such as, eO, 
idcO, ideircO, thertfore, proptereS. on that account. 

Quoniam and quando (qnandSqnidem) are used of evident, present rea>ons ; bat 
qnando (qnandOqnidem) is rare in any other than a temporal sense. Temporal ooii> 
Junction? are often used causally. 


539. Causal sentences with quia, quod, and quoniam are put 
in the Indicative, except in oblique relation (Partial or Total). 

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Rs VARK.~The other person of the ohtiqae elanee tiaay be Ima^gtnary, and the wiltei oi 
speaker may qnote from himralf indirectly : 

I4ketstii8 sum quod mihi licSret recta dfifendere. Cio. I was glad that Iwasfim 
to 4hampu/n the right, 

540. Causal sentences with quia, quod, and qnoniam take the 
Indicative in Direct Discourse : 

AmantSB d§ formS judicSre n5n pOBstint, quia sensum ocnldroin prae- 
cipit animus. Quint. Lovers cannot judge of beauty, because Vie heart fore- 
stalls tlie eye. 

Quia nStnra mutSrI ndn potest idcirod vSrae amXcitiae sempitez . 
nae sunt^ Cic. Because nature cannot cfuinge, Vierefore true friends/ttps are 

TorquatUB filium suum quod is contra imperium in hostem pug. 
n S V e r a t necarl jussit Sall. Torgttatus bade his son be put to death 
because he had fought against tJie enemy contrary to order{s) [quod pugnSsset 
= because, as Torquatus said or thought]. 

Neque me vizisse paenitet quoniam ita TizI ut u5n friistrS mS 
nitum e±[stimem. Cic. And lam not sor)*y for liaving lived, since I Juive 
so live^i (hat I think I was born not in vain, 

SdluB er5 quoniam ndn licet esse tu5. Pbop. (535, R. 2.) 

XSrant quibus appetentior fSmae Helvidius vidSretur quando etiam 
■apientibus cupldo gldriae novissima ezuitur. Tac. There were some to 
whom IMoidius seemed too eager for fame, since, even from the wise, ambition 
is the last (infirmity) tfiot is put off. . 

541. Causal sentences with quia, qnod, and quoniam take the 
Subjunctive in Oblique Discoui*se (Partial or Total). 

Noctu ambuULbat in ford Themistocles quod somnum capere n5n 
posset Cic. Themistocles used to walk about in tlie market-place at night be- 
cause (as he said) Ae could not get to sleep. 

Quae quia n5n 1 i c e a t n5n facit, ilia facit. Ov. Slie who does it nai 
because (she tliiiiks, forsooth) sJie may not (do it), does it. 

Elsewhere : quae quia nOn lieuit nOn faeit, ilia fiewit 
[Ne] comp5ne comas quia sis venturus ad illam. Ov. (517.) 
Quoniam ipse pr5 se dicere ndn posset, verba fecit firater ejus Stesa. 
gorSs. Nkp. " As [Miltiades] could not speak for Jiimself,** his brother, Stesa* 
goras, made a speec/i. (Indirect quotation from the speech of Stesagoras.) 

Remark8.~1. KOn quodi nOn qtda, are nsed with the Indicative or SnbjnnctiTe, a^ 
oording to ths general rale. The Indicative denies absolutely,* the Subjonctiye rejects 

• That the Indicative is nsed only of excluded /octo is not borne oot by the 
the language from Luob. ii. 8, to Tac. Ann. xili. 1. 

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Bn Imag^inary Bag«^tion (as if from an ideal second person). The real ground oftec fol* 
lows with Bed quia, sed quod. 

The Sabjunctive is more common than the Indicative with nOn quod, nOn quia. 
K9n quO = nOn quod* and nOn qaln = nOn quO nOiii are found with the Sabjunctive 

Subjunctive : 

PugilSB in jactandlB oaoBtibuB ingemiBcant. nOn quod doleant, fed quia pro* 
Amdendfi vOee omne oorpiu intenditur venitqae plfiga velieiiieiitior. Cio. Boxen 
in plying the cae^tus heave groans^ not that (as you might suppose) they are in pain^ bw 60. 
OfTOH in giving full vetU to the voice aU the body is put to the ttreteh^ and the blow comet 
with a greater rush, 

MfijOrSB nSBtrl in dominnm dS senrO qnaerl nOlnSmnt ; nOn qoln pottet tS 
nun invenlrl. Bed qnia Tidebfitur indignnm esie. Cic. Our ancestor* would no: 
allow a slave to be qitestioned by torture ag<Unst hie master, not because (not as though they 
thought,) the truth could not begotaf, but because such a course seemed degrading. 

A LaoedaemoniOram exalibaB praetor vim arcnerat, nOn qnia BalvOi Tellet 
sed qnia perire oansS indicts nOlSbat Lnr. The praetor had warded offvioUneefron^ 
the Lacedaemonian exiles,not(as you might have supposed) because he wished them to escapet 
hui because he did not toish them to perish with their case not pleaded (unheard). 

The same principle applies to mag^ qnod (qnO)« qnia . • qnam qnodi qnia« witl 
the moods in inverse order. 

LIbertfitiB orlginem inde, magii qnia annnnm imperinm consnlfire faetnm 
4ft qnam qnod deminfttnm qnidqnam Bit ex r9gift potestSte, finnmerBs. Liv. 
Tou may begin to count the origin qf liberty from that point, rather because the consular 
government was litnited to a year, than because aught was taken away from the royal 

Indicative : 

Snm n9n dioam mieer, led eert6 ezereitns, nOn qnia mnltis d6beo led qnia 
taepe concnrrnnt. Cio. lam, I will not say, toretched, but certainly worried, not because 
I am in debt to numy, but because they (their claims) qften eor^fUet. 

%, Verbs of Saying and Thinking are put in the subjunctive with qnod by a kind of 
attraction : 

ImpetrSre nOn potnl, qnod religiOne 8« impedlrl dicerent. Cio. I could not ob- 
tain permission, because they said (hey were embarrassed (prevented) by a religious scruple 
(= qnod impedlrentnr, because (as they said) they were prevented), 

8. Causal sentences may be represented by a Participle. (609.) 


542. Qnod is used to give the ground of Emotions and Ex- 
pressions of Emotion, such as Verbs of Joy, Sorrow, Surprise, 
Satisfaction and Anger, Praise and Blame, Thanks and Com- 

The rule for the Mood has been given already. 

Indicative : 

GandS qnod spectant ocull t§ noille loquentem. Hob. i2^ 
idee that a thousand eyes are gazing at you (while you are) speaking, 

Dolet mihi quod tu nunc stomaohSria. Cia It pains me thai you 
are angry now, 

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Qnintam paenitet quod animnm tuam offendit Gig. (376. R) 

Javat me quod vigent studia. Plin. Ep. / am charmed that studies 
are flourishing. 

Tristis eg? indignor quod sum tibi causa doloris. Ov. Art yoa 
Mdt lam provoked (with myself) tliat lam a catise of pain to you. 

Tibi gratias ago, quod mS omnI molestia liberal. Cic. 1 
Oiank you^ t/iat you free me from all annoyance. 

Subjunctive : 

Gaudet miles quod vicerit hostem. Or. T/ie soldier rejoices at 
homing conquered the enemy. 

Nunquam mihi in mentem veniet paenitere quod a me ipse n5n dft> 
Bdverim. Cic. It will never occur to me to be son'y for not having heen 
untrue to myself. 

Laudat Panaetius Africanum quod fuerit abstinens. Cic. PanaeUtu 
praises (Scipio) Africanunfor having been abstinent. 

Nemo 5rat5rem admlrStus est quod Latine loqueretur. Cic. iVV> 9ne 
(ever) admired an orator for speaking (good) Laiin. 

Sdorates aocusatus est quod corrumperet juventutem. Quint. So^ 
crates was accused of corrupting youth. 

MeminI gldriarl solitum esse Quintum Hortensium quod nunquam 
bell5 civill interfuisset. Cic. / remetnber tliat Quintics Hortensius used to 
boast of never having engaged in civil war, 

Agunt gratias quod sibi pepercissent. Caes. (511, R. 1.) 

Rbhark.— All these verb9 may be constnied with the Accusative and Inflnitive : Sal- 
▼nm tS adTSnisse gaudeo. (533.) Bat iu ExpresBions of Praise and Blame, Thanks 
and Complaint, qaod is more common. On cum, see 567. 

AmO tS et nOn neglexisse habeo grStiam. Tsr. Ilm>e you (= much obliged), and 
I mn thankful to you for not having neglected (it). 

Grfitulor ingenium nOn latuisse tuum. Or. l congratulate (yon) that yourgenitu 
has not lain perdu. 

IsocratSs queritur plfLs lionOris corporum quam animOrum virttLtibas darl 
QuiMT. Isocrates complains that tnore honor is paid to the virtues of the body than to those 
if the mind. 

Perplexing Emotion (Wonder) may be followed by a conditional, or by a dependent 
interrogative, as in English 

Sbntences of Dbbion and Tendbnot 

543. 1. Sentences of Design are commonly called Final 
Sentences. Sentences of Tendency are commonly called Con- 
secutive Sentences. Both contemplate the end — the one, as an 
aim ; the other, as a consequence. 

2, They are alike in having the Subjunctive and the particle 
at (Jiow, that), a relative conjunction. 

8. They differ in the Tenses employed. The Final Sentencei 

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tts a rule^ takes only the Present and Imperfect Sabjanctiya 
Consecutive Sentences may take also Perfect and Pluperfect 

4. They differ in the kind of Subjunctive employed. The 
Final Sentence takes the Optative. The Consecutive Sentence 
takes the Potential. Hence the difiference in the Negative : 

Mnal : ne (ut n$), Consecutive : ut nSn, that not. 

ne quiS| ut n$mo, tJiat no one. 

ne uUiis, nt nuUos, ikat no, 

nS ^nquam, (nS quando,) at nonqaam, VicU never, 

nS usquam, (neoubi,) ut nnsquam, that nowfiere, 

n$ aut — aut, (ut neve— neve,) ut neque — neque, tluU neither 

— nor. 

Bbmarks.— 1. Verbs of Effecting have the Final Sequence. 

8. Verbs of Hindering liave the sequences of the Final Sentence, but often the signifl- 
eation of the Consecutive. 

8. Verbs of Fearing belong to the Final Sentence only so far as they liave the Opta- 


544. Final Sentences are divided into two classes: 

I. Final Sentences in which the Design is expressed by the 
particle : Sentences of Design. 

time oportet ut i^vas, n5n vivere ut edas. [Cic] Tou must eat in ordef 
to live, not live in order to eat. 

This form may be translated by, (in order) to ; sometimes by, (hat tnaify mighty dKtt 
with the subj., and the like. 

II. Final Sentences in which the Design lies in the leading 
Verb (Verba studil et voltintatis, Verbs of Will and Desire) : Com- 
plementary Final Sentences. 

Yolo uti mihi regpondeas Cio. 1 wish you to answer me. 

This form is often rendei ed by ft>, never by in order to, sometimes by that and the sub- 
junctive, or some equivalent. 

Partly Final and partly Consecutive are : 

III. Verbs of Hindering. 
Peculiar in their sequence are : 

IV. Verbs of Fearing. 

Hexarks.— 1. Temporal Particles are often used in a final sense. So daill» dSueo, 
quoad (5^4), anteqnam, priusquam (579). 

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t. The geoeiml sense of a Final Sentence maj be expressed: 

1.) By the Qenitive of Gerund or Qemndire, with (seldom without) eaOBft or grltlft' 
(4S9, R. 2.) 

2.) By ad with Gomnd and Oemndive. (433.) 

8.) By the Accusative Supine after Verbs of Motion. (436.) 

4.) By the Future Participle Active (later Latin) : 

Marobodnoi mliit I6gkt0i ad Tiberivm OrfttftrOf aiudlia, Martod tent commit 
tionert to TUeriw^ U> Itg for rHttforeanrnta. 

L Sentences of Design. 

545. Sentences of Design are introduced by: 

1. Ut (ntl) {fww) that, and other Relative Pronouns and Ad- 
verbs (632). 

Ut is often preceded by a demonstrative expression, such as : iddrcO, 
therefore; e5, on thai account; e5 consilid, with the design. 

2. Quo = ut eO, that thereby ; with comparatives, that 
the, .. — .. .: 

3. He, that not, lest, continued by neve, neu. (450.) 

Rkxark 1. Other particles are of limited use. So at nS cannot follow verbs of nega- 
tive signification ; qnOminoi is used with Verbs of Hindering ; qnln requires a preceding 
negative besides. 

fisse oportet ut vl^as, n5n vlvere ut edSs. [Cic] Tou mast eat to Uve^ 
not live to eat. 

Inventa sunt specula, ut homo s$ ipse nSsceret Sen. Mirrors were 
invented^ to make m>an acquainted with himself, 

Ut ameris, amSbilis est5. Ov. That you may be loted (to make yourself 
loved, in order to be loved), be lovable. 

Ij§gem brevem esse oportet, qaS facUius ab imperltis teneStur Sbn. 
A law oitght to be brief that it may tfie more easily be grasped by the unedU" 

Senex seiit arborSs, quae alterl saeculS prSsint. Gic. Ths old man sets 
out trees, to do good to the next generation. 

Semper habS Pyladen, qui cons51dtur OrestSn. Ov. Always have a 
I^lades, to console Orestes. 

ArtazerzSs ThemistocU MagnSsiam urbem d5nSverat, quae el pSnem 
praebSret. Nep. Artaxerxes had given Themistodes the dty of Magnesia^ 
to furnish him with bread. 

Gkdllnae pennis fovent puUSs, n§ frigore laedantor. Cic Hens keep 
(their) eliickens toarm with (their) wings, tliat tJi&y may not be (to keep them 
from being) hurt by the cold. 

ZMon^us n9 ooUum tons5rI oommitteret tondire filiSa snas doouit 
Cic. (424, R. 8.) 

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ftsMABK 9. Ut nOn l8 n»ed when a partlcnlar word is negatiTed : 

Confer t9 ad Mallium, at nOn ejectns ad aliSnOi tad invIUtOB ad tnOi etia 

▼ideftris. Cio. Betake yournlf U> Maliius^ that you may teem not thnut out to ttrangen 

but invited to your own (friends). 

n. Complementary Final Sentences. 

646. Complementary Final Sentences follow Verbs of WiU- 
iug and Wishing, of Warning and Beseeching, of Urging and 
Demanding, of Resolving and Endeavoring, of Forcing and 
Permitting (Verba stadil et yolimt&tiB).* 

Positive: Ut. 

Volo uti mihi reipondeSs. Cic. Iwifth you to an$u>er me, 

Phaethdn ut in currum patxia tollerdtar optfiTit. Gto. Pliaethon de- 
nred to be lifted vp into his fatJier's chariot, 

Admoneo ut quotldiS meditere resistendum ease Irficundiae. Cic. / 
admonish you to reflect diiily that resistance must be made to hot^/iecuUdness. 

Et precor ut possim tutius esse miser. Ov. (424.) 

Ezigis ut Priamus nStOrum fnnere Indat Ov. You exact Viot Priam 
sport at (liis) sons^ funeral. 

Athenienses quum statuerent ut nSvSs consoenderent, Oyrsilnni 
qnendam suSdentem ut in urbe mandrent lapidibus cooperu§runt. Cic. 
TTie Athenians, resolving to go on board their ships, covered vith stones 
( = stoned) one Cyrsilus, who tned to persuade them to remain in the city, 

Pnblium Lentulum ut se abdicaret praeturS co§gi8tia. Cic. You 
forced PMius Lentulus to resign the praetorship, 

niud nStura n5n patitur, ut aliSrum spolUs nostHbi c5piSs augeSmus. 
Cic. Nature does not allow us to increase our wealth by the spoils of others. 

So also any verb or phrase used as a verb of Willing or De- 
manding : 

P^hia respondit ut moenibus ligneis se miinXrent. Nep. Tlie Pytlaa 
answered that they must defend tliemselves with walls of wood. 

So e& lege, eft condiciOne nt (ne), on condition thai {thai not). 
Negative : N6, nt n6. Negatives are added by nfive (nea), and 


• Snch yerbs and phrases are : Oro, rogo, peto, precor, obsecro. flflirfto, postulo, - 
ctlro, video, prOvideo, prOsipicio. — eufldeo, persuftdeo, cSnseo, hortor, adhortor, moDeo 
admoneo, permoveo, addflco, inclto, impcllo, cOgo, — impero, mando, praeclpio, Cdico 
dtco, scrtbo, mitto. -- concede, permitto (slno), — statno, constitno and dficemo,— volo 
nolo, maio, opto, stndeo, nitor, contendo, ClabOro, pngno, — id ago, operam do, Iflgem 
fero. 16x est, anctor sum, consi'liim dO. 

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Caesar suls imperSvit n$ quod onudnS tSbam in hostSs n^pceront 
Caes. Caemr gave orders to his (men) not to throw back any mimle at all at 
iJie enemy. 

ThemistoclSs collegis suls praedlzit ut ne prius Lacedaemonidnim 
IfigStSs dimitterent quam ipse esset remissus. Nep. Themistocles told his 
eoUeaguee beforehand not to dismiss the Lacedaemonian envoys before he were 
§ent back. 

T7t nS Ib not used after verbs of Des;ative tignUicatloii, sach as impedio, I hinder, 
rwfin, I refuse, (548.) 

Pompejus suls praedlxerat at Oaesazis impetnm •zciperent nSve 8§ 
loc5 movdrent Caes. Pompey had told his men beforehand to receive Ckusai's 
charge and not to move from tfieir position, 

Neque is sometimes used after at : 

Monitor tuus suSddbit tibi ut hinc discedas neque mihi ullum ver- 
bum respondeas. Cic. Tour adviser will counsel you to depart hence ahd 
answer me never a word. 

Remarks.— 1. Instead of nt with the Subjunctive, the Infinitive is frequently nted 
with this cla^s of verb?. So, gunemlly, with jubeo. / order^ 632. Authors vary. The 
ase of the Infinitive is wider in poetry and silver prose. 

3. When verbs of Willing and Wishing are used as verbs of Saying and Thinkins^ 
Knowing and Showing, the Infinitive must be used. The English tranci'latioa is that^ and 
tiie Indicative : volo. I will have it (maintain), moneOt J remark^ persafideOt / convince, 
dSeernOi I decide, cOgO. I conclude, 

Moneo artem sine assiduitste dicendl nOn multum juvfire. Cio. I remark tfuU 
art wiUiout constant practice in 8i)eaking is of little avail. 

VIx calquam persuSdebStur Graecifi omnI cessUrOs BOmSnOs. Lit. Scarce an^ 
9ne could be persuaded that the Ro7tuins loould retire f^^om all Greece. 

NOn sunt isti aadiendl qui TirtUtem dfiram et quasi ferream quandam esse 
▼Olunt Cic. (.300.) 

Est mOs hominum nt nOlint eundem plUribus rShns excellere- Cic R is the 
way of the ivorld not to allow that the same man excels in more thirtgs (than one). 

3. When the idea of Wisliing is emphatic, the simple Subjunctive, without utt is vm* 
ployed, and tlie restriction of sequence to Present nnd Imperfect is removed ! 

ExIstimSs velim nSmiaem calquam oSriOrem unquam fulsse quam tS mihL 
Cic. I wish yoti to think that no one was ev*r dearer to anyone than you to tne. 

MSlo te sapiens hostis metuat quam stultl clv6s laudent. Liv. I had rather a 
wise enemy should fear you than foolish citizens should praise you. 

EzcflsStum habeSs m6 rogo. c6no doml. Mart. (380.) 

Etc adet, insSnl feriant sine Uttora fluctOs. Yerq. Come hither (ami) let the 
mad waves lash the shores. 

Tarn feilx ess6s quam formOsissima vellem. Ov. (316.) 

NOUem dixissem. Cic (254, R. a.) 

Ooeidit occideritque sinSs eum nOmine TrOjam. Vebo. * Tls fallen, and let Troy 
befallen name and all. 

iSo jubeo ill poetry and later prose Compare also potius quaoi* St9, R. 

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III. Verbs of Hindering, 

647. The depeudencies of Verbs of Hindering may be re- 
garded as partly Final, partly Consecutive. N© and qnOminni 
are originally final, but the final sense is often effaced, especially 
in qadminns. Qnln is a consecutive particle. The sequence of 
Verbs of Hindering is that of the Final Sentence. 

'I'he negative often disappears in the English translation. 

648. Verbs signifying to Prevent, to Forbid, to Kefuse, and 
to Beware, take n© with the Subjunctive : 

Impedior n§ plura dicam. Cic. / am hindered from saying more (1 
am hindered tltat I sliould sciy no more). 

Compare: *' Who did hinder you that ye ehoald not obey the truth ? ** Oal. t. 7. 

Servitus mea mihi interdizit ne quid mirer meum malum. Plaut. 

My slavery Juts forbidden me (o marvel aught at (339, R. 1.) iU of mine. 
Histiaeus obstitit n5 res conficeretnr. Nbf. Histiaeus opposed the 

thing being done. 

Regulus nS sententiam diceret recusavit. CiC. Begulvs refused to 

pronounce an opinion. 

Maledictis deterrere ne scrlbat parat. Ter. (424.) 

Tantum quum finges ne sis manifesta cavet5. Ov. (264.) 

Tantmn ne noceas dum vis prSdesse videt5. Ov. Only see (to it) tluU 

you do not do liai^m wJdle you wish to do good. 

Remarks.— 1. Verbs of Preventing also take quOminnf (649), and some of them the 
Infinitive (582, R. 1). So regularly prohibSre : 

N6mo Ire quenqnam ptlblicfi prohibet vifi. Plaut. (387.) 

Impedire, to hinder, deterrSre, to frighten qff, reclUfire, to refuse^ sometimss Lave 
Che Infinitive. 

%. Verb»» signifying to Beware belong to Verbs of Hindering only so far as action is 

After eayeo, I beware^ nS ic often omitted : 

Cay 6 cr6dSs. Beicare of believing, 

(CavS nt crfidSs, B^. sure to believe.) 

QnOs YlcerlB tibi amloOs esse cavfi crSdfts. Curt. Do not believe thai thoM u.hG*n 
you have conquered are friends to you. 

549. ftuCminus (= ut e6 minus), that thereby the less, is used 
with verbs of Preventing : 

Such as : impedire, to hinder ; prohibere, to keep from ; tenSre, to hold ; 
ddterrSre, to frighten off ; obstare, to be in tliA way ; recnaSre, Ic. refuse,- 
and the like : 

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AetSg ndn impedit qnSminiui agrf colendl studia teneSmtui. Oio. Age 
does not hinder our retaining interest in agriculture. 

Ndn dSterret sapieatem mors quSminiui rel pablicae (347) cdzuralat 
Cic. Death does not deter the sage from eonstUting tfie interest of the State. • 

Quid obstat qa5minii8 Deus sit beStnt 7 Oic. Wiai is in the way of 
Oo^s being ha/ppy f 

Caesar cognSvit per AfrSnium stSre qudminns proeli5 dXmioirStiir. 
Caer. Caesar found that it was Afrdnius^s fault tJuU there was no decisive 
fight (staty there is a stand stitl), 

660. Qnin is used like qnOminiiB, with Verbs of Preventing, 
but only when they are negatived or questioned. 

Rkmabxb.— 1. Qnln is compoonded of qui -¥ nS* how (in which way), •(> mo£, and 
SDBwero to Qt eO nOn or quO nOn. For nOa qaln (= nOn quO ]i9ii)« see 541, R. 1. 

S. Qnln is used only after Negative Sentences, or Qnestions which expect a negative 

8. When qnln is need as a Consecntiye or Helative particle, nt nOn or qnl nOn* it hfM 
all the seqoences of theConpecntive or Relative. See 65C. 

4. When qnln is nsod after Negative expressions of Donbt it has the sequences of tbc 

A. When qnln is used with Verbs of Preventing it has the seqacnceaof the Final Sen* 

661. Qnln is used when Verbs and Phrases of Preventing, 
Omitting, Refraining, Eefasing, and Delaying, Donbt and TJn- 
certainty, are negatived or questioned: 

1. Verbs of Preventing and the like (Sequence of the Final 
Sentence) : 

VIx nunc obsistttor ilUs (208) quia lanient mondum^ Ov. They are 
now hardly to be kept (that they should not rend) from rending tlie universe, 

Antiochns n5n se tenuit qnln contrS suum doct5rem libnim dderet. 
Cic. Antioehus did not refrain from publisliing a book against his teacher. 

Nullum adhuc intermlsl diem quin aliquid ad te Htterarum darem. 
Cic. IJiave thus far not allowed a day to pass but I dropped you {unihotU 
dropping you) something of a letter (a liue or two). 

Facere n5n possum quXn quotidiS ad t$ mittam UtterSs. Cic. /ean- 
not do without (I cannot JUlp) sending a letter to you daily. 

(Nulls mods £acere possum ut non aim popularis. Cic. I cannot hdp 
being a man of the people.) 

N5n possum quIn ezclamem. Plaut. I cannot but(l must) cry out. 

Nihil abest quIn sim miserrimus. Cic. There is nothing wanting tliat I 
ihould be (= to make me) perfectly miserable. 

Fieri null5 mod5 poterat quIn CleomenI (208) paroer§tnr. Cic. It 

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eotUd in ito toiie happen but thai C^eatnenes should be $pared{= Cleometieii 
bad 1o l>e Rpared). 

Paulom afait quln Fahius Varum interfiooret. Cabs. There was UttU 
lacking but Fabius (had) killed Varus (= Fabius came near killing Varus). 

2. Verbs of Doubt and XJncei-tainty (Sequence of the Inter- 
rogative sentence) : 

N5n dubium est quln uxfirem n51it filiua. Tbr. There is no doubt that 
(my) son does not want a iD\fe. 

Quia dubitet (= nSmo dubitet) quln in virtute diTitiae aint? Cio. 

N5n dubitizl dSbet quln fuerint ante HomSrum pofitae. GiO. It is not 
to be doubted that tfiere were poets before Homer, 

Nunc mihi n5n eat dubium quln venturae n5n sint legiSnSa. Gic 

Occasionally Verbs of Saying and Thinking are found with the same 
construction, because they arc near equivalents. 

NegSrX n5n potest qtOn rectius sit etiam ad pacatds barbarSs ezerd- 
tum mitlL Lrv. It cannot be dented (doubled) that it is better for an anny to 
be sent to Vie barbarians even though tliey be quiet. 

N5n abest susplcio (LitotSs for dubit&rl n5n potest) quln Orgetorix 
ipse sibi mortem consclverit. Caes. Thence is no lack of ground to stispect 
(i:^ there is no doubt that, 448, R 2) Orgetoris killed himself 

Bexarks.—!. In Future relations nOn dabito quia (according to 615, R. 8) may have 
the Shnple Sobjunctive instead of the Periphrastic: 

NOn dubit&re quln d6 omnibus obsidibus supplicium stUnat Ariovistos. Caks. 
*^ He did not doubt that Ariovistus would put all the hostages to death,^* Comp. Cat. cvlii. 

So when there \if> an original Subjunctive notion : 

HOn dubito' quln ad tS statim veniam. Cic. I do not doubt that I ought to oonu 
to yoa forthwith. ( Venia m 1 SliaU I co/ne /) 

2. or conrse dubito and nOn dubito may have the ordinary hiterrogative constnio> 
tions. On dubito an, see 459, R 

8. HOa dubito, with the Infinitive, nsnally means I do not hesitate to : 

N9a dubitem dioere omnfis sapientSs semper beStOs esse. Cic. I should not hssir 
taie to say t/iat all wise men are always happy, 

£t dubitfimus adhtlc yirttltem extenders faetis 1 Viero. And do we stilt hesi- 
tate to spread our (fame for) valor by our deeds f Compare yereor, timeo, IfeoTt hesi" 
tate to. 

So occasionally nOn dubito quln. See R. 1. 

BOmSnl arbitrSbantur nOn dubit&tflrum fortem yirum quln oCderet aequO 
animO Ifigibus- Cio. Tlie Ronwiis thought that a brave man would not heiUace to yield 
with equanimity lo the laws. 

4. NOn dubito with the Inf. for nOn dubito quln occnrs chiefly in Nbpos, Lnrr and 
Uter writers. 

Sunt s^ultl qui quae turpia esse dubitfire nOn possunt fttilitStis speoiS duoti 
probent- Quikt. 7'here are many whQ, led on by tfie appearance of prtifU* approve what 
they cannot doubt to be base. 

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IV. Verbs of Fewring, 

562. Verbs of Feariug, and expressions that involve Fear^ 
take the Present and Perfect, Imperfect and Pluperfect Sub- 

The Present Subjunctive represents the Present and Futnrc 

The Perfect Subjunctive regularly represents the Perfect In- 

Present aud Perfect Subjunctive become Imperfect and Plu- 
perfect after a Past Tensa 

With Verbs of Fearing, nfi, to?/, shows that the negative is 
wished and the positive feared ; at (nd nOn) shows that the posi- 
tive is wished and the negative feared : n© nOn is used regularly 
after the negative. 

Timeo nS hostis veniat, I fear lest t/ie enemy come^ tlvat lie is earning^ 
that he wiU come. 
(/ toish he may not come,) 
Timeo nd hostis vSnerit, I fear lest Vie enemy Jiave eoms^ 

that (it will turn out that) he has come. 
Timeo ut amloiis venial, I fear lest my friend come not, that he is not 
coming, will not come. 
(I wish he mcty come). 
Timeo Qt amicus vSnerit, I fear lest my friend have not come. 

thai he has ivot come. 
N5n timeo nS amicus n5n veniat, I do not fear that my friend is not 

coming^ wiU not come, 
N5n timeo n$ amicus n5n v§nerit, J^do not fear that my friend has not 

Vereor nS dam minuere velim labdrem augeam. Cic. I fear lest, while 
I wish to lessen the toU, I increase it {thai I am increasing it). 

Veremur n§ parom hlo liber mellis et absinthil multum habere vlde- 
atur. Qttint. lam afraid that this book toiU seem to have too little honey and 
(to >) mtich wormipood. 

Timeo ut sustineas lab5res. Cic. I fear that you wiU not hold out under 
your toils. 

N5n vereor ne tua virtus opIniSnl hominum n5n respondeat. Cic 
Idonot fear tTiat your virtue unll not anstoer to {come up to) public eacpecta- 

Metuond id ccnsilil o§perim quod n5n £scile ezplioSre possim. Cic 
I fear that I have formed apian thai I cannot readily explain. 

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Onmn illnd eztim9io$lMm n5 quid tarphu ftoerem vel dIOam Jam 
BflRicisseiii, Tha only thing I feared wom, lest J sltould odst disgracefully^ or, ] 
thould (rather) say, (lest) I had already acted disgracefully. 

Rkmarkr.— 1. With the Infinitive, Verbs of Fear are Verbs of WilL 80 cspecfaJy 
▼ereor, I fear to. 

Yereor t6 laudSre praesentem. Cic. (424) (Yereor » prae timOre nOlo.) 

8. yid6 nS, see to it lest. \» often need ae> a polite formula for dubito an (469 U.), 
lam yuAned to think. 

Tide 116 pltLs prQfatllra sit ratio ordinSria. Sbk. {See to UletO laminbUned to 
think that the ordinanj method is Uketi/ to be tAs more pr J fitable. (289,1.) 


Sentences of Tendency and Result. 

653. Consecutive Sentences are those sentences which show 
the Consequence or Tendency of Actions. In Latin, Result is 
a mere inference from Tendency, though often an irresistible 
inference. In other words, the Latin language uses so as 
throughout, and not so that, although so that is often a conve- 
nient translation. The result is only implied, not stated. 

664. Consecutive Sentences, or Sentences of Tendency and 
Result, have the Subjunctive mood. 

Consecutive Subjunctives are put in the Present or Perfect, 
Imperfect or Pluperfect Tense according to the rules for 

The introductory particle is nt 

In the leading clause, demonstratives are often employed in 
correlation with ut, which is a relative. 

The Relative is sometimes used, parallel with ut (632). 

The Negative is ut n6n, sometimes after negatives quXn. 
When the notion of Design or Condition enters, n© is also found. 

666. Consecutive Sentences are used after 

1. Demonstratives, '^ 

2. Transitive and 

3. Intransitive Verbs, and 
. 4. Phrases, 

566. 1. Consecutive Sentences are largely used after De- 
monstratives expressed or implied. 

Tanta vis probltStis eat, nt earn in hoste etiam dlligSmns. Cm So 
great is the virtue of uprightness, tJiat we love it even in an enemy. 

all implying the creation or exis 
tence of conditions that tend to 
a result 

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Nimo tarn timidtw ert nt mSIlt lemper pendfire quam semel cadoroL 
Sbm. 7^0 one U 90 timid as to prefer Jianging always to falling onoe 

NeqiM mi vizisie paenitet quoniam ita vizX nt nOn frfiatrS mS nfttoni 
wriBtimem. Cio. (540.) 

N5n is 68 ut tS pador nnqnam S turpitadine revocSrit. Cic. Tou art 
not the man for shame ever to have recalled you (= ever to have been re- 
ralled by shame) /row baseness, 

Nimo ade& leroa eat ut n5n mitescere possit. Hos. No one is 90 sa^ 
Tige tliat he cannot (be made to) soften, 

AtYer a negative qnXn = ut n5n : 

Na tam difficile eit qnln quaerendS investlgSrI possiet (possit). Ter. 
Naught is so hard but it can ( = that it cannot) be tracked out by search. 

Nnnquam tam male est SiouUs quin aliquid faciti et oommodi dXcant 
Cic. Ths SiciUans are never so badly off as not to (have) something or other 
clever and pat (to) say. 

Remarks.— 1. Notice especially tantun abest (Impers.) . . . ut • • • at. The ori- 
giu of the phrase is shown by 

Tantum abest ab eO ut malum mors sit ut verear n6 bominl sit nihil bonum 
aliud. Cio. So far U it from death (= so for is death from) being an evil that I fear mam 
has no other blessing. 

Tantum abest ut nostra mIrOmur ut usque eO difficilSs simus ut nObIs nGn 
satisfaoiat ipse BSmosthenSs. Cio. 80 far are toe from admiring our own (composi- 
tioDs) that we are so hard to please that Demosthenes himself fails to satitfy us. 

The peri^onAl construction can be aj»ed when an abstract follows. 

2. Bignus, vxn-thy, indignus, unworthy, aptus* idOneus,.^^. take a coniecatiTe seo- 
tcnce, but usually with qui, seldom with ut. The Inflnitive is poetic 

Digna fuit ilia nfitlira quae meliOra vellet Quint. That nature was worthy of 
wUttng better things (= of better aims). 

8. A consecutive sentence follows quam ot (Cic.) or quam qui : see $ 318. 

On the omission of ut with potius quam (priusquam), see 679, R. 

The pronoun is often involved in ut after a negative and comparative: 

Nihil antlquius habul quam ut (=id ut), etc. 

4. N6, lest^ is sometimes irregularly used instead of ut n9n, especially when the idea 
of design or wish intrudes : 

Ita me gessi n6 tibi pudOrl essem. Liv. / behaved myself to as not to be a (Hs* 
grace to you. 

6. Ita— ut (sometimes ut alone), so that^ often serves to restrict and condition. The 
negative is often nO (comp. 564). 

Ita probanda est mansuetUdo at adhibefitur relpHblioae eausfi sevSritSs. Cio. 
Mildness is to be approved, so that (provided that) strictness be used for the sake cf the com- 

Ita frul volunt voluptfitibus ut null! propter efis dolOrSs oonsequantur. Cio. 
They ioish to enjoy pleasures without having any pain to ensue on account of them. 

P^hagorSs et Plato mortem ita laudant ut fugere vltam veteni. Cio. Py- 
thagotas and Pla^o so jtraise death that they, while they praise deaths forbid Jledng from 

Ita tH istaeo tua misoSto nS mS admisceSs. Tbr. Mix ip your miadngt to you 
mix me not withaL 

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C Ut nOn Ik often — without and the Enj^Ilsh verbal in -ing ; 

OetftviSnas nanqaam fUiOs snOs popold commends vit ut nOn adjiceret : SI 
merfibuntur. Suet. Octavianvs (Augustus) never recommended his sons to the people 
in ftuch a way as not to add (= without adding) : If they are worthy. 

Qui nOn v6re virttltl stadet certS mftlet ezlstimfirl bonus yir at nOn sit 
qnam esse ut nOn putStur. Cic. He who is not a true lover of virtue wUl certainly pre* 
fer being thoug/U a good man without being such^ to being (a £;ood man) tvithout being 
believed (to be such). 

After negatives quin = ut nOn. (550, R. 3.) 

557. 2. Verbs of Effecting belong partly to the Consecutive, 
partly'to the Final Sentence. The negative is n6n or M ; the 
sequence, final. 

Such verbs ai'e facio, efficio, perficio, Imake, effect, achieve; aiisequor, 
consequor, I attain, acc/fmpliah^ and other verbs of Causation. Facere ut 
is often little more than a periphrasis. 

Fortuna vestra facit ut Irae meae temperem. Liv. Tour fortune 
causes that I {makes me) restrain my anger (put metes to my anger). 

Invltus (324, R. 6) facio ut recorder ndnas relpublicae. CiC. (It is) 
against my will tluit I {am doing so as to) recall Hie ruined condition of the 

Negatives : 

Rerum obsciixitas ndn verbdrum facit ut n5n intellegatur 5r5tio. Cic. 

It is tlie obscurity of tJie sutgect, not of the words, iliat causes the language not 
to be tinder stood. 

Potestis efficere ut male moriar, ne moriar n5n potestis. PiiiN. Ep. 
Tou may make me die a hard death, keep me from dying you cannot. 

558. 3. Consecutive Sentences follow many Impersonal Verba 
of Happening and Following, of Accident and Consequent: 

Such verbs are fit, accidit, contingit, it happens^ usu venit, it occurs, 
accSdit, t/iere is added, sequitur, it follows. So also est, it is the case. 

Fieri potest ut fallar. Cic. {It) may be {thai) I am mistaken. 

Potest fieri ut is unde te audisse dicis Iratus dizerit. Cic. (It) may be 
(l^t) lie from whom you say you heard (it) said it in anger. 

Pergaepe evenit ut utilitas cum honestate certet Cic. It very often 
(so) happens tliat profit is at variance mth honor. 

Ad Appii Claudil senectutem accedebat etiam ut caecus esset. Cic. 
To the old age of Appius Claudius was further added his being blind. 

REMARK.— Very common is the periphrasis fore (futtlrum) ut, which gives the com- 
Bon form of the Fut. Inf. See 240. 

559. 4. Many abstract phrases are followed by consecutive 

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Such are : mSs, consuStildo est, it is the tra^, the toont^ opus, tisas est^ 
there ie need^ and tlic like. More rarely after adjectiyea such as aequum, 
instrxm^ fair, jiuit^ and the like. So with the Genitive after esse. 

The leading sentence is often a negative one to show the imaginary 
character of the result 

^^ In all these relations the Accosative with the Inf. is more common. 

Est m5s hominum ut n51int eundem plfiribus rSbus ezcellere. Cic 
(546, R. 2.) 

An cnlqnam est usus homini se ut cmciet ? Tbk. (390, R.) 

Dion^sid ne integrum quidem erat ut ad justitiam remigraret Cic 
Dionysdus toas not free even (if he had wished it) to return to justice. 

Sst miser5rum ut malevolentds sint atque invideant bonis. Pi^UT 
The wretched have a way of being ilUnatured and envying tlie welt-to-do. 

RSrum (= rSr5 accidit) ut sit idSneus suae rel quisque defensor 
Quint. It is rare for a man to be a good defender of his own case, 

RBXABK.~Ne06S8e estt it is necessaryy generally, and oportet, it behooves, always 
omit ut : 

Leuotrica pugna immortfilis sit neeesse est Nep. The battle qf Leuctra mum 
needs be immortal. 

Bed nOn effugiSs ; mSoom morifiris oportet. Pbop. B\U you shall not escape ; yo% 
must die loith me. 

Exclamatoj'y Questions. 

560. Ut with the Subjunctive is used in Exclamatory" Ques- 

Bgone ut t5 interpellem 7 Ore. / interrupt you f 

Tu ut unquam t5 corzigas ? Cic. Tou—ever refoi^n yourself? 

Remark.- -The czpreseioa is closely parallel with the Accusative and Infinitive. The 
one objects to the idea ; the other, to any st^ite of things that could produce the retvlt. He 
neither case is there any definite or conscious ellipsis. Comp. Tan. Hec. 4, S, 13 with 

Tekporal Sbntbncbs. 

661. The action of the Temporal or Dependent clause may 
stand to the action of the Principal clause in one of three 

I, It may be antecedent : 

CoNJTTNCTioNS : Postquam (Fostea quam), (tfier tJuU, after; ut, as; ubi, 
when (literally, tohere); simulac, as soon as; ut primum, cum primum, the 
first moment that, 

!!• It may be contemjpora7ieou» . 

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Conjunctions : Dum, dSneo, toMe, untU; quoad, up ft>(the time) thai; 
qnamdifi, as long as; com, when. 

III. It may be subsequent : 

CoNJUKcnoNS : Antequam, priusqnam, before thai, befcm, 
A special chapter is required by 

IV. Cum, when. 

Hoods in Tbicpoiul Sbntbkobs. 

562. 1. The mood of Temporal clauses is regularly the 

2. The Subjunctive is used only — 

L)In Orfttio Obllqna (509), Total or Partial. So also in the 
Ideal Second Person. 
• 2.) When the idea of Design or Condition is introduced. 


563. In historical narrative. Temporal Clauses with postqnam, 
abi, at, simulac, at prUnom, and cam primam commonly take the 
Historical Perfect or the Historical Present Indicative : 

The English translation is not unfrequently the Pluperfect. 

Postqaam Caesar pervenit, obsidSs poposcit Caes. After Caesar ar- 
rived, he demanded hostages. 

Quae ubl nnntiantur RQmain, sen£tiit eztempl5 dictatdrem did Jnailt - 
Liv. Wlien tliese tidings were canied to Mome^ tlie senate forthwith ordered a 
dictator to he appointed. 

PompSjiui ut equitatain suum pulsnm vidit, acie excessit Caes. Ai 
Pompey saw his cavalry beaten^ lie left the line of battle, 

PelopidSs n5n dubitavit, simulac conspexit hostem, ccnfilgere (551, 
R. JJ.). Nep. As soon as he (had) caught sigJit of the enemy^ Pelopidas did not 
hesitate to engage (him). 

Subjunctive in Dratio ObUqaa : 

Ariovistum, ut samel GaU5rum cGpiSa vicerit (0. R. vicit), superbfl 
Imperare. Caes. ** That Ariavistus^ as soon as he had once beaten the forces 
of the OaulSf exercised his rule arrogantly.'** 

RRXA:iK.~Po8tqiiam is rarely found with the Subjanctive outside of Q, Q. 

664. The Imperfect is used to express an action cootinaed 
into the time of the principal clause (overlapping). 


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The translatioii often indicates the spectator (234, R. 1). 

Postiuam nemo pr5cedere audSbat, intrat. CuBT. After (he found 
thai) no one had the courage to come forth^ he entered. 

Ubi nemo obvius ibat, ad castra hostium tendnnt. LiY. When (thej 
saw tliat) na one toas coming to meet them, they proceeded to the camp of the 

Subjunctive in Orfttio Obllqna : 

Sczlpsistl eum, postquam n5n aadSret (0. R. n5n audebat) reprehexi- 
dere, laudSre coepisse. Cic. Tou wrote that, after he could not get up the 
courage to blame, he began to praise, 

565. 1. The Pluperfect is used to express an action com- 
pleted before the time of the principal clause ; often of the Ke- 
Bulting Condition. 

Alblnus postquam dScreverat n5n Sgredl prSvinciS, mllitSs stattvis 
castria habSbat. Sall. After Albinus had fully determined not to depart 
from the province, he kept his soldiers in cantonments. 

Posteaquam multitudinem coUSgerat emblSmatum, institoit officlnam. 
Cic. After he had got togetlier a great number of figures, he set up sJiop. 

566. 2. The Pluperfect is used with postquam when a definite 
interval is mentioned. 

Post and qnam are often separated. With an Ablative of Measure, 
post may be omitted. 

Aristldes dSoessit fere post annum quartum quam Themistoclte Athi- 
niB erat ezpulsus. Nep. Aristides died about four years after T/iemigtocles 
had been (was) banished from Athens. 

Hamilcar nOnQ annQ postquam in Hispaniam vSnerat occIbub est 
Nep. Hamilcar was killed nine years after he came to Spain, 

Aristides sezt5 fere annO quam erat ezpulsus in patriam restitntns 
est. Kep. Aristides was restored to his country about six years ctfter he was 

Subjunctive in Or&tlo Obllqna: 

Scriptum S PosIdOniO est triginta annis vizisse Panaetium poite&* 
quam librds de officils Sdidisset. Cic. It is recorded by Posidonius thai 
Panaetius lived thirty years after lie put forth his books on Duties. 

The attraction is sometimes neglected. 

Rbbiajik.— The Historical Perfect U also in freqnent use: 

Nero nfitus est Antil post novem mens6s quam Tiberius exoMsiti Bust. Sero 
VHUbomat Antium nine months qfter Tiberius departed (this life). 
On the Iterative Plaperfect, Boe below, 66S. . 

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ITERATIVE AcrnoN. 281 

667. Fostqnam and the like, with the Present and Perfect 
[ndicative, assume a causatiye signification (compare qaoniam, 
now that = since) : 

Cllria minor milii vidStor posteSquam Mt ml^or. do. Ths muEtt-^otue aemt 
fo me smaller now that it is (really) greater. 

Tremo horreOque pott qnam aspezi hane. Teb. 1 qtdver and ehiver Hnet I Aaot 
toother m 

So cum sometimes : 

OrStnlor tibi cum tantnm YalM. Cio. IwUh you joy now that you hav$ to much 

HeraUve Actum, 

568. Rule L — When two actions are repeated contempora- 
neously, both are put in tenses of continuance : 

Humiles labdrant ubi potentSa dissident. Phaedr. l^he lowly suffer 
token tJie powerful disagree, 

Populus m§ sXbilat } at mihi plaudo ipse doml simulac nummOs con- 
templor in area. Hon. The people hiss me ; but I clap myself at Iwme as soon 
as T gloat o^er my cash in the strong box, 

Ut quiaque' maximS labdrabat locus aut ipse occurrSbat aut aliquOs 
mittebat Liv. As each point was hard pressed, lie would eitlier hasten to hdp 
himself or send some persons. 

The Subjunctive with the Ideal Second Person : 

Bonos segnior fit nbi neglegfis. Sall. A good man becomes more tlug^ 
gish wlien you neglect him, 

569. Rule XL — When one action is repeated before another, 
the antecedent action is put in the Perfect, Pluperfect, or Fu- 
ture Perfect ; the subsequent action, in the Present, Imperfect, or 
Future, according to the relation. 

fS^ As this use runs throngli all sentences inyolTing antecedent action, all the 
cUfiBes are represented in the following examples: 

Rbxabk 1> Observe the greater exactness of the Latin expression. Comp. S86, R. % 

QuotiSs cecidit, surgit, As often as lie faUn^ he rises. 

QuotiSs ceciderat, surgebat, As often as he fell^ Tie rose. 

QnotiSs ceciderit, siirget, As often as he falls, he will rise. 

Simul inflSvit tiblcen S perltd carmen agndsoitor. Cio. As soon as the 
fiuter blowSy the song is recognized by the connoisseur, 

AlcfoiadSs simulac s$ remlserat, luzuriSsus reperiebStur. Nbp. A^ 
soon as Alcibiades relaxed^ lie wasjbund a debanc/tee. 

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IDodlidra sunt ingenia prius quam obdfimenmt. Quint. Mind» an 
more teachable before tltey (have) become hardened. 

Ager cum multds annds requievit, uberiQres efferre frugSs solet. CiC. 
Wlien afield has rested (rests) muny year 8^ it usually produces a more abuiu 
dant crop. 

Oum palam Sjus anuli ad palmam converterat G^g8s,ft ntill5 vide- 
bitor. Cic. ir/if ;i(ever) Gyges turned tlie bezel of Vie ring toward the palm 
(of his hand), lie was to be seen by no one. 

Si p5s condoluit, si dens, ferre n5n possiunns. Cic. ff afoot, ifM tooth 
ae?ve(8)^ we cannot endure it. 

Stomachabatur senez, si quid asperius dixeram. Cic. T/ie -old man 
used to befrettedf if I said anyUdng (that was) ratJier Ivarsk, 

Quod ii5n dedit fortuna n5n Sripit. Sen. What fortune lias notgiten 
(does not give), s7ie does not tiike away. 

Haerebant in memoria quaecumque audierat et viderat [Themisto- 
cl5s]. Cic. Whatever T/iemistodes had heard and seen (= heard and saw) 
remained fixed in his memory. 

Qui timere desierintj ddisse incipient Tac. Those who cease to fear 
will begin to Iiate. 

The Subjunctive witli the Ideal Second Person: 

Ubi consuluexis, mature £act5 opus est. Sall. When you have deUbe- 
rated, you want speedy action. 

The Subjunctive in Or&tio Obllqna : 

Cato mirari se s^ebat quod n5n rideret haxxispez haruspicem cum 
vidisset. Cic. Cato said tliat lie wondered tluU an liaruspex did not laugh when 
he saw (another) Jiaruspex. (Non ridet cum vidit.) 

The Subjunctive by Attraction: 

Rete tezunt araneolae ut si quid inhaeserit conficiant. CiC. (Si quid 
Inhaesit, conficiunt.) 

QuarS ftebat, ut omnium oculSs, quotiescunque in public\im prSdIsset, 
ad se converteret. Nep. (Quotiescunque pr5dierat, convertebat) 


ReM4Rk2. The Subjunctive (Impcrf. and Plui^erf.) is sometimes fonnd in Iterative 
Sentencej*— chiefly after the Tmperf. Ind. or some combination which phowa Will, Habit, 
Kxi)eclfttion. Tlie construction is best explained by Partial Obliquity (509, 8). It is found 
chiefly in later historians and in Nkpos. The passages in Cabsab are not nameroos, and 
come are uncertain. 

Incorrere ea gens in Macedonian! solita erat nbi r6gem occnpfitom extemd 
oellO sevsisset. Liv. That tribe was wont to make a raid on Macedonia whenever tktf 
pereekfed the king engrossed inforeiffn war. 

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Qui aniuii 6jiu ordinis oibndisset onmei adyenOi habSbat Lit. Whom had 
Vffended one of that order was sure to have aU against him. 

Xodam adhibendO ubi rCs posoeret pri0r9t erant. Lit. Bp thews t^moderatUm, 
% the case demanded it^ they were his superiors. 
So sometimes the Prcs. and Perf . Subj. with the Pres. Indicative. Compare 666, R. 1. 


670. CoTijtinctions used of Contemporaneous Action are : 

Dam, dOnec, widle, so long as, until ; quoad, up to (the time) 
tJiat ; quamdifl, as long as ; cum, when. 

An action may be contemporaneous in Extent — so long as. 

An action may be contemporaneous in Limit — u7iHl. 

KEMARK.'Dam (while) yet, denotes duration, which maybe cofixteneive, to long as, 
or not. It is often caneal. BOntO (old form dOnicum. of nncertain composition), paral- 
lel with dmn in the sense, so long as^ until. Cicero uses it only as until. Quum (eum) 
demands a separate treatment. 

I. Contemporaneous in Extent. 
(So long as^ wJtile.) 

571. Dnm, dOnec, quoad, quamdifl, so long as, while, take tlie 
Indicative of all the tenses. 

Vtta dctin superest, bene est. Maecenas. While (so long as) life fw> 
ma\n$, *(m well. 

Sibi ver5 hanc laudem relinquunt, '' Visit, dum visit, bene." Ter. 

Tliey leave indeed tim praise for themselves, " He lived well tchile lie lived '* 
(all the time). 

Tiberius Qracchus tamdiu laudabitor d\ui& memoria r§rum RSmlU 
naran manibit. Cic. Tiberias Gracohns skill be praised so long as the 
memory of liotnan history remains (shall remain). 

Fuit haec gens fortis dum Lycurgi leges vigebant. CiC. TIt,i» nation 
WQ$ brave so long as the laws of Lycurgus were in force. 

Donee gratus eram tibi, Persarum vigul rege beatior. HoR. While 1 
was aecepUible in your sight, I throve more blessed than Persians king. 

Quoad potuit, restitit. Cic. As long as lie could, he withstood. 

Subjunctive in Sr&tio Obllqua : 

[RSgulus dudt] quamdiu jurejurand5 hostium tenerStur n5n esse si 
senatSrem. Cio. [liegulus said] tha>t as long as he toas bound by his oaih io 
the enemy lie was not a Senator, (Quamdia tenoor non sum senStor.) 

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Sabjuncvive by Attraction: 

Faciam ut mel memineriB dum ^tam ^vSs. Plaut. (831.) 

RsMARR.— When the actions are co(!xtent)ive, the tenses are genenUly the suue ta 
both members, bat not always. Bun with the Plnperf. Ind. is osed of the resoltiiig cofr 
dition : Liv. zxxli., 24. 

672. Dum, while, while yet, commonly takes the Present In- 
dicative after all Tenses: so especially in narrative. 

Here the Present Indicative is simply a tense of continuance rather 
than an Historical Present, as it is commonly considered. 220 R. 

Oape hunc equnm, dum tibi vXrium aliquid superest Lnr. Take ikU 
horse, while you have yet some strength left, 

Dum haeo R5mae agmitur, consules ambo in Itiguribus ger^bantbeL 
Imn. Lrv. While these things were going on at Borne, both consuls were 
carrying on tear in Zdguria, 

Praetermissa e||u8 rel occSsio est, dam in casteUla recipiendXs tempui 
teritur. Liv. The opportunity was allowed to d.ip 6y, while time was wasted 
in recovering miserable forts, 

J^BT Bum in this sense often resists the change into SubJ. in 0. Q. (666, B. 8.) 
Rbmab^.— The relation Is often causal, and the coni^tniction is parallel with the Pr» 
sent Participle, the lack of which in the Passive it supplies. 

Ardiui dummetuunt 6=metaent9t) fimittant vSra YiSI. Luob. (871. H. 7J 

n. Contemporaneous in UmiL 

673. Dum, ddnec, quoad, up to (the time) that, until, have the 
Present and Perfect and Future Perfect Indicative: 

The Present is either an Historical Present, or looks forward to tha 
Future. Dum, until, with the Future (of a state) is rara. 

mtyre, dum reded, brevia est via, pasce capellas. Vbbg. TUyrus, 
while lam returning (= till I return) — tJie way is short— feed my kids, 

Epamlndndas ferrmn in corpore usque e5 retinuit, quoad renuntia- 
imn est vicisse BoedtiSs. Nep. Epaminondas retained t/ie iron in hit 
body, until tcord was brmight back that tlie Boeotians had conquered, 

DOnec rediit MarceUus, silentium fuit. Liv. Until MarceUus returned^ 
tliere was silence. 

Haud desinam ddnec perfecerd. Ter. IwiU not cease until I ham 
(shall have) accomplished (it). 

Ezspectabo dmn venit Ter. I will wait untU he comes. 

Subjunctive in Sr&tio Obllqua : 

ScIpiSnl Sllandque dSnec revocati ab senStu forent prorogatum im^ 
perium est Liv. Scipio and Silantts had their command extended untH 
** tJiey sJiould have been receUed by the senaU^* 

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574. J)iini, donee,' and qaoad, U7tlil, take the Snbjnuctiye Tvhen 
Suspense and Design are involved : 

Verglnins dum coUSg^am consuleret morStos est Lnr. Verginitu 
idayed untU he could (long enough to) consult his colleague, 

Attibi sit tanti n5n Indnlgire theStrls, dam bene d§ vaonS peotore 
oidat amor. Ov. But let it be worth the cast to you (= deem it worth the 
cost) not to indulge in ptay-goiTig^ untU love be fairly gone from (your) unten* 
anted bosom. 

Often with ezspecto, I wait : 

Rnsticiui ezgpectat dum dSflnat amniii. Hob. The down waits for the 
riser to run off (dry). 
Also : ezspectareut, tS. (never Infinitive), 462, 2. 

Remark.— The Snbjnnctive is Bometlmei* used in narrative with dum, while, and 
AOnec while, until, to express subordination (}\ke cam. 585). The principle is that of 
Partial Obliquity. There is often a Om^al or Iterative sense. 

Dum intentus in eum iS r6x tOtu fiverteret, alter Slfitam teoHrim in eaput 
d^teit. Liv. While the Hng fixed upon him woe quite turned away, the other raised hie 
Qxe and planted it in hie ekuU. (Xverteret from the point of view of alter ^ dum videt 

575. Dam, with the Subjunctive, is used in Conditional 
Wishes : Negative, dum nd = nd interim. 

5dexiiit dum meiuant. Accius. Let Hiem Iiate so long as they fear (pro- 
vided ihat, if tliey will only fear). 

DumnS ob malefacta [peream], peream. Plaut. (879.) 

So also dummodo, mode, provided only, only : 

Dummodo mdrSta recte veniat, dStSta eat satis. Plaut. Provided 
only she come with a good character^ she is endowed (^ her dowry is) enough, 

Multa [in e5] adn^randa sunt : eligere modo curae sit. Quint. Many 
things in him are to he admired ; ovdy you must be careful to cJufose, 

05pia pl2candX sit modo parva tuL Ov. (429, R. 1.) 

Antequam and Priusquam with the Indicative. 

676. Antequam and priusquam, before, take the Present, Per- 
fect, and Future Perfect Indicative, when the limit is stated f.a 
a fact. The Present is used in anticipation of the Future. 

The elements ante, ante^ prius-quam, are often separated. 

BncABx.— As prins (ante) -qnam is negative in its eignificatlou (s neodnm), th(^ 
bd. is sometiniet fonnd where we rhonld expect the Sul]|)unctiv«. 

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677. The Present Indicative is used afber Positive Sentences 

Anteqnam ad gententiam redeo, de me pauca dlcam. Cic. Before 1 
return to tlie subject, 1 will say a few things of myself 

Omnia ezperlrl certum est priusquam pereo. Teil lam determined to 
try everything before I perish, (Priusqaam peream = sooner than perish, 
to keep from perishing.) 

Rbmark.— The Pare Perfect Indicative is ased of Iterative Action. (569.) 
BoeiliOra sunt ingenia priuqaam obdCUrufimnt. Quint. 
The Present Subjunctive is more common in general statements. 

678. The Perfect (Aorist) and Future Perfect Indicative are 
used both after Positive and after Negative clauses. 

After Negative clanses tlie construction is more oommou and the connection ahrayt 
close : NOn priiuqaam=dam. 

LegatI n5n ante profecti quam imposit5s in nSv§s mllitSs ^derunt 
Liv. T/ie envoys did not set out untU they saw tlie soldiers on boa^'d, 

Neque dSfatigabor antequam ill5rum vias ratidnesque perceporo et 
prO omnibus et contrS omnia disputandl. Cic. I will not let myself grow 
weary before (until) / karn (shall have learned) their methods of disputing for 
and against everything. 

Subjunctive in Or&tio Obllqua : 

ThemistoclSs collegis «ul8 praedlzit, at n§ prius Lacedaemonidmm 
l5gSt5s dimitterent quam ipse esset remissus. Nep. (546.) (NoUte dl- 
mittere priusquam ego ero remissus.) 

Antequam and Priusquam with t/ie Subjunctive, 

579. Antequam and priusquam are used with the Subjunctive 
when an ideal limit is given; when the action is expected, con- 
tingent^ designed, or subordinate. 

An ideal limit involves necessary antecedence, but ni>t necessary con- 
sequence. After Positive sentences, the Subjunctive is the rule, especiallj 
in Generic sentences and in narrative (Compare oum, 586.) Aftf* 
Historical Tenses the Subjunctive is almost invariable when the action 
does not, or is not to, take place. 

The IranslaMon is often before, and the verbal in -ing. 

Ante vidimus fulguratidnem quam sonum audiamus. Sen. We see 
the flash of lightning before hearin// tlte sound (we may never hear it). 

In omnibus negotiis priusquam aggrediare adhibenda est praeparatio 
dUigens. Cic. In all affairs^ before addressing yourself (to them), you 
make use of careful preparation, (Ideal Second Person. 

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coNSTnucnoNS of cum. 287 

Oollem celeriter priosqnam ab adversfirils sentiStur commonit. Caeb. 
He speedily fortified the hill before he was perceived by the enemy (too soou to 
be perceived by tlie enemy). (Prius quam = prius quam ut.) 

Hannibal omnia piiusquam ezcederet pugna erat ezpertua. Lnr. 
Hannibal Itad tried everything before witMrawiag from tJie fight ( = to avoid 
withdrawing from tlie tight). 

Saepe magna indolSs virtutis prius quam rel publicae prddesse pota 
isset exstincta est. Cic. Often hath great native worth been exiinguisfad 
before it could be of sei'vice to the State, 

DucenUs annis antequam urbem Rdmam caperent in Italiam GalU 
descenderunt. Lrv. (It was) two hundred years before their taking Borne 
(that) tlie Oauls aime down into Italy, 

Here the 8abjnnctive gives the natural point of reference. 

After the Negative : 

Inde n5n prius egressus est quam (= ibi manSbat dum) r§x emn 
tn fidem reciperet. Nep. He did not come out until tlie king should take 
him under his protection, (He stayed to make the king take him under 
his protection.) 

Remabk —When the ^ill is involved, potins quam is nsed in the same way af> prius 

DdpngnS potiu quam serviSs. Cio. FlgM it out rather than be a slave. 


680. Cum is a relative conjunction and is commonly con- 
sidered to be an Accusative form. The Accusative in its 
wider use may answer Time When as well as Time How 
Long. Comp. ore, 

681. Tnere are three great uses of cum : 

I. Temporal cum (when — then) takes the Indicative; 

II. Historical cum, as, the Imperfect and Pluperfect Sub- 

junctive (circumstantial cum) ; 
m. 1. Causal cum, as, since ; and 

2. Concessive cum, whereas, although, takes the Subjuno- 


I Oum ver appetit, mllitSs ex hibemis movent, Wli&n spring a/p- 
proaeheSy soldiers move out of winter-quarters, 

II. Chun ver appeteret, Hannibal ez hIbemIs mdvit, As spring was 
approaching (spring approacliing), Hannibal moved out of winter-quarters. 

III. 1. Cum ver appetat, ex hibemis movendum est As (since) spring 
is approaching^ we must move out of winter-quarters. 

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Ill 2. Onm v«r appet«ret, tamen hoitSs ex hlbernls ndn mSvininl, 

Wicrea* (allUough) spring wan approadUng, netertlielcM Uie eru*ihy did not 
move out of winter-quarters. 

1. ^ Rk«ark.-^o cnllcHl com inversum (cnm In the apodosis) Is as natiml In BnglUh at 
' In Latin. The mood is the Indicative. 

Jam Y«r appetSbat, cam Hannibal ex hlbernls mOrit. Lit. JS^tHng imit (already) 
wpprooehinff^ when IfantUbal moved out qf vdnter-guartere. 

Ad Illustrative fact is sometimes added by onm, interim, quidem, etc., with tiip 

I. Temporal Cum. 

682. Cum, when, is used with all the tenses of the Indicative, 
to designate merely temporal relations. 

In the Principal clause, a temporal adverb or temporal expression is fre- 
quently cuiployftd, sucU as tunij tanC| then; nunc, now; dies, day; tempui, 
time ; Jam, already ; vix, scarcely ; and the like. 

Animus, neo cum adest neo cum discSdit, appSret. Gic. The soul is not 
visible^ either when it is present^ 07* wlien it departs. 

Sex librOs tunc d§ Rdpublic3 scrlpsimus cum gnbemScula relpablicae 
tenebSmus. Cio. I wrote tlie six hooks about the State at the time when I field 
Vie fielm of tlie State. 

Recordare tempue iUud cnm pater Ourio maerens JaoSbat in lect5. 
Cic. Bemember tlie time wJien Curio the father lay abed from grief 

Iiongnm illud tempua cum nOn ero magis me movet quam hoc ezi- 
gnum. Cic. That long time (to come), when I shall not exists has mo9*e effect 
on me t/uin this scant (present time). 

Jam dUucescAat cum signum consul dedit. Lrv. By this time day 
was beginning to dawn^ wlien the consul gate the signed, (See 581, R) 
<j t^ Ideal Second Person with the Subjunctive : 

Pater, hominum immortSlis est innimia. Etiam turn Tlvit cnm esse 
oredSs mortuam. Plaut. Fatlier, immortal is the iUxfame of tJie world. It 
Uces on even i-ilien you think tliat it is dead, 

^ ;^ Remarks.— 1. Fait oum commonly follows the analogy of other characteristic rela> 
tives (684), and takes the Subjunctive : 

Fnit tempufl cum (=fait cum) rfUra colerent hominM. Yarbo. 7%ire was a time 
when all mankind tilled fields = were countrymen. 

The Indicative is rare. 

9. MeminI cum, / remember l/ie time when, takes the Indicative ; bat audire oum 
taicos tne ^Subjunctive parallel with the Participle: 

Audlvl HetrodOrum cum d8 his ipsls disputSret Cic. I have heard Jietrodorus 
^Utcufgiing) t/ies' very matters. 

3. Peculiar is the use of cum ^vith Lapses of l*ime. Lapses of Time are treated •■ 
Desii^nation? of Time in Accusative or Ablative : 

Xultl anni bunt cum (= moltOe annOe) in aere maO est iM it) mam/ yMWv (tlsal) 
he has been (HI) in my debt. 

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Xvltl anni rant ram (= mnltis annls) in aere me5 nOn ftdt. li U many ymn 
that he has not been (since he was) in my debt, 

VOndnm oratnm et deeem annI snnt enm (= ez qnO = abliino annOi) dd pe- 
etlnils repetnndlB Ifita lex Mt Cio. it U not yet 110 yeart tUtce the law concerning ao- 

683. Coincident Action. — When the actions of the two 
clanses are coincident, ctun is almost equivalent to its kindred 
relative qnod, in that : 

Ovaaa. tacent, cldmant. Cic. W?ien (= in that) tJiey are silent, they cry 

Dud omnia com hominem nOminS'^ Plin. £p. I have said everytliing^ 
in naming tJie man, 

584. Cpnditional use o/Cum. — Cum with the Future, Future 
Perfect, or Universal Present, is often almost equivalent to si, 
i/, with which it is sometimes interchanged : 

Cum posoifl, peace LatlnS. Juv. When {J.{)you ask (for anything), 
ask in Latin, 

Cum veniet contri, digits compesce labeUum. Juv. When (If) ?ie 
meets you, padlock your lip with your finger, 

685. Iterative use of Cum. — Cum in the sense of qnotids, as 
often aSy takes the Tenses of Iterative Action : 

Solet cum ge purgat in m§ conferre omnem culpam. Cic. He is accus* 
Urnied^ when he clears himself^ to put off aU t/ie blame on me, 

Ager cum multSs annds requieirit uberidrSs efferre fruges golet. Cic. 

Oum palam Sljus SnuH ad palmam converterat Gyges S, nulld videbS- 
tur, Cic. (569.) 

REXABK.~Tho SubjnncUvo is also foand (569, It) : 

Cum in jIU dllel dSbitOrem Yidissent, undique convolfibant Liv. Whenever 
they saw a^Ubtor taken to court, they made it a rule to hurry together from all quarters. 

II. Historical Otaa. 

686. Cum, tohen (as), is used in narrative with the Imperfect 
Subjunctive of contemporaneous action, with the Pluperfect 
Subjunctive of antecedent action. 

Rbxabk.— The subordinate clause generally precedes. The circumstantiality often 
appears as causality. Latin has a tendency to express inner connection, character, evo- 
lution, by the Subjunctive. In the absence of participles, com with the Subjunctive is a 
parallel construction. Compare G13 with 634. 

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AgisilS.118 cum ex Aeg3rpt5 reverteretur decessit. Nep. Affe$ilau$ 
*Med as he was returning from Egypt. 

ZenSnem cum Athenis essem audiSbam frequenter. Cic. When I was 
(Being) at AtJiens^ Ilteard Zeno (lecture) /rf^en%. 

AtheuiensSs cum gtatuerent ut nSvis congcenderent, C3rniliun quen- 
dam Buadentem ut in urbe manerent, lapidibus codperoerunt. CiG. 

Oum Caesar Anc5nam occupSsset, urbem rellquimus. Cic. When 
(As) Caesar had occupied Ancona (Caesar having occupied Ancoua), lUsft the 

Attains moritur alterd et septuagSsimo annS, cum quattuor et qua* 
drSgintS ann5s regnasset Lrv. Attains died in Ins seventy-second year, 
having reigned forty-four years. 

III. Causal and Concessive Oum. * 

1. Causal Oum. 

687. Cum, wJten, whereas, since, seeing that, with the Sub- 
junctive, is used to denote the reason, and occasionally the 
motive, of an action : 

Quae cum ita sint, effectum est nihil esse malum quod turpe n5n sit 
CiG. Since tliese Hangs are so^itis made out (proved) that nothing is bad that 
is not dishonorable. 

Oum AthenSs tanquam ad mercaturam bonSrum artium lOs profectus, 
inSnem redire turpissimum est. Cic. As (Since) you set out for Athens as 
\f to market for good qualities, it would be utterly disgraceful to return empty 

Dels erat pugnandum, cum pSr n5n esset armls. Ksp. He Iiad to fight 
by stratagem, as he (seeing lliat he) was not a match in arms, 

Remabk.— The Sabjnnctivc is used becanse the relation is a mere conception (charac- 
teristic) ; that it is a mere conception is emphasized by qnippe and ntpotOt as in the 
f«lative sentence. e 

On the occasional use of oum with the Ind. in a causal senscsec, 567. Oftener iu 
earlier Latin. 

2. Concessive Oum. 

688. Causal cum, whereas, becomes Concessive cum, whereas, 
although, when the cause is not sufficient : the relation Is often 

Nihil me adjuirit cum posset Cic. lie gate me no assistance, although 
at a time wlien) Iu Jtad it in his power. 

Oum primX ordinSa hostium concidissent, tamen ScerrimS reliqui re- 

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■liUfbaiit. Cabs. Although the first ranks of the enemy JiodfaUen (boeu cut 
to pieces), nevertheless the rest resisted most vigorously, 

Pexlre artem putSmns niid appfiret, cum dSiinat an esse, tl appfirat 
Quint. We tJunk that {ovlt) art is lost unless it shows, whereas it ceases to be 
art if it shows, 

589. Cum— tnin. — ^When (mm, wJieth tarn, then {both— and 
especially)^ have the same verb, the verb is put in the Indica- 
tive : 

PausauiSs consilia com patriaa torn slbi Inimlca oapidbat Nep. 

Pausanias conceived plans that were hurtful both to his country and espeeiaUy 
to himself. 

When they have different verbs, the verb with cum mat/ be 
in the Subjunctive, which often has a concessive force : 

Slsannae historia cum facile omnis snperiOrSs vincat, tam indicat 
tamen quantum absit S. snmmQ. Cio. Although the history of Sisenna easily 
surpasses all former histories, yet it shows how far it is from the higliesl 

Conditional Sentknceb. 

590. In Conditional sentences the clause which contains 
the condition (supposed cause) is called the Protasis, that which 
contains the consequence is called the Apodosis. 

Logically, Protasis is Premiss; and Apodods, Conclusion, 
Grammatically, the Apodosis is the Principal^ the Protasis the 
Dependent, clause. 

591. Siffn of the Conditional. — ^The common conditional 
particle is si, if. 

BB]fABK8.--l. 81 is a locative case, literally m, in those drcumstanees (comp. il-e, to). 

So in English : " I woald by combat make her good, to were I a man.**— Shakbbp. 

Hence, Conditional claoses with si may be regarded as adverbs in the Ablative case, 
and are often actnally represented by the Ablative Absolute. ^ 

8. The connection with the Causal Sentence is shown by b[ quldem, which in latci 
Ijxtiu. ig almost = quoniam. 

8. The temporal particles enm and quando, whm^ and the locative ubit are aZso nsed 
io indicate conditional relations in which the idea of Time or Space is involved. 

592. Negative of si. — ^The negative of SI is either si n6n or nisi 
Si n6n negatives a particular word, if not ; nisi, unless, ncga* 

tives the whole idea — restricts, excepta 
81 nOn IS the rule — 

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1. When the positive of the same verb precedes : 

81 liSceni, magnam habSbo grStiam ; sX nSn iScexSi, ignSaoam. CiO. 
iJjT you do it, I will be wry grateful to you; if you do not, I will forgive (yon). 

2. When the Condition is concessive : 

8i mihi bonS republics frnX ndn licuerit, at carebo mala. Cia JIf I 

fhaU not be aUotoed to enjoy good government, lefiaU at least be rid of bad 

Nisi is in favorite use after negatives: 

Parvl (= nihil!) gunt foria arma nisi est oonailiam domL Cia Cf 

little (value) are arma abroad unless there is wisdom at home, 

Ndn posaem ^vere nisi in Utterls viverem. Cic. I could not live un- 
less I lived in study, 

Memoria minnitnr nisi earn ezerceSs. Cic. Memory wanes unless (ex- 
cept) you exercise it. {Bl nOn exerceSs, in case you fail to exercise it.) 

So nisi si, except in case : 

MiserOs illndl ndlont hominSs nisi si s5 forte Jactant CiC. Men do not 
Uke to have the unfortunate mocked unless (except in c^ise) they happen to 

RxMAnKS.— 1. Somctimos the diffcreuce is unessential : 

Nisidlriofaisset, hodietdmiucaeoomddissent. Qanrr. ^ it had not been Jor 
Curio, theJUes would have eaten you up this day. SI nOn foisset would bo equally correct. 

2. Nisi and nisi si are often used after negative sentences or equivalents in the dgni- 
flcation of Imt^ except^ beddes, only : 

Inspice quid portem ; niliil hic nisi triste yidebis, Ov. ExamUie what lam 
bringing ; you will see nothing here except (what is) sad. 

Falsns honor jnvat et mendSz inKmia terret« quern nisi mendSeem et men- 
dOsnm? HoR. ^^Falee honor charms and lying slander scares^whom but ihe/alat and 
faulty ^'—Brougham. 

8. Niii qnod introduces an actual limitation— ti^i^ the exception, that: 

Nihil acciderat [Folycrati] quod nOllet nisi quod Snulum quO dSleotShStur 
in marl abjGoerat. Cic Nothing had happened to PUycrates that he eofdd not have 
wished, except that he had thrown into the sea a ring in which fie took delight (= a favoHfe 
ring). So praeterquam quod. 

Nihil peccat nisi quod nihil peccat. Plin. Ep. Be makes no blunder exeept-^that 
he makes no blunder (" faultily faultless "). 

4. Nisi forte, unless perhaps, nisi v6r9, unless indeed, with the Indicative, cither 
limits a previous statement, or nialccs an ironical concession : 

Ndmo fere saltat sSbrius nisi forte insSnit- Cic. There is scarce any one thai 
tances (when) sober, unless perhaps he is cracked. 

Licet honestfi morte ddfuugl, nisi forte satius est yietSris exspectfire arbi- 
trium. Curt. We are free to die an Jtonorable death, unless perliaps it is better to await 
the pleasure of t/ie conqueror. 

5. NI is antiquated or poetical, and it$ equivalent to si nSn : 

NI pSrere velli, pereundum erit ante luoemSs. Jur. (533, K. 8.) 

So in oaths, promises, and the like ^probably also in quid nl and iilmlriUll) : 

Peream nl piseem putSvI esse. Varbo. May I die if T iidmot think it was a fUk, 

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593. Two Conditions excluding each the other^-^When two 
conditions exclude each the other, A is used for the first; d]i| if 
not (but if), for the second. 

Sin is further strengthened by autenii but; minuB, less {not); 
seeosy otherwise; alitor, else: 

MercStnra, si tennis est, sordida putanda est} sin magna et c5pi0sa| 
ndn est admodnm vitnperanda. Cic. Mercantile bunness^ if it is petty, m 
io be considered dirty (work) ; if (it is) not (petty, bat) great and abundant 
(= conducted on a largo scale), it is not to he found fanU witli much. 

Remark.— If the Verb or Predicate U to be supplied from the context, sf minilS« \f 
less (not), sin minns, sin alitor, if otherwise, are commonly oscd, rarely si nOn : 

fidlle tSenm onmBs tnOs ; si minns, qnam plllrimOs. Cio. TVOv out with fou aXt 
your (followers) ; \f not^ as many as possible. 

Odero si poterS ; si nSn, inyltns amftbo. Ov. (234, B. S.) 

594. Other Forms of the Protasis. — 1. The Protasis may bo 
expressed by a Relative : 

Qni videret nrbem captam diceret. Cic. Whoso had seen it^ had said 
(hat tlie city was taken. 
MlrSretnr qnl turn cemeret Lrv. (352 ) 

2. The Protasis may be contained in a Participle : 

SI latet ars, prddest ; affert dSprensa pudSrem. Ov. Jf art is coneealea, 
it does good; (if) detected, it brings sliame, 

Maadmis virtntes Jac$re omnSs neoesse est voluptate dominante. 
Cic. AU the greatest virtues must necessarily lie prostrcUe^ if Hie pleasure (of 
the senses) is mistress. 

Nihil potest evenire nisi cansll anteoSdente. Cic. Nothing can 7^ppen, 
unless a cause precede. 

3. The Protasis may be involved in a modifier: 

F§cdmnt servl Mildnis quod su5s quisque servds in tSU ri £scere 
voluisset. Ctc. The servants of Milo did wliat eacli man would Jiate wished 
his servants to do in stic/i case (si quid tile aocidisset). 

At bene n5n poterat sine pur5 pectore vIvL LucR. But tliere could be 
no good living without a clean heart (nisi purum pectus esset). 

4. The Protasis may be expressed by an Interrogative, or, 
what is more common, by an Imperative : 

Tristii es? indignor quod sum tibi causa dol5ris. Ov. (542.) 

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05dit amor rfbiui : x%b age^ tatoi oris. Ov. Lave jfield$ to budneu ; do 
butinen (if you plunge into business), you wUl be safe. 

Immiita verbdmm collooStidnem, periexit t9ta res. CiC. (236, R. 4.) 

695. Correlatives of 8l. — The correlatives of Si are : Sic, so ; 
ita, thus ; but they are commonly not expressed. Occasionally 
tum, then ; and ea condidOney on those terms, are employed. 

D§ £r€meiit5 responsnm est ita 'osurum e5 populom RSmSnum, sX pr«- 
Uum aociparent. Lrv. In ike matter of tfie corn^ answer woe made that the 
lioman people would avail tlienuelvee of it, on condition thai they accepted the 


596. Conditional sentences may be divided into three classes, 
according to the character of the Protasis:* 

L Logical Conditional Sentences: Si, with the Indicative. 
II. Ideal Conditional Sentences : Si, with Present and Per- 
fect Subjunctive. 
• III. Unreal Conditional Sentences: Si, with Imperfect and 
Pluperfect Subjunctive. 


597. The Logical Conditional Sentence simply states the 
elements in question, according to the formula: 
If this is so, then that is so ; if this is not so, then that is not 


It may be compared with the Indicative Question. 

The Protasis is in the Indicative ; the Apodosis is generally in 
the Indicative; but in future relations any equivalent of the 
Future (Subjunctive, Imperative) may be used. 

* In some grammani of Greek and Latin, conditional sentences, and sentences IdtoIt- 
Ing conditional relations, have been divided into particular and general. Whether a ooo- 
dition be particular or general depends simply on the character of the Apodosis. Any 
form of the Conditional Sentence may bo general, if it iroolies m nik of action. Th« 
furms for Iterative action have 1>een given. (568, 500.) 

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81 idl^SdiSi 

^pou believe that, 
81 idcredebas, 

Zf you Mietfed that, 
81 id credidisU, 

J(f you (have) believed thcU^ 
Bl id credSs, 

Xf you (shall) believe that, 
&L id credideris, 

^ you (shall have) beUeveiil) that, 
SI quid credidisU, 

^ you have believed anything 
(=s when you believe anything), 
81 quid credideras, 

or you Jiad believed anything 
C= when you believed anything), 


you are going wrong. 

you were going wrong. 

you have gone (you went) vrcng, 

you uHU (be) go{\ng) wrong ; (584, R) 

you win havi gone (will go^ •erong. 

you go wrong. Comp. 509. 

you went wrong. 

If Its %8 drawing (bis) breaUi (breathing) 

Cic. (412, Rl.) 
J[f I IdUed Mm, I did 

If m 

81 splritum dacit, vlvit. CiC 
he is' living. 

Parvl sunt foris arma nisi eat consilium domt 

81 ocddX, recte feci ; sad non occldl. Quint. 
rigTit; hut I did not Ml Mm. 

Naturam si sequemur ducem, nunquam aberrabimus. Gic. 
(shall) foUow nature (as our) guide^ we sliaU never go astray. 

Improbds si mens consulatus sustulerit, multa saecula propagSrit rel 
publicae. Gic. If my eonsuls?iip sliaU have done away with the destructives, 
it will Tiave added many ages to tlie life of tJie State. 

Si pes condoluitj si dens, ferre non possumus. Cic. (5G9.) 

Stomachabatur senez, si quid asperius dixeram. Cic. (5G9.) 
;• } Vivam, si vivet ; si cadet ilia, cadam. Piiop. Let me Uve, if site lives ; 

if she falls, let me fall. 
fi^ Nunc si forte potes, sed n5n potes, optima coiijuz, finltis gaudS tot 
mihi morte malls. Ov. Mw, if Jiaply you can, hut you cannot, noQ^ wife, 
rejoice that so m/iny evUs Jiave been finislied for me by death. 

Flectere si neque5 superos, Acheronta movebd. Vebg. If I canH 
lend Vie gods above, TU rouse (nil) 7ieU below. 

81 tot exempla virtutis n5n movent, nihil unquam movebit ; si tanta 
oUd§s vllem vltam n5n fecit, nulla faciet. Liv. ^ so many examples of 
valor stir you not, nothing will ever do it; if so great a disaster Itas not mads 
life cheap^ none ever will. 

DisinSs timSre si sperare dSsiezls. Sen. Tou wiU cease to fear, if you 
(shall have) eease{d) to hope. 

Rbmabks.— 1. After a Verb of Saying or Thinking (OrStio Obllqua), the Protasis 
Bott be pnt in the Subjunctive, according to the rale. 

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(NiderMii, errii.) DIoo, M, si id erMii, errSre. 

dixl, te, 8l id cr6der9ii errSre. 
(SI id erMfls, erribii .) BIco, ts, si id erfidis, errStOniiii ette. 

dixlf te, 8l id orMerfls, errSttLmm eiia 
(81 id erSdidiitl, errSiUO BIco, te, si id orOdiderli, errStte. 

dlxt te, U id eredidiises. errfifte. 

For examplefi, see OrCtio Obllqua, 660. 
2. The Sabjanctive is used by Attraction : 
^ f Bete texnnt arSneolae at il quid inbaeterit eonficiant Cia (81 qnid ialiaatit, 

oonficinnt) (666.) 
^ (^ 8. The Ideal Second Person takes the Sabjnnctive in connection vrith the UniTersal 


SeneotOi plena eit TolaptStii iI ills sdSi Utt Skn. Old agt it full q^pUantre, 

\f you know (if one Icnows) Ju>w to rnkjoy it 

Memoria minnitiir nisi earn exerceSs. Cic. (59S.) 

4. Sive— Slye (sea— tea) almost invariably takes the Logical form. (499.) 

Sea ▼Icit.ferOdterinstat'Tictls ; sea yictas est, instanrat cam vietSrilras eei^ 

tSmen. Liy. ^ he vanquishes (569), he presses (he vanquished furiously ; \fheit van' 

guished, h^ renews the struggle with the vanquishers. 


598. The Idcjal Conditional Sentence represents the matter 
as still in suspense. The supposition is more or less fanciful, 
and DO real test is to be applied. There is often a wish for or 

Tlie Protasis is put in the Present Subjunctive for continued 
action, and in the Perfect Subjunctive for completion or attain- 

The Apodosis is in the Present or Perfect Subjunctive, 
The Imperative and Future Indicative or equivalents are often 
found. The Universal Present is frequently used, especially in 
combination with the Ideal Second Person (597, R 3, 666, B. 1) 

On the difference between Subjunctive and Futui'e, see S50. 

PuoTAsts. Apodosis. 

Si id credas, errSs, 

Jf you sJu)uld (were to) believe that, you would be going torong, 

SI id crSdSs, errSvesis, 

^ you should (were to) believe that^ you would go wrong. 

61 id credider^fs, err§8, 

1. 1/ you should (prove to) Jiave believed 

that (Perfect ; Action Past or Future), you would be going wrong, 

fL Xf you should (come to) btlleve that 

(Aor. ; Action Future), you would be going wrong, 

81 id credidexifs, errSvex&, (rare), 

If you (should have) believe(d) (hat, you would (have) go(ne) wrong. 

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81 i»16Iniis tuns eqamn meliOrem habeat quam tuna Mt, tuumne eqaum 
infills an ilUus 7 Cic. If your neigltbor (were to) have a better liorse Uutn 
yours M, toould you prefer your h^oree or hie f 

61 gladium quia apud ti sanS menta dSposuerlt, repetat insSniens, 
reddere peooStom sit, offioium n5n reddere. Gic. Jf a man in sound 
mind were to deposit (to have deposited) a stoord with you (aud), reclaim U 
whea) mady it would be wrong to return it, riglU not to return it. 

81 nunc me suspandam meam operam lusarim, et mels inimlols volup- 
tStam creSvezim. Plaut. Should I Juing myself now, I sliould (thereby) 
(have) fool{c([) my work away, and give{n) to my enemies a cfiarming treat. 

Ut redeant vetarSs : Gicer5nJ nSmo ducentOs nunc dederit nummSs 
nisi fnlserit Snulus ingens. Juv. Let tJie ancients return : no one would 
give Cicero now-a-days two hundred two-pences unless a huge ring glittered (on 
his hand). 

81 is destituat, nihil satis tutum habSbis. Liv. Should lie leave us in the 
lurch, you will find no safety. 

81 valeant homineS| ars tua, Phoebe, Jacet. Ot. Should men keep well^ 
your art, PJioeibus, is naught. 

Otia si tcllSs, periSre Oupldinis arcus. Ov. (195, R 6.) 

Senectus est plena volupUltis, si illS sdSs utL Sen. (597, R. 8.) 

Memozia minuitur nisi earn exerceas. CiO. (592.) 

Nulla est excusStio peccStI, si amici causS pecclvezis. Gic. It is n9 
excuse for a sin to hate sinned for the sake of a finend. 

Rkmabks.— 1. The Potcniial of the Pa«t coincides in form with the Unresl oftht 
Pfeaent. (Comp. 252, R. 2.) Clear examples of definite persons are rare. Hon. Sat L 8, 8. 

Of hid^inlte persons : ]CIrCr6tur qui turn eerneret. Lit. (262.) 

So, Erat Qoinotius, si efiderfis, plSofibilis. Liy. Qn^oicUus was, \f you yidded te 
Aim,(9nre to be) placable, (Est sl CfidSs.) 

81 luzuriae temperSret, aySritiam nOn timerfls. Tac. If he were to control hit 
kne of pleasure, you should not have feared avarice. (SI temparet, nOn timeSs.) 

2. The lively fancy of the Roman oaeu employs the Ideal where we shoald expect the 
Unreal. (Comp. 248, R. 2.) 

TU Si hic Sis, alitor sentiSs. Ter, ^ you were I (Put yourself in my place), you 
would think differenUy. 

Haeo si tecum patria loquStur, nOnne impetrSre debeat ! Cic. ^ your country 
should (were to) speak thus with you, ought she not to get (what she wants) t 

In comparii^ Idea] and Unreal Conditionals, exclude future yerbs such as posse, sad 
TSlle, Ac The future senec of rach unreal conditionals comes from the anxiliaiy. 

Sometimes the conception shifts in the cocrse of a long sentence : 

81 revlviscant et tecum lo^iantur-quid tSlibus virls responderes T Cfio. y 
fJiey should come to life again, and speak with you-^hat answer would you make to such 

a. In KrStio Obllqua the diflTerence between Ideal and Logical Future is ceocssaiilj 
Bibced, 10 far as the mood is concerned. (659.) 

699. The Unreal Conditional sentence is used of that which 
is Unfulfilled or Impossible, and is expressed by the Imperfecfc 


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Subjunctive for continued action — ^generally, in opposition to 
the Present ; and by the Pluperfect Subjunctive — uniformly in 
opposition to the Past. 

The notion of Impossibility comes from the Irreveraible character of the 
Past Tense. Compare the Periphrastic Conjug. Perfect and Imperfect 
Aoy action that is decided is considered Past (Comp. 266, R. 3.) 

Protasis. Apodosis. 

81 id crSderia, 6rrSr§8, 

If you beiUvtd (were believing) l/icU, [you do not,] you would be going wrong. 

81 id or5didisB§8, errSviss^s, 

^ you had believed that^ [you did not,] you would have goM wrong, 

8apientia n5n ezpeterStor, A nihil efficeret Cic. Wisdom toould not 
be MuglU after, if U did no practical good. 

Oaederem td, nisi Irascerer. Sen. Isliotddflog you^ if I were not geiUng 

81 ibi t$ esae sdMiem, ad t$ ipse ▼enissem. Gic, If I Itad known you 
were tJiere, IshovXd Itave come to you myself. 

Heotora quia nSaset, id fSluc TrS(ja fuisaet Or. WIio would know (of) 
Hector, if Troy liad been Mppy f 

Nisi ante R5m§l profeotos esses, nunc earn certd relinquerSs. CiO. J(f 
you liad not departed from Borne before, you would certainly leave it now. 

Ego nisi peperissem, R5ma n5n oppugnSrStur ; nisi fiUum habSrem, 
libera in HherS. patriS mortua essem. Lrv. Had I not become a mother, 
Rome would not be besieged; had I not a son, I should hate died a free woman 
in a free land. 

* ^ RsiiARKS.— 1. Tlie Imperfect SnbJnnctiTe is Bometimes used in opposition to con- 
tinuance in the Past. This it necessarily the case when the Protasis is in the Imperfect, 
and the Apodosis in the Pluperfect, except when the Imperfect denotes opposition to a 
general statement, which holds good both for Past and for Present : 

NOn tarn facile opSs Carthgginii tantae oonddissent nisi Sioilia olSssibva 
nostrls patSret. Cic. The great resources of Carthage (Carthage with her great re- 
foorces) would not have fallen so readily^ if Sicily had not been open to ourfUets. 

81 podOrem liabSrSs, nltimam mihi pensiOnem mihi remlsissSs. Sbv. ^ you 
had (- you had not, as you have not) any delicacy^ you would have let me qfffrom the last 

Memoriam ipsam cum vOce perdidissSmns, si tarn in n9stri potestftte asaet 
ObllTiscI quam tacSre. Tag. We should have lost menwry itself, together with utterance^ 
\/ it were as much in our power to forget as to keep silent. 

The Imperfect in both members is rare : 

SI PrOtogenSs lU^am iUam saum caenO oblitam vidSret magnum, erSdo, ao- 
eiperet dolOrem. Cic If Protogenes had seen thai famous lalysus qf his besmeared with 
mud, he would have felt a mighty pang. 

Perliaps this may be regarded as a form of RepraesentStio. (699, It) 

8. In Unreal Conditions, the Apodosis is sometimes expressed by the Imperfect In 
dicative, when the action is represented as interrupted (294) ; by the Pluperfect and His- 
torical Perfect, when the conclusion is confidently anticipated. (S48. R. 8.) 

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CSbebar longing, nisi m6 retinnissom. Cio. (S46, R. 8.) 

OmnInO erat snperyaena doctrlna, si nStUra snfficeret. Qctint. 

Peraotnm erat bellnm, si Pompfijam opprimere fimndnsil potulsiet Funt 
Tht war was (had been) Jlnished, \f he had been able to crush F&mpey at BrunduOum, 

The Imperfect Indicative is tometimes foaud in the Protasis: 

Ipsam tibi epistolan nlsiisem* nisi tarn snbito frStris pner profioiseSbStnr. 
Cio. 2 should have tent you the letter itself^ \f my brother'' e servant was not starting so 

8. The Indicative is the regular construction with verbs which signify Possibility or 
Power, Obligation or Necessity— so with the Active and Passive Periphrastic— vix. 
padne, scarcely^ hardly^ and tbu like. 

Consul esse qnX potnX, nisi enm yitae carsnm tennissem ? Cio. How eould I have 
been consul^ if J had not kept that course of life t 

AntOnI potnit gladiOs eontemnere, si sle omnia dixisset. Jmr. Be might have 
despised Antonyms swords^ \fhe had thus said all (that he did say). 

EmendSttLms, si licnisset, eram. Ov. I should have removed the faults, \f 1 had been 
free (to do it). 

In bona ventUms, si paterSre (R. 10 fait. Ov. He would have come into (my) pro- 
ferty, if you had permitted it. 

Pons iter paene bostibns dedit (paene dedit = dabat = datUms erat.) nl Onus 
t ir f nisset. Liv. The bridge well nigh gave a passage to the enemy , had it not beeiifor one 

4. In SrStio Obllqna the Protasis is unchanged ; the Apodosis is formed by tho 
Periphiaftic Present and Perfect Indnitiye (149), for the ActiTC, fntlLnun (fore) nt, fo* 
Mrnm foisse at for Passive and Sapinelese Verbs. 

A DIco (dlxl)« t9, si id orederSs, errStOram esse. 
. B. DIco (dIzD, t6, si id cr6didiss68, errStflram foisse. 

A, Bico (dIzD, si id creder6s, fore at dficiperfiris. 

B, DIco (dizl), si id cr6didiss6s, fatftrum ftiisse at dScipereris. 

A is very rare ; A, theoretical. For the long form, B, the simple Perfect Infinitive is 
found. Examples, see 602, B. In B, foisse is seldom omitted. 

5. Wben the Apodosis of an Unreal Conditional is made to depend on a sentence 
which requires the Subjunctive, the Pluperfect is turned into the Periphrastic Perfect 
Subjunctive ; the Imperfect form is unchanged. 

NOn dabito, ^ qoln, si id cr6der6s. errSrSs, 
1 do not doubt, ihxit, if you believed that, you would be going lorong, 

KOn dabitSbam, qoln, si id credidissfis, errStfUros ftie^s, 

/ (lk{ not doubt, j that, if you had believed that, you would Iiave gone wrong. 

Honestnm tSle est ot, vol si ignOrSrent id homines, esset laadSbile. Cio. 
Virtue is a thing to deserve praise, even if men did not huHv it. 

Kee dobinm erat qoln, si tam panel simol obire omnia possent, terga dattlrl 
bostfis faerint Liv. There was no doubt that, if it had been j)Ossibiefor so small a num- 
ber to have managed every thing at the same time, the enemy would have turned thdr 

Die qoidnam f actUrns ftieri^ si eO tempore censor foissSs ? Liv. TeU (me) what 
you vjould have done^ if you had been censor at that time t 

AdeO inopiS coactos est Hannibal, oti nisi tom fogae speciem abeondO 
timoisset, Galliam repetltflms foerit. Liv. Hannibal was so hard pressed by want 
(^provisions, that, had he not at the line feared (prepenting) the appearance offiight by re 
treating, fie would have gone back to Gaul. 

Tho Periphrastic Pluperfect Subjunctive occurs rarely, and then only In the Depend- 
ent Interrogative. 

Potnl C'^^e, R.l)commonly becomes potoerim, and the Periphrastic I^assive with toX 

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Hani dubium fait quln, niii ea mora interveniitet eaitra e9 diePfUika eapl 

potliori&t. Lit. TJi€re was no doubt thai, had not thai delay inteifend^ ths Punic camp 
couid have been taken on that day. 

The Passive Conditional is unchanged : 

Id ille 8l repudiSsiet, dubitStii quln el vis esset allSto? Cio. Jifhehadn- 
fected thai, do you doubt that force would have been brought (to bear) on hknf 

The active form is rarely unchanged. (Lit. IL 88b) In tho absence ol the periphrastle 
tense use potaerim. 


600. Omission of the Conditional iS/^/t.— Occasionally the 
members of a Conditional sentence are put side by side without 
a Conditional sign : 

An ille inihi(351) liber, cuX molier imperat? posoit, dandum eat; 
▼ocat, veniendum; Sjioit, abeundum ; minStur, extimescendnin. Cic. 

Or in lie free (tell) me, to whom a uoman gites orders f iJie asks^ he mvM 
give; she eaUs^ lie muet come ; sJie turns out (of door), Tie must go ; the 
ihreatenSf lie must be frightened. 

Onum cognbris, omnSs n5i&. Ter. Tou know one, you know all. 

DediaaSu huXo animd pSr corpus, flcisset quod optabat. Plin. £r. 
Had you given him a body tliat was a matcli for his spirit, he toould Jtave ae* 
eomplished what he desired, 

601. Omission of the Verb of the Protasis. — When the Verb 
of the Protasis is omitted, either the precise form or the general 
idea of the verb is to be supplied from the Apodosis : 

Si qnisqiiain, Oato sapiens fait = SI qnisqnam fttlt. Cic. If any one 

was wise, Goto was. 

602. Total Omission of the Protasis. — The Protasis is often 
contained in a Participle or involved in the context (594, 2). 

The Potential Subjunctive is sometimes mechanically ex- 
plained by the omission of an indefinite Protasis. See 252, B. 1. 

Nimi5 plus quam velim Volsc5rum ingenia sunt mdbilia. Lnr. Tlie 
dispositions of tlie Volscians are {too) much m^re unstable than I should like 
(if I had my way, if I could manage it, or what not). 

Velim sic eidstimSs. Cic. I should like you to think so. (Utinam exXstio 
mSs !) 

Tam fellz esses quam formosissima vellem. Ov. (316). (Utinam essSs !) 
The impossibility of lefinite ellipsis constitutes the Modalitv* 

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603. Omission and Involution of the Apodosis* — ^The Api^do* 
S13 is omitted in Wishes (254), and implied after verbs and 
phrases denoting Trial (462, 2). It is often involved in Qrfttio 
Ohllqna, and sometimes consists in the general notion of BesuU, 
Ascertainment, or the like. 

SI vfoum excnUSMj faciSs n5n uxor amfitur. Juv. J[f you tcere to gd 
out the truth (you would find that) U is Vu face, not the wife, that ii loved, 


604. The Apodosis is omitted in comparisons with nt il, 
vdnt 8l, ac si, qnam A, tanqnam si, quad, or simply vehit and 
tanqoam, as if. 

The verb is to be supplied from the Protasis, as is common in 
correlative sentences. The Mood is the Subjunctive. 

The tenses follow the rule of sequence, rather than the ordi- 
nary use of the conditional. In English, the translation implies 
the unreality of the comparison. 

Noll timere quasi [=quam timeas id] assem elephants des. Quint. 
Don*t be afraidy as if you were giving a penny to an elepluint, 

Parvl prlm5 orta bIc Jacent tanquam [= Jaoeant sX] omnXn5 sine 
anim5 sint Cic. Babies^ when first horn, lie (there), a« \f they had no mind 

ffic est obstandnm, milites, velut si ante Rdmana moenia pugnemus. 
Liv. Mere (is where) toe must oppose them^ soldiers, as if we were fighting 
before the walls of Borne (velut obstimus, si pugnSmus, as we would oppose 
them, if we were to fight). 

Me Juvat, velut ipse in parte labdris ao pericuUfuerim, ad llnem belli 
FunicI pervSnisse. Liv. / am delighted to haw reac/ud tJie end of the 
Punie war, as if Iliad shared in tlie toil and danger (of it). 

Suspectns tanquam ipse suSs incenderit aedes. Juv. Suspected as \f 
he liad (of having) set his own Jiouse on fire, 

Tantus patrSs metus cepit velut sl jam ad portas hostis esset. Liv. 
A great fear took hold of (he senators, as if the enemy were already at Uieir 

DelSta est Ausbnum gens perinde ac sl inteme<dv5 beU5 certSssct 
Liv. The Ausonian race was blotted out, just as if it Iiad engaged in an in- 
temecine war (war to the knife). 

I^MARKS.— 1. Occasionally the sequence is violated ont of regard to the Conditional 
XassiliensSs in eO honOre audlmns apud BOmSnOs esse ao sl medium umbill 
ovm Graeciae incolerent. Liv. We hear that the people of Marseilles are in as high 
honor with the Romans as if they inhabited the mid-navel (= the heart) <if Oreeoe, 

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1 As in the ordlnaiy conditional Mntcnce, so In the oomptimtiTe sentoaee, tk 
Protasis may be expressed by a Participle : 

Galll laatl ut explSriti viotOriS ad castra BOmSnOrmn porgunt. Cavs. 7^ 
Gauls in their Joy^ as \f (their) victory had been fully atcertained^ proceeded to the camp of 

Antioohas ifieUnu erat de bellO K9mSnO tamquam nOn traniittirif in Asian 
BSm&nli. Lit. Aniioehus was as unconcerned about the war with Borne as {f the Rcmam 
did not intend to cross over into Asia Minor, 

CoMCESsnrB Sentences. 

605. Concessive Sentences are introduced — 

1. By the conditional Particles, etsl, etiamsl, tametd. 

2. By the Generic Belative, quanqnam, 

3. By the compounds^ quamvls, qaantomvls. 

4. By the Verb licet 

5. By tlie Final Particles, nt (n6). 

C. By qumn (earn) ; all answering generally to the notion 

Remarks.— EtsI (et -i- 8l), even \f ; etiamili eten now if ; tametsl, yet even \f; 
quanquam, (quam •>- quaai), to what extent soever; quaxnvISt to what extent yom 
choose; qaantuiiivlfi to what amount you choose ; licet, it is l^tfree (perhaps intrans. 
of linqno, I leave). 

606. EtsI, etiamsl, and tametsl, take the Indicative or Sub- 
junctive, according to the general principles which regulate the 
use of 8l, if. The Indicative is more common, especially with 
etsi and etiainsi : 

De fixtoi^ rebus etsI semper difficile est dioere, tamen interdnm con- 
jectorS possis aooedere. Gic. AUhougJi it is always difficult to teU about 
the future, nevertheless yon can sojnetimes come near it by guessing, 

Hamilcar etsI flagrabat bellandl cnpiditate, tamen paci serviendvun 
putavit Nep. AUJwugh Hamilcar teas on fire toiUi Vie desire ofwar^ never^ 
tJieless lie i/iougJU t/iat lie ouglU to subserve (to work for) peace. 

Inops ille etiamsl referre grStiam n5n potest, habere certe potest. 
Cia 27u needy man (spoken of)» if Jie cannot return a favor, can at Uast 
feel it. 

M5 vera pr5 gratis loqul, etsi meum ingenium n5n moneret, necesii- 
tfis odgit Liv. Even if my disposition did not bid me, necessity compels me 
io speak tfie truth instead of ilte smooth. 

Remark — SI itself is often concessive, 593. 

607. Quanquam, to ivhat extent soever, falls under the head of 
generic relatives (246, K. 4), and. in the best authors^ la eon- 
strued with the Indicative : 

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Mediol qnaoquam intttUegnnt M0pe,tameA Bimqiiaiiiaflgrls dioimt| 
Ulo morbd eSs esse moritorSs. Cic. Although pfiywians cfUn know, 
nevertheless tJiey n 9ver teU tlieir patients tJiat tliey toill die of thai disease. 

Remarks.— 1. The Potential Sabjanctive Ifl sometimes found with quanqnam: 
Qnanquam ezercitom qui in Yolscls erat mfiUet, niliil recllsSyit Lnr. Although 
he might well have prtferred the army which was in the VoUdan country ^ neverUulese hi 
made no ot^fection. 

2. Quanqaam is ortcn used at the beginning: of sentences, in the same way as th« 
Englisli, And yet^ Although^ However^ in order to limit the whole preceding sentence ; less 
frequently etsi, tametst 

8. The Indicative, with etsI and qaanqoaiDt ii?, of course, liable to attraction into 
the Subjunctive in Orfttio Obilqua. (509.) 

608. ftuamvls follows the analogy of volo, / iviU, with which 
ifc is compounded, and takes the Subjunctive. Quantmnvls and 
qoamlibet (as conjunctions) belong to poetry and silTer prose. 

QoaxniTls sint sub aquS, sub aquS maledlcere tentant. Ov. Althouglt 
they be under tfie water^ under the water they try to revile. 

QnamvXs ille niger, quam^s tu candidus esses. Yerg. Although he 
was blacky although you were fair. 

Vitia mentis, quantumvis ezigua sint, in m^us exoedunt Sex. 
Mental aUments ( = passions), no matter Jtow Uight they be^ go on increasing, 

Rbiiabks.— 1. In later Latin, qaamyls and qaanquaxn change parts : 

Quamyls ingeniO nOn valet arte valet. Ot. Although he doee not tell by genku^ hs 
does tell by art. 

In Tacitus, for instance, quanqnani r^^larly has the Snbjnnctive. 

2. The Verb of quamyls is sometimes inflected : 

Quam velit sit potens, nanquam ixnpetrSvisset Cic. No matter how powerful 
the may be^ she would never have obtained it, 

609. licet retains its verbal nature, and, according to the 
Sequence of Tenses, takes only the Present and Perfect Sub- 
junctive : 

Licet irrldeat si qui vult. Gic. Let any one laugh wlu> will. 

Ardeat ipsa licet, toxmentis gandet amantis. Juv. Tlwugh slie litrsdf 
is agloWy site r^oices in the tortures of lier lover. 

Sim licet eztrSmum, sicnt sum, missus in orbem. Ov. Although 1 be 
senty as I have been, to tJie end of the woHd. 

Remarks.— 1. Exceptions are extremely rare : Juv. xiii. 56. 
8. QaamvXs is sometimes combined with licet. 

610. lit and n6 are also used concessively : 

Ut desint vires, tamen est laudanda volantas. Ov. Granted that 
ttrenQth be tacking, nevertheless you must praise (my) good wiU. 

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N5 lit mmmnm malum dolor, malum carti est C«a Oranted OM 

pain bo not the chief etdl^ an evil it certainly is, 

Rbxark.— Xrt nOn can be need on the principle of the Specific NegatiTe : 
Hic dies altimiui est ; at nOn sit, prope ab nltimO. Sen. This 1$ yow lad Jay ; 
granted that Ubenot^Uis Mar the UuL 

Onitar^t,8ee255; on ut— ita, see 484, 3 

611. Concessive sentence represented hy a Participle or Pre* 
dicative Attribute, — The Concessive sentence may be represented 
by a Participle or Predicative Attribute. 

Risua interdum ita repenta 5rumpit| ut enm cupientii tenSre nequefi* 
mua. Cic. LaugJiter between tohiles (occasionally) breaks out so suddenly thai 
we cannot keep it down, alUiough we desire to do so. 

Multdrum t§ ocuU et aurSs n5n sentientem cnstddient. Cic. {Of) 
many (the) eyes and ears will keep guard over you, tliough you perceive it not 
(without your perceiving it). 

Quia Axistidem n5n mortuum dUigit. Cic. Who does not love Aristides, 
(though) deadf 

Hemark.— Later writers combine etsl* <|iianqiiam« or quamvli, with the Participle 
or a Predicative attribute, or the like. 

Caesarem mllitSs qaamTis rtcfttantem ultrO in £Mwttk rant seefltl. Sun. 
The totdiert/oOoiffedCkietar into AJHeaqf their otDnmotiOA, although k^ 

Saepe bibi lUeOi qnamvls invltui amSrOi. Or. I have <^te» drunk bUisr potions^ 
although against my wUl, With Adjectives, qnamvlS, never so, is foond even in CiOBao. 

Relative Sentences. 

612. The Latin language nses the relative constrnction far 
more than the English : so in the beginning of sentences, and 
in combination with Conjunctions and other Eelatives. 

Remarks.— 1. The awkwardness, or impossibility, of a literal translation, may gene 
rally be relieved by the substitution of a demonstrative with an appropriate conjunction, 
or the employment of an abstract noun : 

Quae cum itasint Now since these things are ^ (Clceronltm tormvUs:). 

Futftra mode exspectant; quae quia eeita esse nOnpossunt oOnilfiiuntur et 
angOre et metU. Cic They only look forward to the future; and because that cannot be 
certain, they wear themselves out with distress and fear. 

EpicfUrui nOn satia poUtui ils artibus quSi qui teneut, Brudltl appellantur 
Cic. Epicurus is not sufflciently polished by those accomplishments, from the possession «i 
which, people are called cultivated. 

Notice especially quod in combination with gl* ubi, in which quod means and asfos 
that, and is sometimes translated by and, but, ther^ore, sometimes not at all. 

S. The Relative Is the fertile source of many of the introductory particles of the eom> 
pound sentence, and is therefore put last on account of the multiplicity of Its uses. 

613. Relative sentences are introduced by the Kelative Pro- 

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nouns in all their forms : Adjectiye, SnbstantiTe, and AdTerbiaL 
(See Tables 106 folL) 

BuuRKS.— 1. The relative adverbs of PUce, and their correlatives, may be naed 
Jiitead of a prepoeition with a relative. XTnde* whence, is frequently nsed of persona, 
the others less frequently : ibi =» in eO, Ac ; ubi » io qnO, ftc. ; inde = ex e9, Ac. ; 
Bade = ex qii9, &c. ; eO ~ in enm, &c ; quo ss in quern, Ac. : 

Pot«it fieri ut if, unde ti audlue dlcii, IrStui dXxerit Cia It tnay U thai ht, 
/hwn whom you say you heard (it), eaid U in anger, 

i. The relative is not to be confounded with the dependent interro^tive sentence. 
(469, R. 8.) 

Quae probat populus ego nSieio. Skn. The things that the people approoee, I d$ 
net know (quid probeti what it Is the people appro9ee). 

£t quid ego t9 yelim, et tU quod quaerii, loifls. Tbr. Ton shall know both what 
0t is) J want of you, and what (the thing which) you are asking ( s the answer to yoor 

614. Position of Relatives. — The Eelative and Kelative forms 
are put at the beginning of sentences and clauses. The Prepo- 
sition, howeyer, generally, though not invariably, precedes it8 
relative. (414.) 

616. Antecedent — ^The word to which the Eelative refers is 
called the Antecedent, because it precedes in thought even 
when it does not in expression. 

L— The close connection between Relative and Antecedent is shown by the 
ffeqnent nse of one preposition in common. (416.) 


616. The Relative agrees with its Antecedent in Gender, 
Ntlmber, and Person : 

Is minims eget mortalis, qui minimum cupit Sviina (293.) 
Uxor contenta est quae bona estnnS virS. Plaut. (373, R 1.) 
Malum eft c5nsi1inm quod mutSrI n5n potest SvRira Bad is the 

plan that cannot (let itself) be dianged. 

Hoc illls narro qui me n5n inteUegunt Phaedrus. IteU this tale for 

those toho understand me not 

Ego qui te c5nfirmo, ipse me n5n possum. Cic. /, wJio reassure you^ 

eannoi reassure myself, 

Rbmabks.— 1. The Kelative agrees with the Person of the troe Antecedent^ oven y a 
when a predicate intervenes : 

TU es is* qui m6 ad caelum extnlistt Cio. Tou are he that hat extcUed mi to the 

So occasionally in English : Acts xxl. 38, Lake xvL 15. 

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t. When tho ReUtive refen to a lentence, id quod, that whieh^ Is oommonlj mod 
{parenthetically) : 

81 S yObIs dSterar, (id quod nOn spSro,) tamen aniind nOn dSficiam. Cio. ft ^ 
should be deserted by you, {which I do not expect,) neoerthdest I should not become Jhint' 

8. The gender and number of the Relative may be determined : 

I. By the sense, and not by the form. 

IT. By the predicate or the apposition, and not by the antecedent : 
Examples: I. Sex milia qui Py dnam pexfogerant. Lnr. 8Cx tJumsand, 

who Iiadfled to Pydna. 
EqnitStam omnem praemittit, qui videanl Lnr. He teni aU ths cavalry 

ahead, wivo sJiauld see (that they might see, to see). 

II. Thebae, quod caput BoeStiae est. Lrv. Thebes^ which is the eapitcu 
of Boeotia, 

Flumen Scaldis, quod influit in Mosam. Oaks. The river Scheldt, which 
empties into the Maas. 
nL Justa gl5ria, qui est fruotus virtutis. Grc. Ileal glory, wJuch is tltsfruU 
of virtue, 

4. The pfODominal appontion may be taken np into the relatiTO and disappear : 
TestEmm suifrfligils quod ill! ostracismnm voeant Nkp. By potsherd votes ^ 

(a thing) which they call *^ ostracism,** 

5. When the Relative refers to the combined antecedents of different gender, the 
»trongei>t gender is preferred, according to 382 : 

Orandfls nfttU mStrSs et panruU llberl, quOnim utrOmmque aetSs miserieor^ 
diam ntetram requIrJt Cic. Aged matrons and ii\fanl children, whose age on either 
hand demands our compassion. 

Dtium atque dlvitiae, quae prima mortfilSs putant. Sall. Leisure and money, 
which mortals reckon as the prime things. 

Or, the nearest gender may he preferred : 

Eae frIlgSs atque fTuctUs quOs terra gignit. Cio. Those fruits qf field and tree 
which earth bears. 

6. Combined Persons follow the mle, 2SS. 

617. Repetition of the Antecedent. — ^Tlie Antecedent of tha 
Relative is not seldom repeated iu the EelatiTe clause, with the 
Relative as its attributive : 

Oaesar* intellezit diem instare, qu5 die frumentum mllitibns mStbi 
oportSret. Caes. Caesar saw tJiat the diy was at Jiandf on which {day it 
behooved to measure) corn (was to be measured out) to Vie soldiers, 

618. Incorporation of the Antecedent. — The Antecedent and 
the Adjective or the apposition of the Antecedent, are often in- 
corporated into the Relative clause : 

In quern primum Sgresid sunt locum Tr5Ja vocdtur. Lrv. The first 
place they landed at was called Troy. 

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Amanas Ssrriam § OUidfi dlTidit, qtd mons •»! hoitltim pldnvB. 
Cic. /6!^r^ M dkidedfrom OHicia by Amanus^ a mountain which teas full 
9f enemies. 

Thamistoclas, d§ sen^ sols qattm habuit fidSlissimiimi ad Xerzein 
mlsit Nep. Tfiemistodes sent the most faithful slave he had to Xerxes. , 

Quam qnisqae n5rit aztem, in hao b5 exerceat Cic. What trade each 
man understands, in that let him practise himself ( = every man to his 

Rkxabk.— Especially to be noted are the phrases : quae toa prfldentia Mt* which 
(sach) is your prudence ; quS prfldentiS et ( = tU et eS prfldentiS). of which (such) 
prudence are you ( s prO tuS prUdentiSt in accordance with your prudence). See 6SS. 

619. Attraction of the Relative. — The Accusative of the Rel- 
ative is occasionally attracted into the Ablative of the Antece- 
dent, rarely into any other case : 

HOc oonfirmamus 1115 auguriS qa5 dlzimus. Cic. We eonfii^m thxe by 
the augury which we mentioned. 

Remarks.— 1. This attraction takes place chiefly when the verb of the relative clauM 
mast be sapplied from the principal sentence : 

Qnlbns saucils poterat sScom duotls ad nrbem perglt. Liv. Having taken ioith 
him aU the uounded he could, he proceeded to the dty, 

2. Inverted Attraction.— So-CAWed Inverted Attraction Is found only in poetry, and then 
in the Accusative case, which may be considered as an object of thought or feeling: 

Vrbem quam statuo* vestra est. Vena. (As for) the city which Tarn rearing, (it) it 

Iftnm quern quaerls, ego snin. Ter. (As for) that man wJiom you are looking for^ I 
9m he. Q*" He that hath ears to hear, let him hear/') 

620. Correlative Use of the Relative. — The nsnal Correlative 
of qui is is, more rarely h!c, ille : 

Is mixilmS eget mortalls, qui minlmnm cupit. Syrus. (293.) 

Hlc sapiens, de qa5 loqnor. Gic. (290, 3.) 

nia dies venlet, mea qua lagnbrla pSnam. Ov. (292, 4.) 

621. Absorption of the Correlative. — ^The Correlative, is, is 
often absorbed, especially when it wonld stand in the same case 
as the Relative. This is a kinc^pf Incorporation. 

Postume, n5n bene olet, qui bene semper olet. Mart. Postumvs, (lie) 
smells not sweety who always smells sweet, 

Quem arma n5n frSgerant vitla vicerunt. CuRT. (Him) whom arms had 
not crushed did vices overcome. 

Quem dX dlllgunt adulescens morltor. Plaut. (He) whom tJie gods love 
Hes young. 



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XerxSi praeminm prSposuit qui [ = el qui ] invenlwet novam vol- 
nptStem. Cic. Xerxes offered a reward to him who should invent a nets 

Miienmda vita qui [ = edrum qui ] sS metnX quam amSrl inffltmt^ 
Nep. Pitiable is Vie life of i/iose who would prefer being feared to being lofDCtL 

Discite g&iSrX per queiii £ = per eum, per quern ] didiciitia amir«. 
Ov. (403.) 

622. Position of the Correlative clause. — The Relative clause 
often precedes the Correlative ; incorporation is common : 

Male rSi w6 habet quum quod virtute effid ddbet id tentStur pecuniS. 
Cic. It is a bad state of affairs witen what ought to be accomplished by toorth, 
is attempted by money. 

Quod vides aocidere puerls h5o n5bls quoque nUyuscnlls pueria SveniL 
Sen. W/iat you see befaU children (this) happens to us also, ehUdren of 
a larger groiotJi, 

Quae quia n5ii liceat n5n faoit, ilia £ftcit Ov. (541.) 

Quam quisque n5rit artem, in hao nS exeroeat (618.) 

The Correlative absorbed: 

Quod n5n dedit fortuna, n5n Sripit. Sen. J^hat fortune lias not ffuxts 
(does not give), sJie does not take atoay. 

Per quSs ndi petitia saepe fugatis op§i. Ov. The means you take U 
win uSy often scare us off, 

623. Indefinite Antecedent. — The Indefinite Antecedent 18 
generally omitted : 

Elige cul dicfis : tu mihi 851a plao$8. Ov. C1u)ose some one to whom 
you may say : You alone please me. * 

Remark.— Such sentences aro sometimes hardly to be dlstingnlshed from tte 
Interrogative : 

ConOn nOn quaeslvit ubi ipM tUtO vlveret. Nkp., (S97), mig^t be either. 


624. Future and Future Perfect. — The Future and Future 
Perfect are used with greater exactness than in current English 
(234, 236) : 

Sit liber, dominua qui volet esse meus. Mart. He must be free whs 
wishes (sball wish) to be my master. 
Qui prior strinzerit ferrum, djus Victoria eHt. LiV. (236. R 3.) 

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625. Iterative Action, — ^Eelative sentences follow the laws 
laid down for Iterative action (568, 569 :) 

I. Contemporaneous action: - 

5re trahit qnodcumqae potest, atqne addit ao«rv0w HoR. Drags 

wiih Us mouth wJiatever it can, and adds to the treasure (heap). 

QoSciimque ino$d5bat agman, ISgStX oocurrSbant. Lnr. In tohatever 
iiitetion the column advanced, ambassadors came to meet Viem, 

n. Prior action : 

Tenra nimquam sine usnrSreddit, quod acc^pit. Cic. The earth newr 
returns without interest what it has received (receives). 

Qaod n5n dedit foxtOna, n5n Sripit Sen. (622.) 

Ndn cenat qnotiSs nSmo vocSvit eum. Mart. He does not dine as 
tflen as (when) no one has invited (hivites) 7iim» 

HaerSbant inmemoriSquaecumque audierat et yiderat [Themistocles]. 
Cic. (569.) 

Sequentur tS quSoomque pervSnexis vitia. Sen. Vices wiU follow you 
icMtliersoever you go, 

Qnl timere desiarlnt, Sdisse incipient Tac. (569.) 

RsMAKK.— According to 569, the Snbjanctiye is lued 

!•) In Ihrfitio ObUqna (Total or Partial) ; 

XartI OaUIquae beUO eSperint (Perf. Subj.) dSvovent (» t6 datUrOi voTent.) 
Cabs. The CHxuU deeote (promise to give) to Mars whatever they iihaO) take in war (B. B. 
Quae eeperimui, dabimui). 

2.) By Attraction of Hood (ComplemciHary Cannes) : 

Qnii enm dlligat qnem metnat 1 Cic. Who could love hkn whom he/eart t 

8,) In Uie Ideal Second Person : 

Bonni segnior fit nbi neglegfis. Sall. (568.) 

4.) On the general principle of oblique sense, chiefly In later historians \ 

Qal ftnum Igns ordinis offondiMet onrnds adversOs babebat- Lit. (5G9.) 


626. The Relative clause, as such — thatisj^as the representa- 
tive of an adjective — takes the Indicative mood: 

Uxor quae bona est, A wife who is good (a good wife). 

Rbjkark.— The Relativo In this ase often serves as adrcmnlocntlon for a Snbstantive, 
with this difference : that the Substantive expresses a permanent relation ; the Relative 
daose, atraasicnt rehition : U qui dooent = thoee who teach s the teachers (inasmuch ar 
Qwy are exercising the functions). 

627. The Explanatory Relative qui, with the Indicative, 
( = is emm, for he,) often approaches quod, in that. 

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Habeo senectiiU magnam grStiam, quae mihi sermOnis a:viditfiteni 
atcdt. Cic. / am very thankful to old age, which (for it, in that it) ha» in 
creased me (= in me) the appetite for talk. 

Rrmark.-^2tiI with the Sabjanctive gives a gronnds oiixa is (567); qvl witU tkt 
Indicative, a fact; and in many passages the causal sense seems to be inevitable : 

ErrSyerixn fortasse qui m6 etse aliqvem putfiyl. Pijn. £p. / majf have erred in 
thinkUig myself to be somebody, 

Improba [i. «., Ardea] quae B5f trOi oOgis abesse yirOi . Or. Naughiy Ardea, thol 
foreest (for forcing) our husbands to be away. 

In some anthors this causal sense is heightened by uti Utpote, as / quippe, fMMM^ ; 
bat with these particles the Sabjanctive is fiur more common. 

628. Qui = 81 qtiis, if any, has the Indicative when the Condi- 
tional is logical. So in Generic Sentences. (246, K. 4) 

Terra nimquam sine usnrS reddit, quod accSpit. Cic. (81 quid aocS- 
pit) (625.) 

Qnl morl didioit, servlre dSdidioit. SEN. (424.) 

Rexare.— On the Relative with the Sabjanctive in Conditional Sentences, see 501. 

629. The Subjunctive is employed in Eelative clauses when 
it would be used in a simple sentence. 

Potential : Habeo quae velim. Cic. I have what I should like, 
Optatiys : Quod fanstain sit| regem create. Lrv. BlesHng he on your 
choice, make ye a king, 

RKXARK.—Especially tobenoted is the Sabjanctive in H estrictiv o phrases. ThisBola 
live often takes quidem, sometimes modo. Such phrases are quod^ Boiam = quantuB. 
ieiOi/or aU I know ; quod meminerim, so far as memory serves me. 

Omnium OrfitOrum quOs quidem cognOverim acCLtissimum jtLdico SertOrium. 
Cio. Of all orators, so far as I know them, I consider Sertorius the most acute. 

Nullum orufitum qui modo nOu obscHret lubtraheudum pnto. Qtiiirr. ItkUUt 
no ornament is to be toUhdrawn, provided that U do not cause obscurity. 

Sometimes qui quidem is fonnd with the Indicative. 

630. The Subjunctive is used in Eektive clauses which form 
a part of the utterance or the view of another than the nar- 
rator, or of the narrator himself when indirectly quot<3d. (539, 
B.) So especially in Or&tio Obllqna and Final Sentences : 

Recte Graecl praeoipiunt, n5n temptanda quae effiol n5n poaaiiil 
Quint. JRigJit are tlie Greeks in teaching, that tJiose things are not tc beat- 
temptedf which cannot be accomplished, 

Apud Hypanim fluvium Aristoteles ait, bestiolas quasdam nascX quae 
unum diem vivant. Cic. (658.) 

Paettts oxnnes UbrSa qu3s irater suns rellqaisset mihi ddnSvit. Oic 
(This is Puetus' statement ; otherwise : quSs frater qjoa (521) rellquerat.) 

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ZerzSs praemlnm prOporait qui [= •! qui] inT§iiiM«t noTWn voliq^ 

Bteni. Cic. (621.) 

Mnltf Boam vUam neglezSmnt ut e58 qui his oSriOrds quam ipsi lilil 
Msent UberSrent. Cic. Many have negUeted their own Uvee^ that tJuy mtghi 
free those who were dearer to tliem, than they were to tftemedree, 

Bbmarks.— Even in Orfitio ObUqua tbe Xjidicative i« retaioed: 
1. Tn explanations of the narrator : 

HIlntifitTir XfrfiniO magnOt eoxnmefitlU qvX iter liabObant ad Caef arem ad 
lAmen eonititiBse. Caes. Jt is (was) announced to Afranius that targe supplies y pro- 
sifkms (which were on their way to Caesar) had halted at the river. 

In the historians this sometimes occnrs where the Relative clause is an integral part 
of the sentence, especially in the Imperfect and Pluperfect ; partly for clearness, partly 
for liyeliness. For shifting Indicative and Subjunctive, see Liv. xxvL 1. 

1 In mere circumlocutions : y yC^ K 

dvif negtt haee omnia quae Yidtami deOmm potettite adminiftrirl ? Cio. 
Who would deny that this whole visible world is managed by the power qf the gods 7 

FrOYidendom ett n6 ea quae dlenntnr ab eO qui didt diuentiant. Qunrr. We 
wmt see to it that the speech be not out qf keeping with the speaker* 

631. Relative sentences which depend on Infinitives and 
Subjunctives, and form an integral part of the thought, are put 
in the Subjunctive (Attraction of Mood) : 

Pigil est ingenil contentum esse ils quae sint ab alils inventa. Quint 
B is the mark of a slow genius to be content with what 7ui8 been found out by 

Quia enm dUigat quern metuat aut eum S, qa5 se metul putet 7 Cic. 
Who could love a man wliom lie fears^ or hy wliom lie deems himself feared f 

Nam quod emSa possis Jure vocSre tuum. Makt. Fbr wliat you buy 
you may H^UJy call your own. 

Ab ali5 exspectSs alterl quod feoerls. Stuus. (306.) 

In Tirtnte sunt multl ascensus, ut is gldriS mazimS ezcellat, qui vir- 
tfite pluzimum praestet. Crc. In virtue there are many degrees^ so that he 
excels most in glory, wlio lias Vie greatest eminence in virtue. 

Si 851511 eSs ^ceris miserSs quibus moriendum esset, nSminem edrum 
qtil Ylverent ezoiperSs; moriendum enim est omnibus. Cic. If you 
called only those wretched wlio had (have) to die, you would except none who 
iixd (live) ; for all have to die. 

Remarks.— The Indicative is used : 

1. In mere circnralociitions ; so, often In Consecative Sentences: 

Kecesie ett faoere ifLmptum qui quaerit lucrum. Plaut. (535.) 

Sifidtnr ab OrStOre, ut il qui audiunt ita ai&oiantur ut OrStor velit Cic. Jt is 
brought about by the orator that those who hear him (= his auditors) are affected as hi 
wishes (thera to be). 

1 Of individual iiicts: 

Et quod vidSi perlsse perditum dUcSi- Cat. And what you see (ddlnite thln^ 
definite person) is lost for aye^ for aye deem losL (Quod videfis, any body, any thing.) 

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682. Rdativff Sentences of Design, — Optative Relative sen- 
tences are put in the Subjunctive of Design, when qui = ut is : 

Snnt multl qui alila iripiunt quod alils largiantur. Cic. Many are 

Vkey vjJio snateJifrom some to lavisJi on otliera, 
. Senex serit arborSs, quae altexisadculd prSsint. Cic. (545.) 
Semper habe PyladSn, qui oousSletur Oresten. Ov. (545.) 
Artazerzes ThemistocU Magnesiam urbem dSnSverat, quae el panem 

praeb§ret. Nep. (545.) 

Revaiik.— In many combinations this Relative leans to the Characteristic, and the 
conception seems Potential rather than Optative. 

633. Relative Sentences of Tendency. — Potential Eelative sen- 
tences are put in the Subjunctive of Tendency^ when qui = vt !& 

The notion is generally that of Character and Adaptation : 

Damna nulla tanta sunt quae n5n viri fortes ferenda arbitrentur. CiC. 

Tfiere are no losses so greats tliat brave men sliould not think i/iem endurable 

(great enougli to keep brave men from thinlting them endurable). 

nie ego sum cujus laniet furidsa capillSs. Ov. lam Vieinan tehose 

hair site tears in her seasons offremy. 

Nil prddest quod n5n laedere possit idem. Ov. (296.) 

Quem mea OalliopS laeserit unus ego. Ov. lam tJie only one that my 

Calliope ( = my Muse) Juts hurt 

lUK^or sum quam cuX possit Fortuna nocSre. Ov, (313.) 
Digna fnit ilia n&tura quae meliSra vellet. Quikt. (556, H. 2.) 

634. This construction of the Characteristic Eelative is 
especially common after such general expressions as • 

Sst qui, sunt qui, tJiere is^ tliere are some iclio ; nemo est qui, tkere \m 
none to ; nihil est quod, tliere is nothing ; habeo quod, I have to; repexl- 
tmtxac qva, persons are found w7io (to) . . . ; quis est qui? t^/iotst/i^rfi 
who (to) . . . . ? est our, tliere is reason for, &c. So, also, fnii 
cum, tliere was a time when. 

Sxmi qui discessum animi S oozpore putent esse mortem. Cic. There 
a/i*e some who (to) think tJuii death is the departure of the soul from the body, 

Fuit qui suSdSret appellatidnem mSnsis AugusU in Septembrem 
Inmsferendam. Suet. Tfiere was a man wlio urged ( = to urge) tJiat the 
name yf Uie m/onth (of) August should be transferred to September, 

Multl fuSrunt qui tranquillitStem ezpetentSs a negdtils publicft si 
remSvezint. Cic. There Jiave been many wlio^ in tlie search for quiet^ Iiave 
withdrawn themselves from publioengajements. 

Pest mortem in morte nihil est quod metuammall. PULUT. After 
death tliere is no ill in deatlifor me to dread 

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Nec mea qui digitif Ifimlna condat erit Or. And there wia be no 
one fo cUm mine eyes with hie fingers. 

Miserrimoa est qui oum esse cnpit qaod edat nSn habet PuLUT. 

Mb is a poor wretch who^ when Tie wants to eat^ has not any thing to eat, 

VOn habet quid edat wonld mean : does not know what to eat, 

Ndn eat quod paupertas nds SphilosophiSrerooetiiS egesUUquidem. 
Sen. There is nothing to make narrow circumstances recall us from pMU 
oiophy—not even ( = or even) wani. 

Rb«ark8.~1. The Indicative may be nscd in tbe statements of definite facts, and nol 
of general characteristics : 

Kultl sunt qui SripiaxLt, Kultl rant qui 6ripiimt > y>i^ 

There are many to snatch away, Jfany are they who snatch away. 

Of course this happens only aRer affirmative sentences. The poets nse the IndicatlTt 
more freely than prose writers: 

Bimt-qTiI ( = qnldam) quod sentiant nOn audent dicere. Cic. Some dare iwt say 
what tkfy think. 

Sant-qaibns ingrStS timida indulgentia lervit. Or. To some trembUng in- 
dulgence plays the slave all thanklessly. 

£8t-ubl profectO damnam praestat facere qaam luoram. Plaut. Sometimes^ in 
point offact^ Hie better to lose than gain. 

2. When a definite predicate U negatived, the Indicative may stand on account of the 
definite statement, the Subjunctive on account of the negative : ^ y^ 

A. Nihil bonum est qaod nOn earn qui id possidet meliOrem facit ; or, 

B. Kibil bonam ett qaod nOa earn qui id possideat meliOrem faciat. 

A. Nothing that does not make its owner better is good. 

B. Thereis nothing good that does not make its owner better, 

635. Negative of Qui in Sentences of Character. — Qm nOn, 
sometimes qnae nOn, qaod nOn, &Q.y are represented after nega- 
tive clauses by qnln : 

Sunt oerta vitia qnae n§mo est quia effugere capiat. Cio. There are 
certain faults which there is no one hut ( = everybody) desires to escape. 

NU tarn difficile est qoln qnaerendS investlgSxI possiet ( = possit). 
Tek. (556.) 

But as qoln = ut n6n, the demonstrative may be expressed : 

NSn cum quSquam azma contuU quin is mihi succnbuerit. Nep. 1 Imvs 
nefoer measured swords with any one thai he has not (but Ue has) euccuwtied 
to me. 

For other uses of quIn, see 551. 

636. Belaiive %n a Causal Sense,— Wien qui = cum v^ as he^ 
the Subjunctive is employed. (See 587, R.) 

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The particles nt, ntpote, qulppe^ /m, are often used in conjnnction with 
the Relative • 

[Oanlnius] 6iit mIrificS vigilantia qui 8u5 t5t5 consulata somnnm nSn 
▼Iderit. Cic. Canimus lias sJiown maroeUoun xoatchfulness^ not to Jmce seen 
(= taken a wink of) sleep in his wliole consulship, 

O fortOnSte adnlesoens, qui tuae virtutis Homerum praeoSnem inv#> 
nerifs! Cio. Luckif youth/ to have found a crier (= trumpeter) of your 
valor (in) Homer ! 

Miyor gl5ria ScIpiSnis, QuinctI recentior ut qui e5 aim5 triumphSsaet. 
Lrv. Scipio^s glory was greater^ Quinciiuf^ toas fresher, as (was to be ex- 
pected Id) a man w7io (iuasmucli as he) had triumphed in t/iat year, 

Plato I Dion^S tyrannS crudeliter vlolatos est quippe quern vd- 
numdan Jussisset Nep. I^ato was cruelly maltreated by t/ie tyrant 
Dionysius, seeing^ namely, that he had ordered him to he sold, 

637. Relative in a Concessive or Adversative Sense. — Qial is 
sometimes used as eqaivalent to cam is in a Concessive or 
Adversative Sense: 

Bgo qui leviter GraecSs lltterSa attigissem, tamen cum veniasem 
AthenSs complurSs dies Ibl commoratus sum. Cic. Although I had 
dabbled but slightly in Greek, nevertJieless, Jiaving come to Athens, I stayed 
there several days, 

638. Accusative Relative and Infinitive, — ^Tlie Accusative 
Belative, with the Infinitive, may be used in Or&tio Ghllqna when 
the Relative is to be resolved into a Coordinating Conjunction 
and the Demonstrative : 

PhilosophI censent unumquemque nSstrum mundl esse partem^ ex 
qu5 illud natural oonsequi ut communem utilitatem nSstrae antepdoS- 
mus. Cic. Philosophers hold that every one of us is a part of t/ie universe^ 
and tluU the natural consequence of Viis is for us to prefer the common ted- 
fare to our own. 

Hex ARK.— So also eometlmet sentences with the relative paKlcIes quia, OUXHi Ot. 
quanquam, etc. : quia tmoIdSre s quia tmcIdSrenti because the$ butchered (only in 
ttie later bistorlans). 

639. Combination of Relative Sente7ices, — Relative Sentences 
are combined by means of Copulative Conjunctions only when 
they are actually coordinate. 

When the second Relative would stand in the same case as 
the first, it is commonly omitted. 

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When it would stand in a different case, the Demonstratire i« 
often substituted; or, if the ease be the Nominative or Accusa- 
tive, the Eelative may be omitted altogether : 

Dmnnorix qui principStnin obtinebat cnlqae plebs favSbat, 

Dumnorix^ tofio hdd the ehitftcAney^ and whom the commons favored ; 
Dunmoxiz qui principatum obtinSbat ao plebX acceptus erat, (CAsaX 

Ihtmnorix^ who held the chitfttAnqf^ and (who) wae acceptable to the commoru ; 
Dunmorix qui principatum obtinebat elque plebs favebat, 

Jhmmorix^ who held the chieftaincy^ and whom the commons favored; 
Dunmorix qui principStum obtinebat et pl$bs dlligSbat, 

Dumnorix^ who held the chitftaincy^ and (whom) the comment loved ; 
Dmnnorix quern plebs dUigebat et prinoipStum obtinSbat, 

Jhtmnorix^ whom the commons loved, and (who) hdd the chitftaincy, 

Kbvark.— TheUelativo is not combined with adrenative or illative conjunctions (bfd 
wko^ who thertfore\ except at the beginning of a sentence, when it represents or antici- 
pates a demonstrative. (622.) 

Qnl fortis est fldeni est, qui antem fldeni est is nOn extimSscit. Cio. He who 
is Inraoe is confident^ bat he who i» cot^ent is not qfiraUL 

6ed qui* qui tamen. can be used in antitliesis to adjectives. 

SOphrOn mlmOrum quidem scriptor sed quem Plato probSvit. Quint. Sophron^ 
a writer qf mimee, Ufe true^ but (one) tfiat Plato approved, 

640. Relative Sentence represented ly a Participle. — The 
Relative sentence is sometimes represented by a Participle, but 
generally the Participle expresses a closer connection than the 
mere explanatory Eelative : 

Omnes aliud agentes, aliud simulantes perfidi sunt. Cic. All who art 
driving at one thing and pretending another are treacherous, 

Fisistratus HomSil librSs confusSs anteS sic disposuisse dicitur nt 
nmic habemua. Cic. Pisistratus is said to have arranged the books of Homer^ 
wkie/i were (whereas they were) in confusion before, as we have them now. 


641. A peculiar phase of the Relative sentence is the Com- 
parative, which is introduced in English by as or tJia7i, in Latin 
by a great variety of relative forms : 

I. By correlatives ; 
IL By atqtte or ao ; 
III. Byqnam. 

642. Moods in Comparative Sentences. — The mood of the 
Dependent clause is the Indicative^ unless the Subjunctive is 

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required by the laws of oblique relation, or by the conditional 
idea (G04). 

Rbmabk.— On potius quam with the SabjanctiTc, see below, &17, R 4. 

643. The dependent clause often borrows its verb from the 
leading clause : 

IgnSrStio futurSniin malSnim fitilior est qnam scientia. Cic. (311.) 
Servl mSribuB ilsdem erant quibos dominus. Cic. (296, R 1.) 

644. When the dependent clause (or standard of comparison) 
borrows its verb from the leading clause, the dependent clanse 
is treated as a part of the leading clause; and if the first or 
leading clause stands in the Accusative with the Infinitive, tho 
second or dependent clause must have the Accusative likewise : 

Ita •entio Latlnam lingnam locnpletidrem esse qnam Graaoam. CiO. 

It is my opinion tluU the Latin langtiage is riefier tlutn the Greek. 

Bgo G^um Oaesarem n5ii eadem d5 rSpubllcS sentlre quae mS acio. 
Cic. I know tJiat Gaius Caesar lias not tlie same views with regard to tlie 8tai4 


645. Correlative Sentences of Comparison are introduced by 
Adjective and Adverbial Correlatives : 

1. Adjective correlatives : 

tot, totidem 


(so) as many 



{so) as great 







the same 

S. Adverbial correlatives : 



(so) a» muih 



(so) as much 



us often 




as long 


/ ut, utl, sicut, 

item, itidem 

•| quemadmodmn, 
( quSmodo, 

. if> (as) = as. 

Quot hominSs, tot sententiae) (as) many men, (so) many minds. Phot. 

FrumentYim tanti fuit quanti iste aestimSvit CiC. Corn was worth as 

much as he valued it. 

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» Qiiil#m invSnl tiOflai r^IqiiL Front. ShA a$ Tf&und Q^m], I left 

Cim5n incidit in eandem invidiam quam pater suus. Nep. (296.) 

Nihil tarn popolare quam bonitas. CiG. NoVdng is so mnning <u 

SIo de ambitiSne quSmodo d§ arnica querontnr. Sen. They complain 
of ambition as they do of a sweetlieart. 

Tamdiu requiesoo quamdiu ad to sorlbo. CiO. I rest as long as I am 
writing to you, 

Bevabks.— 1. On other forms with Idem see 296. 

2. TTt qoisque with the Superlative is more common than qu9 qnlsque with the 
OomporatlTe, and is translated in the same way: 

Vt qoisque sihi pltLrimum confldit, ita mazimO ezoellit. Cia Tlu more a imm 
trusts himsdfj the mors he excels. 

Ohsetrior quO quisque dOterior. Quint. The obscurer a num (a speaker) b, the 
worse he is. 

One member often coalesces with the other: 

Optimum quidque rSrissimum est = Ut quidque optimum est, ita rfirisii* 
mum. See 305. 

3. Ut— ita is often nsed concessively (484). On ita— ut< in asseverations, see 255 : 

4. Ut and pro eO ut are frequently nsed in a limiting or cansal sense, so/ar as^ inns' 
much as: Pr5 e5 ut temporum difficaltSs tulit, so fa'^ as the hard times p^^miiUd ; 
ut turn rds erant, as things were t/ien ; ut tempdribas iUIs,/or those times; ut erat 
foriSsas. stark mad as he toas; ut Siculus, as (is, was, to be expected of ) a ^eUian, 

Vir ut inter AetSlSs fScundus. Liv. A man of etoqvencefor an Aetoiian. 

Vt sunt hflmSna, nihil est perpetuum datum. Flaut. As the world wags, noth" 
ing is giveu for good and all. 

6. On quam, quantus. and the Superlative, see 811. 

Notice in this connection quam qfll with the Saperlative : 

Tarn sum amicus relpablicae quam qui maiimO (= est). Cic lamas devoted a 
Mend to the State as he who is most (s as any man). 


646. Adjectives and Adverbs of Likeness and Unlikeness 
may take atqne or ac : 

Virtus eadem in homine ao de5. Cic. Virtue is the same in man as in 

Bate operam ne simili fortuna utSmur atque antea usi somus. Teb. 
Do your endeavor that we Jiave not {}\\)luck like that we had before. 

Dissimulatio est cum alia dicuntur ac sentias. Cic. Dissimulation is 
wlien otIi£r things are said than what you mean (something is said other than 
what you mean). 

Similiter facis ao si me roges cur tS du5bus contuear ocoUs, et n5n 
■IterO. Cic. Tou are acting (like) as if you were to ask me why lam looking 
at you with two eyes, and' not wit/i one. 

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N5n dIzX •eoQg (alitor) ao lentiSbam. Cic. / did not speak otherwiaB ♦ 
UuLn I tlumght, 

Bm ARK9.— 1. The ezpreeBion Is commonly explained by an ellipsis ; 

Alitor dizl atque [aliter] lentifibam. / fpoke one uay and yti I was thlnkvi^ 
another way, 

80 we find : 

Timeo n6 aliud credam atque alind nUntiii. Teb. If€ar tfiat I beUew owi 
thiiig, and you art telling another, 

Et svd -que are occasionally a»ed in the same way.* 

S. Alius* aliter, lecuSi seldom have quain: nOn alius and other negative combina- 
tions seldom have atque« commonly quam or nisi. (592, R. 2.) 

Fliilosophia quid est aliud ( = nihil est aliud) nisi dOnum deOruntr Cia 

NOn aliter has either quam or atque. 


647. Comparative Sentences with quam follow the compara* 
tive degree or comparative expressions. 

G.'he Verb of the dependent clause is commonly to be snpplied 
from the leading clause, according to 643. 

In Comparative Sentences quam takes the same case after it 
as before it : 

Melior tutlorque est certa pSz quam sparata victdria. Liv. (393, R 1.) 
Potius amicum quam dictum perdidL Quint. / preferred to lote my 

friend rather than my joke, 

XJzIstimes velim niminem cuTquam cSxiSrem unquam fuisse quam 18 

mihi. Cic. (546, R. 3.) 

Remarks.— 1. When the second member Is a subject, and the first member an obliqno 
case, the second member must be pat in the Nominalive, with the proper form of the 
verb esse, unless the oblinne capc be an Accusative : 

Viclnus tuus equum meUOrem habet quam tuus est. Cic. (598.) 

fiaec verba sunt YarrOnis, hominis doetiOris quam fnit Claudius. Obll. 
These word* are (the words) 0/ Varro, a jnrson of greater learning than daitdiue (was). 

Ego hominem callidiSrem vidl nSmiuem quam FhsrmiSaem Tso. / have 
am no shrewder man than P/iornUo ( = quam Fhormio est). 

2. On quam prO, and quam qui, 313. On the double companitive, 314. 

8. Atque for quam after a comparative is poetical. 

4. When two clau:«es are compared by potius* rather^ prius< btfore, oitius« gnieker, 
sooner, the second clause is put iu the Present or Imperfect Subjunctive (512), with or 
without ut- 

DfipugnS potius quam serviSs. Cic. (579 R.) 

Vir bonus statuit intolerSbill dolSre laoerSrl potius quam ut ofBloiumprOdat. 
Cio. A good tnan resolves to let himself be torn by insi(ferable anguish^ rather than be tm* 
trve to his duty, 

* Still, -que in atque connects these clauses with ^""c Kelative, and the explanation of 
atque as ad -t- que« in comparison with ■*■ how (Ribbeck) is worthy of not«. 

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MoritllrOt 86 affiroLfibant eitim quam in. aliSnOi ni9r9i T»rt«r»iitir. Uw, 

They declared ttM they had rather die^ than let themsdces be changed to foreign waye. 

If the leading claase is in the Iiifiuitive, tlie dependent claai^e may be in tho InftnitiTt 
likewise, and this is the more common constrnction when the lufluitlTe follows a verb of 
Will ami Desire : 

Haec patienda cSnseo, potins quaxn trucIdSrI corpora vestra. Lit. 1 think 
thcM things are to be endured, rather than that your bodies ( = yon) shoiUd be butchered, 

5. Int^tcad of tam— quam, as— so, the Roman prefers the combinaiioos nOn miniui 
quam— nSn magia quam (by Utotss). 

1.) NOn minus qnam means no less than = quite as much : 

Patria hominibiu nOn minus oSra esse dSbet quam Uberl. Cxo. Country ought 
to be no less dear to men than children ( = quite as dear as). 

2.) NOn magis quam means quite as little, or quite as much : 

Animus nOnmagis est sAnns quam corpus. Cic. The ndnd is no more sound than 
the body == as little sound as the body. 

Or it might mean : 

The mind is no more sound than thebody ^ the body is quite as sound as the mind, 

Fabius nOn in armXs praestantior fuit quam in togfi. Cio. Fabius was not men 
distinguished in war than in peace (no less distinguished in peace than in tear, quite as dU- 
anguished in peace as in war). 

The Abridged Sentence. 

648. The compound sentence may be reduced to a simple 
sentence, by substituting an Infinitive or a Participle for the 
dependent clause. 

Thb Infinitive and Difinitivb Fobms. 

649. The practical uses of the Infinitive and its kindred 
forms, as equivalents of dependent clauses, have already been 

Infinitive after Verbs of Creation: 424 and after. 

Gerund and Gerundive: 426 and after. 

Supine: 435 and after. 

Infinitive in Object Sentences : 526 and after. 

Infinitive in Complementary Final Sentences: 532. 

Infinitive in Eelative Sentences : 638. 

Remark.— Under the head of the Abridged Sentence, will he treated the Historical 
Infinitive and Orfitio Obllqua: the Historical Infinitive, because it is a compendious 
Imperfect ; QrStio ObUqua« because it foreshortens, if it does not actually abridge, and 
eflkocs the finer dietiuctluus of OrStio Becta. 


, 650. The Infinitive of the Present is sometimes used by 
the historians to £;ive a rapid outline of events, with the 

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820 dslTio obeIqita* 

subject in the Nominative; generally, several infinitives in 
succession : 

[Verres] miniUbl Diod5rd, vSciferarl palam, lacrimas interdum tui 
tenure. Cic. Vtrrea threatened JDiodorus^ bawled out before everybody^ 
m/netlmes could hardly restrain hie tears, 

Bexarks.— 1. The ancient assumption of an ellipsis of eoepit, began (Quint, is. 8, 58), 
serves to show the conception, although it does not explain the constrnction. There is 
oo ellipsis. The Infinitive Is to be explained as in OrStio Obllqua. It takes the place 
of the Imperfect, U used chiefly in rapid passages, and gives the outline of the thought, 
md not the details. 

S. The Historical Infinitive is sometimes found after eum, vbi, etc : 
KOn mtdtum erat prOgreua n&vii cum datO signO mere tectum. Tao. Ket 
far (but a little way) hcui the ship advanced^ when^ at a dgnal given^ the roqf came down 
wUh a nuh (began to tumble). 


661. The thoughts of the narrator, or the exact words of 
a person, as reported by the narrator, are called 0r&tio Becta, or 
Direct Discourse. 

Indirect Discourse, or Orfttio Obllqua, reports not the exact 
words spoken, but the gen eral impr ession produced. 

REMAnKs.— 1. Under the general head of Orfitio Obllqua are embraced also those 
clauses which imply Indirect Quotation (I'artlal Obliquity). See 509. 

2. Inquanit guoth /, is used in citing the DrStio Becta ; Sjo, / ^oy, generally in 
OrStio Obllqua. Inquam is always parenthetic; l^o may or may not be parenthetic 
Orfitio Becta may also be cited by a parenthetic '* at ait/* *' ut Sjunt/* as he taye, <u 
they say. When the subject of inquit is mentioned it is commonly postponed. 

652. ^tio Obllqua differs from Or&tilo Secta, partly in the 
use of the Moods and Tenses, partly in the use of the Pro- 

Kexabks.— 1. It must be remembered that 0* 0. is necessarily less accurate In Its 
conception than 0. B.* and hence it Is not always possible to restore the 0. B. At>m the 
0. 0. with perfect certainty. What Is ideal to the speaker, may become unreal to the 
narrator fh)m his knowledge of the result, and hence, when accuracy is aimed at, the uar* 
rater takes the point of view of the speaker, and In the last resort passes oyer to 0* 

2. (J. Obllqua often comes in without any formal notice. 

Moods in Ordiio Obllqua, 

653. In Or&tlo Obllqua the principal clauses are put in the 
Infinitiye, the subordinate clauses in the SubjunctiTe. 

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9bZtio obliqua« 321 

Oritio SefU : Apnd Hypanim flnTinm, inqnit Axiitotollt. 
Oratio Obliqua : Apud Hypanim fluvium Ariitotelis ait. 

0. B. 
O. B. 

bestiolae quaedam nftsomitTir, 
bestiolas quasdam nisei, 
quae fiLnum diem ylvnnt, 
quae unum diem vivant. 

^. "R.-^ On tfie river Boa, taysArUttotle, ),..,, ^ • ^« . 

6. 0.-A,istoae say» OuU on the riter Bog, \ ^^ '^*«'««* <"* **«' '*^ 
U^ (but) one day, 

SdcratSs dioere solebat : 

O. B. OmnSs in e& quod scinnt satif sunt OloqaentSt. 

^. O. Omnes in e3 qu3d ssirent satis esse Sioquentes. 

?^. B. Socrates vud to eay : ^*^AU men aris eloquent enough in what they undsrstaicd/* 
O. O. Socrates used to say that all men weur eloquent enough in what 


Rbhark.— When the PrlnciiMl Clsnse, or Apodosi?, is in the Indicative, the Inflni* 
tire is u^ according to the role for Verb? of Saying and Thinking. When the Prin- 
ripal Claui^, or Apodosi«i, i« in the Subjanctive, a» in the Ideal and Unreal conditions, 
special rules are necessary. (OoQ.) 

Otherwise, Subjunctive in 0. B. contlnnes to be Subjnnctive in 1|. 0* 

654. Interrogative sentences are put in the Subjunctive ac- 
cording to 469 : 

Ariovistus respondit nS piius in Galliam vSnIsse quam populum 
R5manum : quid sibi vellet cur in suSs possessidnSs venlret. Caes. 
Ariovistus replied VuU lie had come to Gaul before the Roman people : what did 
Jte (Caesar) mean by coming into his possessions f (Quid tiW vis ?) 

Thrasybulus magna v5ce exclimat: cur s4 fugiant? Thrasybulus 
cried out with a loud voice (asking), uhy they ran from him. (0. R., cur 
me fugiUs 7) 

Rfmarks.— 1. Indirative Rhetorical Qnestions (466), being substantially statements, are 
transferred from the Indicative of Q. B. to the Accnsativu and Infinitive of 5. 0. ; bnt sel- 
dom in the Second Person, which is commonly in the Subjunctive. 

& B. Num possum t Can If [No.] Q. 0. Num posse t Could hef 

Quid est tnrpins 1 What is batter f [Nothing.] Quid esse tnrpios t What wm 


Quo s6 repuIsOs ab BOmSnIs itfUrOs 1 Liv. Whiiher should they go^ if repelled by 
tSi Romans f (QuOIbimusI) 

Cul nOn appSrfire ab eO qui prior arma intulisset injftriam ortam esse ^ Lit. 
To whom in it not evident that the wrong began with him^ who had been the first to wage 
warf (Cul nOn appSret 1) 

SI boaum daosrent quid prO noxiO damnSssentl Liv. If they ihonght him a 
good man^ why had they condemned him as guilty f (SI bonum dflcitis, quid prO noxi9 
damnSstis \) 

%. In Snbjnnctivo Rhetorical Questions the Subjunctive Is either retalneJ, or trans- 
fbrred to the Infinitive. (The Deliberatire Sabjunctive is always retained.) 


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32^ ORATIO 011UQVA« 

Qiiii lib! p6Ttaid6ret fine eertS r6 Ambiorigem ad Ojusmodl eonsilium dl« 
■eendlfse t d^s. Who could pertuadU hirnu^ thai Ambiorix had proceeded lo an 
txtreme meaeure like thaty without (having made) a sure thing (of ii) 7 (Qois sibi per- 

The liiflnltive form wonld be the Fntare: quexn lib! persuSstLmiii 1 (6S9) and it 
not to be dietin^ished from the Future Indicaiive. 

655. Imperative sentences are put in the Subjunctive: the 
Negative is, of course, nfi : 

Redditnr respoxunmi : Ndndum tempos pugnae esse ; ca&trls se tend- 
renfc Lnr. TJiere was returned for anstoer^ that it was not yet time toJigJa., 
that they must keep witJUn tlie camp, (O. R. castrls vds tenete.) 

Veroingetoriz oohortStui est : n§ pertarbarentur incommodd. CAEa 
Vercingetorix comforted tliem (by saying) tfuzt they must not aUow tJiemseltes 
to he disconcerted by t/ie disaster. (O. R. nSlIte perturbail.) 

Rbxabk.— TTt can be used in the first sentence, according to 546 ; but only in tlte 

Pytbia respondit ut moenibas ligneli i6 mtliilrent^ Nbp. The Pythia answered 
that they must dtfend themseloet with walls <if wood. 


656. The Tenses of the Infinitive follow the laws already 
laid down (530) : 

The Present Infinitive expresses contemporaneous action; 
The Perfect Infinitive expresses prior action ; 
The Future Infinitive expresses future action. 

657. The Tenses of the Subjunctive follow the laws of se- 
quence (510). The choice is regulated by the i)oint of view of 
the Reporter, or the point of view of the Speaker. 

Kexark.— By assnmii!^ the point of view of the Fpeaker, greater liveliness as well as 
greater accuracy is imparted to the discoorse. This form is technically called Beprae- 
sentfitio. In Conditional Sentences !&epxaesentfitio often serves to prevent ambignity. 
The point of viei/^t nnfrequently shifts from reporter to speaker, sometimes in the 
same sentence. ^ 

Point of View of the Reporter : 

LegStionl Ariovistus respondit : sibi mlrum vid§rl quid in suS Qallifl 
quam beU5 vioisset, Oaesari negStU esset Caes. 2'o tJie embassy Ario- 
tistus rejAied, Viat ii seemed strange to him (lie wondered) wliat business Gte- 
Bar Iiad in his Gaul, which he liad conquered in war. 

^ Point of View of the Speaker : 

ZjSgatIs HelvStiSrum Oaesar respondit : consuSsse deSs immorUaii^ 




qu5 graviui hominSs ex commutStidne rSrum doleant, quSs pr5 80«l«rt 
•5nii» ulciici velint, his secundiSrSs interdum xSb conoSdere. CaesS. 2b 

the enwys of Vie Ilelveiians Cae$ar replied^ that t/ie gods were (are) loont^ tJuU 
men might (may) mff^r the more severely from change in tlieir fortunes, to 
ffrant occasional increase of prosperity to those wliom t7iey wislied (wisb) to 
punish for their crime. (A long passage may be found in Liv. xxviii. 82.) /^ 

Point of View shifted: 

. Ad haec Marina respondit : 81 quid ab senatu patera valient, ab axmli 
discadant. Sall.* T/iereto Marius replied : IfiJuy wished to ask anything of 
the senate, Hiey must lay down their arms. 

658. Object, Causal, Temporal, and Eelative Clauses follow 
the general laws of Qratio (HillqiUL 

Examples of O. O. in Object Glauses, 535. 
Causal, 541. 

Temporal, 563, 563, 564, 566, 571, 573, 573 

Relative, 630. 

Rbmabks.— 1. Coordinate Relative Claases are pat in the Aocnsative and InfinitiT* 

2. Relative Claases are pat in the Indicative : 1. In mere drcamlocatioits. 8. In ex-^ 
planations of the narrator. (690, R. 1.) 

3. nam, with the Indicative, is often retained as a mere circnmlocation (so also some- 
times cam): . 

Die, hoipef, Spartae nOs t6 hlo yidisse jaeentOi, dam lanetli patriae Ifigibni 
obsequimur. Cic Tell Sparta, Granger, that tkou hast teen us lying here obeying (in y^^ 
ol>edience to) our country's hallowed law9. 

, 659. Conditional Sentences in Ordtio Obliqua {Total and Partial), 

- 1. Thd Protasis follows the rule. 

2. The Indicative Apodosis follows the rule, but Present, Im- 
perfect, and Perfect Subjunctive are turned into the Future In- 
finitive or its periphrases. 

The Pluperfect Subjunctive is transferred to the Perfect In- 
finitive of tlie Active Periphrastic Conjugation. 

Passive and Supineless Verbs take the circumlocution with 
fatfimm foisse at ... . 240, R. 2. 

Rbmark 1.— Posse needs no Fatnre (MO, R. 8), and potalste no PeriplirasUc Perfect 
Infinitive, »a Uiat these forms are often used to lighten the construction. 

3. Id&fitical Forms. — In the transfer of conditions to 0. 0., 
the difference between many forms disappears. For instance * 

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L SI id cridlfl, errSbU, 

81 id crSdSs, errSUs. ^Dlco 15, si id cridSs^ enrStSmm 

81 id crSdSs, ttrrSr. 

II. SI id crSdis, •rrabis. 

81 id cr5d§8, errabis. 

CI* 1 J X j£ s r I^^ ^1 Bi ^^ crdderis, erratilriim 

81 id orSd&i, erris. ' ' ^ 

SI id orSdarSs, erriris, 
lU. SI id crSdidexSi, «rrSfai8. ^ 

SI id crSdidedk, errSs. ! DIzI t§, 8l id crSdi^isses, errStnrtuB 
81 id crididexfi, errSveris. [ esse. 
SI id orSdidissSs, errftres. 

RiMAmg l—In No. I. the dltferonce le not yital, though ezactnoM ia loit 
In No. n. the amhljcoSty Is avoided by Be|irMSentStio for the logical condition, and 
the nse of the Periphraatic Perfect for the Unreal, whererer it is possible. The difleronce 
between an Unfnlflllcd Present and an Uufnlfllled Past wonld naturallj vanish to the nar- 
rator, to whom both are Pai*!.* 

Ariovistns respondit : 81 quid ipsl fi Caetare opns esset i9s6 ad ilium TentH- 
rum fulise: si quid ille s6 velit, illimi ad s6 venire oportere. Caes. AtiovMvs 
answered^ that {f he had wanted anything of Caesar he would have come to hUn ; if he 
(Caesar) wanted anything of him, he ought to come to him (Ariovlstas). 

0. B. SI quid mihi fi Caesare opus esset, ego ad ilium vSnissem ; •! quid ille 
m6 Tulti ilium ad m8 venire oportet. 

No. m., like No. n., is naed chiefly of the Futare. 

660. Logical Conditions in Qratio Obllqua : 

1. Ad haeo Ariovistos respondit : si ipse popnlS RSmanS nSn prae- 
■criberet quern ad modum 8u5 j^e uterStur, n5n oportSre sesS S populd 
R5man5 in 8u5 jure impedlrl. Cabs. To thisAriovUtm made answer : If 
he did not preaeribe to the Homan people how to exercise their rights he ougM 
not to he hindered by the Roman people in the exercise of his right, -(S, R. SI 
ego n5n praescrlbo, n5n oportet me impedlrl.) 

3. 81 bonom ducerent, quid prd nozid damnSssent 7 Sin (593) nozium 
comperissent, quid alteram consiiULtum crSderent ? LiT. Jf they thought 
him a good man^ why had tJiey condemned him as guilty ; if on the other 
hand they had found him guilty, why did they intrust him with a second con- 
sulship f (S. R. Sl-^dfioitis, quid damnSstis 7 sin— oomperistis, quid orS- 

8. Titurius clSmitabat, suam sententiam in utramque partem esse 
tutam ; si nihil esset (6. R., si nihil erit) durius, null5 perlculd ad prozi- 
mam legiSnem perventflrSs (d. R., perveniStis) ] si Oallia omnia cum 
Oerm^mla cSnsentlret (0. R., slc5nsentit) unam esse (0. R, est) in cele- 
ritfite positam salutem. Cars. Titurius kept crying out Viat his resolution 
WIS safe in either ease : if there were (should be) no especial pressure, theg 

• Cic. Fin. 1. 2, 88 ; T. 81, 03. Welssenbom on Lit. xxziv. 4. 

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would ffet iothe next legion wUhout danger; if aU Oaul udcu in leagvs with 
the Germans, tlieir only safety lay in speed. 

4. ZXum omniom labdnun finem fore eirfHttmabant si hostem ab HibSrd 
intercludere potnissent. Caes. They thottght that would be t?te end of aU 
(IL »ir) toilSf if they could ctu off the enemy from the Ebro. (O. R., is labd- 
rum finis exit (or faerit) il hostem iirterdfidere potuerimtui.) 

5. [HI] Jngurthae ndn mediocrem animnm pollioitand5 acoendSbant 
si Micipsa riz oocidisset, fore uti sdlus imperiQ Numidiae potlrStar. 
BAiiH Tliese persons kindled no little courage in Jugurtltai^s heart) by prom- 
ising over and over tJiat if King Micipsa fell, he alone sfiould possess the mle 
lifcer Numidia. (5. R., wl Bficipsa ocoiderit, id sdlus imperiQ potiSris.) 

6. FidSs data est, sX Jagnrtham TiTiim ant necdtom sifai trSdidisset 
fore ut illl senStns imponiULtem et sua omnia concSderet. Sall. Sis 
word was pledged that if lie delivered to him Jugurtha, alive or dead, the senaU 
woyld gi'ant him impunity ^ and all tluit was his, (Q. R., si mihi trSdideris, 
tibi senatus tua omnia concedet) 

7. Ndn mnltd ante urbem captam escandlta v5z est . . futomm esstt, 
nisi prdvXsum esset, ut R9ma oaperStnr. Cic. Not long before the taking 
of Vie city, a voice was heard (saying), that unless precautions were adopted^ 
Rome would be taken. (O. R, nisi prfivisum erit, R5ma capietur.) 

8. Ariovistus respondit si quid ille s§ velit ilium ad s§ venire opox- 
t$re. Caes. (659, K.) 

9. [Ariovistus respondit] nisi dicSdat [Caesar] sese ilium pr5 hoste 
bablturum ; quodsl eum interfecerit, mulUs s§se n5bilibus principibus- 
que popuU RomanI gratum facturum. Caes. Ariovistus replied, that un- 
less Caesar wUhdreWy he should regard him as an enemy, and in case lie killed 
him, he would do a favor to many m£n of the higliest position among ilu 
Eoman people. (5. R, Nisi dicedes t§ pr5 hoste habSbo . . . si tS inter- 
fecero gtatumfecero (2^)6, R 4). 

10. Fertur Jugartha dlKiss3 urbam venllem et mature perituram sX 
•mptSrem invinerit. Sall. (Perf. Subj.) Jugurt/ia is reported to have said 
iJiat Vie city was for saU, and would soon perish if it found a buyer, (0. R^ 
wbs parlbit si emptSrem invSnerit : Fut. Perf. Ind.) 

RRXARK.~F088e is used as has been stated. (659.) 

. Kegimnt bellum dirimi posse nisi MessSnils Aohael Pylum redderent. Lit. 
They said that tlie war could not be ftojyped unless the Achaeans restored Pylos to the Messt' 
nians. ^. B. fiellam dirimi n5n potest (poterit) nisi Pylum reddest.) 

Dooent« si ttirris ooncidisset. nOn posse mllitSs oontinSrl quln sp6 praedae ia 
nrbem irrumpant. Cae». They show thai if the tower fell, Vu soldiers cotUd not be kept 
fT^sn burning into the city in t/ie hope of booty. {6- B. sl ooncideritt nOn possuut 
(pdtezont) continSrI) 

661. Ideal Conditions in Cfr&tio Obllqna: 

1. Ait sS iX urStor ^'Quam hoo soSve" dicturum. Cic. He dcdares 

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326 . PBONOUNS IN 5b1tio oblIqua. 

Hiat if he were to be burnt 7i4 toould «ay, " Eow eteeet this w." (6. R. 81 firw, 
dlcam, Ranie form as Logical.) 

3. VoluptStem si ipsa pr5 sd loqii3tiir ooncesBfiram arbitror DignitSIL 
Cic. / think tliat if Pleasure were to speak for herself, slue would yield (the 
palm) to Virtue, (The context shows (Fin. III. 1) that the condition )» 
Ideal, not Logical. SI loquatur, conoSdat. Comp. 598, R. 2.) 

662. Unreal Conditions in Oratio Obllqna: 

1. Titurius clamitabat EburSnes, si Oaesar adesset, ad castra [RdmS- 
nSrnm] venturds [n5n] esse. Caes. Titurius kept crying out t/iat if Caesar 
were tliere, tlie Eburones would not be coming to Vie camp of the Homans, 
fd. R., si Oaesar adesset, ZSburdnes n5n venlrent.) On the rareness of 
this form see 659, R. 2b 

2. AppSrSbat si diutius vhdsset Hamilcare dace Poen5s arma Italiae 
illStQr5s fuisse. Lrv. It was evident tJutt if lie luid Heed longer^ the Puma 
would Iiave canned tlieir arms into Italy under Hamilcar's conduct. 

3. Nisi e5 ips5 teii^x>re nuntil dS Oaesans victdria essent allati ex- 
Istimabant plSrlque fotomm foisse at oppidom Smitterdtor. Caes. Had 
not news of Caesai^s victory been brought at tliat very time, most persons 
t/wught tJte city v)ould Jiave been lost, (0. R., nisi nontil alllitX esaenti oppi* 
dum amissam esset.) 

Rkxark.— As the Pinperrect Indicative is sometimes used (rhetorically) for the Snb 
Inactive (*346, R. 8), so the ordinary Perfect Infinitive is sometimes employed instead of 
the Periphrastic : 

Nfimo mihi persnSdebit rnultOs praestantSs virOs tanta esse c9nfit58 (= cOnfr 
tflrOs fuisse) nisi animO cemerent (5'.i9, R. l) posteritfitem ad s6 pertin6re. Cic. 
No one will persuade me that (>o) many eminent men had made such mighty endeavors^ had 
they not seen toith their mindi* (eye) that posterity belonged to th-em, 

Pompejam plSrlque exlstimant si ficrias insequl Yolnisset beUam eO di6 pot- 
nisse flnlre. Oaks. Most people think that if Pornpey had (bat) determined to follow vp 
more energetically^ he could have finished the war on t/iat day. (5. Bm bI voluissett po^ 
tnit, 599, R. 2.) 

Namqae iUfi multitlldine si sSna mens esset (509, R. l) Graeciae, sapplidim 
PersSs dare potaisse. Nep. For toith that number if Oreeee had had (= been in he i) 
sound mind, the Persians might have paid the penalty (due). (0. S. SI sftna mens OSStt 
Graeoiae, sapplicium Persae dare potuSnmt) 

Pronouns in Ordtio (Miqua. 

663. 1. The Reflexive is used according to the priiiciples iiid 
down 520, and after. 

2. The person addressed is ille or is: 

[Ariovistus respondit] nisi decedat [Oaesar] sese illom pr5 hoste hl- 
bituram : qnodsl eum interfecerit, molUs sese nSbilibas prinoipibasqai 
popoU RdmSnl grStam factfirum. Caes. (667, R. 9.) 

Of course this does not exclude the ordinaiy denionstrative use. 

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5RA110 OBLlQUA. 


3. Hlo and iste are commonly changed into iOe or is, as nunc 
into tun and tnnc. 

Dioddrus respondit sS panels illXs diSbns arg^entam mSsiflao Lily, 
baenm. Cic. (392, R. 4) 

4. NOs is used when the narrator's party is referred to. GAESk 
B. G. I. 44. 

664. Specimens of the conversion of Qr&tio Obllqna into 
Srfttio Becta. 

Oratio Obllqua. 

1. Ariovistus respondit : 

Tmnsisse Rhenum ses6 n5n 
suS sponte aed roirStum et arcessl- 
tuin 9 Qallls; nOn sine nin^s^naspe 
majrnlsque praemilsdomnm propin- 
qnOsque rellquisse; eedes lial>ere 
in Gallia ab ipsis concessOs, obsides 
ipsOrum volnniate datOs; sUpen- 
dium caperc jare belli, qnod victOrea 
victls itnpOnere consJiCrint. NOn 
sese Gallls sed GallOs sibi bellnm in- 
tulisse ; omnes Galliae clvitaiBs ad 
sS oppngnanditm venisse et contra 
se oaslra habuiase; ctts omuBs 
cOpias a se anO proeliO pnlsas ac 
guperatas esse. Si iteriim experlrl 
▼elint, se iterum paranim esse de- 
certare ; si pace Qtl velint, inlqiium 
essede silpendiO rectlsare, quod suft 
volnniate ad id tempus pependerint. 
Anilciiiam popull ROnianI sibi or- 
nSmento et praesidiO, non detrl- 
mentO esse oportere idque sB ea spB 
petisse. Si per populum Roman um 
Btlpendium remitiatur et dBditlcil 
Bubtrabantur, nOn minus libenter 
•BsB recUsatQrum popull ROmanI 
&mlcitiam quani appelierit. Quod 
multiindinem GermanOrum in Gal- 
liam traducat, id sB sul maniendl, 
non Galliae impugnandae causa 
iacere ; Bjns rel testim5ni0 esse 
quod nisi rogfitus nOn vBnerit et 
quod belium nOn intulerit sed dB- 

Caes. B. G. I., 44. 

SrStio Recta. 

Transil RbBnum nOn mea sponte 
Bed roiratus et arcessltus a Gallls; 
nOn sine magna spB magnlsque 
praemils domum propinquOsque re- 
iiqul ; sBdBs balx'O in Gallia ab ipsIs 
concessas, obsidBs ipsOruni volun- 
tate datOs ; stipend iutn capio jttre 
belli, quod viciOrBs victis impOnere 
consuBrunt. NOn ego Gallls sed 
Gain mibi belluni intulBrunt ; o- 
ninBs Galliae cIviiatBs ad mB oppu- 
gnandum vBnCrunt et contra niB 
castra babuBrunt ; eae omnBs cOpiae 
a niB QnO proeliO pulsae ac supera- 
tae sunt. Si iterum experlrl volunt, 
iterum paratus sum dBcertare, si 
pace nil volunt, inlquum est dBstl- 
pendiO recQsare, quod sua voluntate 
ad bOc tempus pependBruut. Amici- 
tiam popull KOmanI mibi orna- 
mento et praesidiO, nOn dBtrlmentO 
esse oportet idque ea spB pctil. Si 
per populum ROmff^ium stipendium 
remittBtur et dBditlcil subtrabentur, 
nOn minus libenter recQsabo popull 
ROmauI amicitiam quam appetiL 
Quod multiiadinem GermanOrum 
in Galliam tradQcam,* id niel mani- 
endl nOn Galliae impugnandae 
causa fjicio; ejus rel testimOniO est 
quod nisi rogatus nOn vBnl et quod 
belium nOn in lull sed dBfendl. 

*AllaBion to the prccedins; speech, 
. otherwiiJe-trSdIkob. 

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nnlno obiJFqva. / 

' f-'r 

OrStio ObUqua. 

3. Jlli Obbot Ua respondit : 

£0 Bibi miuns dubitfltlOnis darl 
qnod eOs rCs qute legatl Helvetil 
commcmorassent memoria teneret 
atque eO graviits ferre qu5 minus 
ineritO popull ROmanl nccidissenl ; 
qui si alicQjus injClrme sibi conscius 
fuisset nGu fuisse difficile cavere; 
sed eO deceptum quod iieque com- 
mlssum ft 86 intelle^eret quftre 
tiniGret neque sine causft tinienduni 
putftret. Quod si veteris contumG- 
liae obllviscl vcUet num etiain recen- 
lium injnriSmn), quod cO invito iter 
per prOvinciain per vim teniptas- 
sent, quod AeduOs, quod Ambar- 
rOs, quod Allobrogas vexassent rae- 
moriiini dCpGnere posse? Quod 
sua victoria tarn insolenter glOria- 
rentur quodqne tani diQ se inipQne 
tulisse injQi'ias admlrarentur eOdem 
pertiuere. Cousuesse enini deOs im- 
mortales quO gravius liominCs ex 
comniQtatiOue rerum doleant, quOs 
pro scelere eOrum ulciscl velint, hl3 
BecundiOres interdum res et diQtur- 
niOrem imptlniiatem concedere. 
Cum ea ita sint, tamen si obsides, ab 
ils sibi dentur uti ea quae poUicean- 
tur lactarOs intellegat, et si Aeduls 
dC injQrils quOs ipsis socilsque 
eorum intulerint, item si Allobrogi- 
bus satis faciant sGse cum ils pacem 
esse fuctarum. 

Caes. B. G. I., 14 

8. Sulla regl patefecii : 

Quod i^olliceatur, senfltum et po- 
pulum ROmanum, quoniam ampliua 
arnils valuisscut, nOn in gratiam 
flabitOrOs ; faciundum aliquid, quod 
illorum niagis quam sua retullsse 
videreiur; id ideO in prOmpta esse, 
quoniam Jugurihae cOpiam habCret, 
quern si Romanis tiadidisset, fore 
ut illl plQrimum dCl)CrCtur ; amici- 
tiam, loedus, Numidiae partem, 
quam nunc peteret, tunc ultrO ad- 

Ball. B. J. 111. 

Oratio Recta. 

H5c m\h\ minus dnbitationis da- 
tur quod efts 1*63 quas vOs, iWHtl 
Helvetil, convmemorastis, membriS 
icneo atque igje. gravius fero quO 
minus meritO popull ROmanI acci- 
derunt ; oul si alicf^us injQriae sibi 
conscius fuisset, nOuluit difficile ca- 
vCre; Bed eO deceptnajouod neque 
commissum a se intellegebat quai*e 
timeret neque sine causft timendum 
putabat. Quod si vetcris contumS- 
liae obllviscl volo, num etiam recen- 
tium injQriarum, quod me invito 
iter per prOvinciam per vim temp- 
lastis quod AeduOs, quod AmbarrOs, 
quod Allobrogas vexastis,memoriam 
depOnere possum ? Quod vestrft vi- 
ctoria tam insolenter glOriaminL 
quodquc tnm diQ vOs impQne tu- 
lisse inlQrias admlramini eOdem 
pertinet Consueverunt enim dl 
immortalSs quO gravius homines 
ex commataiiOno rerum doleant, 
quOs pro scelere cOrum ulciscl vo- 
lunt . Ills secuudiOres interdum res 
/^RnQturniOrem impClnitatem con- 
' cedere. Cum haec ita sint, tamen 
si obsides a vObIs mibi dabuntur, utl 
ea, quae polliceminl, factarOs iutel- 
1 legam et si Acduls de injQrils quSs 
ipsIs socilsque eOrum intulisiis, item 
tl Allobrogibus satistacietis, ego y6* 
lilscum pacem faciam. 


Quod polHceris, senfttus et popn* 
lus ROmanus quoniam ampliua 
armis valuerunt, nOn in gratiam ha* 
bebunt; faciundum aliquid, quod 
illOrum magis quam tua retullsse 
videatur; id ideO in prOmptQ est, 
quoniam Jugurihae cOpiam habGs. 
quern si ROn^auIs tradideris tibi 
piQrimura debebitur; amlcitisi, foe- 
dus, Numidiae pars, quam nimo 
petis, tunc ultrO adveniet. 

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OrStIo Obllqva. 

4 AtAinienses deptordtlrunt vcu* 
tdfidnem populdtionemque miserd- 
Mem agrorum, Neque 89 id querl 
quofi boslllia ab lioste pnssi forent ; 
esse enim quaedam belli jQra quae 
ut facere ita paU sit ftls. Sataexan, 
dirul tecta, praedOs hominum peco- 
ramque a^l misera magis quam iu- 
digna patienti esse; verum enim 
vCrO id SB querl, quod is, qui ROmO- 
nOs alienigenOs ct barbarOs vocet, 
adcO omnia simul divlna hamSna- 
que jOra poUucrit ut priOre populS- 
tlGne cum infernis dils, secundfl 
cum superls bellum nef^rium gesse- 
rit Omnia sepulcra monumentaque 
diruta esse in ftnibus suls, omnium 
nddaiAs manes, uulllus ossa teri'3 
tegL Qualem terram Alticam ffece- 
rit, exornStam quondam opulentnm- 
quc, lalem eum si liceat AetGliam 
Graeciamque omnem faclQrum. 
Urbis quoque suae similem dBfor- 
mitstem futilram fuisse nisi ROmSuI 

Lrv. xxxi. 30. 


NOn id querimur quod hostllia ati 
hoste passi sumus. Sunt enim 
quaedam belli jtlra quae ut facero 
ita paU est His. Sata ezQrl, dirul 
tecta, praedas hominum pccorum- 
que agl misera mngis quam indigna 
patienU sunt ; verum enim verO id 
querimur quod is, qui ROmilnOs 
alienigends et barbarOs Yocat, adeO 
omnia simul dlvIna bOmSnaque 
jara poUuit ut priOre populatiOne 
cum infernis dils, secundS cum su- 
perls bellum nel^rium gesserit 
Omnia sepulcra monumentaque di- 
ruta sunt in f^nibus nOstilTs, omnium 
ntldsti manes, nulllus ossa terra 
teiruntur. Qufllem terram Atticam 
lt?cit, exomatam quondam opulen- 
tamque, talem is, si licebit AclOliam 
Graeciamque omnem faciet. Urbis 
quoque nOstrae similis defomiitis 
i'uisset, nisi ROmanI subvenissent. 


665. dratio Obllqua proper depends on some verb of Thinking or 
Saying, expressed or undei-stood. In a more general sense, the term O. 
Gbllqua is used of all complementary clauses, that belong to ideal rela- 
tions. The principle is the same in both sets of sentences, for in the one 
as in the other, the Infinitive takes its dependencies in the Subjunctive, on 
account of the close relation between the Ideal mood and the Substantive 
Idea of the verb. Hence the favorite combination of the Infinitive and 
the Ideal second person : 

Proprium humanl ingenil est 5disse quern laeserls. Tag. His (peculiar 
to] human nature to liate whom you have injured. (But OdistI quern laesistL) 

The so-called attraction of mood by which clauses originally Indicative 
become Subjunctive in dependence on Subjunctives, is another phase of 
the same general principle. 

QQQ. All clauses which depend on Infinitives and Subjunc- 
tives, and form an integral part of the thought, are put in the/ 
Subjunctive : '^ — ' 

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ReoordStione nSttrae amicitiae tOo fraor ut beats ybdise videar quia 
cum ScIpiSae ▼ixerim. Crc. / et^oy the remembrance of our frieruUhip m 
much t/iat I seem to Jiave lived luippily becauw Hived with Scipio, 

Vereor n§ dum minuere velim labdrem augeam. Cic. I fear lest tohile 
lam ufishing to lessen the toil I may increase it (dum minuere volo, augao). 

Oorporifl viribns utare dam adsint, cum absdnt ne requlraa. Cic. 

QuSrS fiebat ut omnium oculSs quotiesoumque in publicum prddissel 
ad m6 oonverteret Nep. Whei'cby it Jtappened tluU lie attracted the eyes of 
aU, every time he went out in public (quotiSscumque pr5dierat convertibat). 

NSicIre quid anteqnam natus sis acciderit, id est aemper esse pue- 
rum. Cic. ^ot to know wJiat Iiappened before you were born, (that) is to be 
alvoays a boy. 

Fraus fidem in parvis sibl praestruit ut cum operae pretium lit, 
cum magna mercSde fallat. Cic. Fraud lays itself a foundation of credit 
in small things in order that when it is worVi while it may m^ike a greai proJU 
by c/ieating. 

Rite texunt [arSneolae] ut si quid inhaeserit confidant Cic. Spiders 
weave a web to kill anything that gets caught in it (si quid inhaesit confici- 

AbeuntI si quid poposceiit concedere m5ris. Tac. To Vie departing 
(guest) it is customary to grant anything tliat he asks (SI quid poposcit 

Remark?.— 1. From this it is easy to Bee how the Sobjnnctive came to be used in a 
Generic or Iterative sense after Tenses of Coutinnance. Present, Imperfect, and Fature 
Indicative may ali involve the Notion of Habit, Will, Inclination, Endeavor, and the 
complementary clauses would follow the sense rather than the form (Partial Obdqaity). 
Examples, see 569, R. 

2. Bum not nnfrequently resists the Attraction both in prose and poetry : 

Tantum nS noceSs dum vis prSdesse yidStO. Or. (548.) 

Participiai. Sentemcks. 

667. Participles are used in Latin even more extensively 
than in English, to express a great variety of subordinate rela- 
tions, such as Time and Circumstance^ Cattse and Occasion, 
Condition and Concession, The classification cannot always be 
exact, as one kind blends with another. 

Remarks.— 1. Tt is sometimes convenient to translate a Participial Sentence by a co- 
ordinate clause, but the Participle itself is never coordinate, and such clauses are ncvei 
equivalent)*. (409, R. 8.) : 

ManUus GaUum caesum torque spoUfivit Lnr. ManUus sUwMu Oaul and strt^ ' 
ved him of his neekchain (after slaying the Gaol stripped him of hit neckchaio, harinf 
•lain, etcV, 

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IQltiades eapitii abiolfltiis* peoliniS mnltstuf eit. Nkp. MUUada (though) aih 
qtditedqfa capital charge, was mulcUd in (a i*nin of ) money (was acqnittcd. but niulcted|. 

1 A common trmiiflation or the Participle U an Abstract Nonn : See 824. R 8 : 

Terra mtLtSta nOn mfltat mOrSs. Liv. Tfi« change qf land changeth not the char* 

Teneer TTlizen renm facit 2jieit oooXtL Quint. Teucer indicts Ulysteefor th4 
mvrderof Ajax. 

Ou tlic Participle after Verbs of Perception and Representation, seo 534, R. 1 and 530. 

668. Participles may represent Time when: 

Alexander moriens antilnm suum dederat Perdiccae. NfiP. Alexan- 
iar (when be was) dying, had given Ms ring to Perdieooi, 
Dionysina t3rraimus Byrzjc^aSM ezpulsns OorinthI paer5s dooSbat. 

Cic. Dionysius the tyrant, (after he had been) exiled from Syracuse (after 
his exile from Syracuse), taught (a) bayt^ (school) at CorintJu 

Ablative Absolute : 

Solon et Kaiatratns Senda TnlliS regnante vignerunt Cic. Sohn and 
Pmstratus flourislied wlien Servius TulUus toas king (in the reign of Serviua 

Sole orto VolscI si circnmvallatSs vldimnt Lnr. When the sun wcu 
risen (after sunrise), t/ie Volscians saw that tliey were surrounded by lines of 

Rbxark.— On the Ablative Absolute of the Simple Participle, see 488, R. 1. 

669. Participles may represent Cause Why : 

Areopagitae damnSvSmnt puemm coti^rnicum oculos eruentem. 
Qunrr. 27ie court of Mari Hid condemned a boy because he plucked out 
(for plucking out) the eyes of gttails, 

AtheniensSs Alcibiadem cosniptnm a rege PerBarum capere nSloista 
OymSn arguebant Nep, T/ie Atlieniam charged Alcibiades with having 
heen unwilling to take Cyme (because he had been) bribed by Vie King of 

Ablative Absolute : 

Romanl veteres reg^arl omnes volebant Ubertatis dulcedine ndndun 
nperta. Liv. The old Romans all wished to hate a king over them (beciiusQ 
Uiey had) not yet tried the sweetness of liberty. 

Remark.— An apparent cause is given by nt &s velat, as^ for instance^ tanqaam (bo) 
uti quasi, as if, see (KM, R. 2. 

670. Participles may represent Condition and Concession: 
81 latet an prddest, affert d§prensa puddrem. Ov. (504, 2 ) 

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Rlnui intardmn iU repenio Smmpit ut earn cnpientSM ten&re naqnefi- 
mxa. Cic. (611.) 

MiltiadSs capitis absolutus pecunia multatos est Nep. (G67, R.) 

Ablative Absolute : 

Ma xim Ss virtutes Jacere omnSs necesse est voluptate dominante 
Cic. (594,2.) 

HEXARK.~Later writers combine with the Participle etsi, quanquam, qnamYis. 
MO 811, R. 

671. Participles may represent Relative Clauses (640) : 

Omnes aliud agentSs, aliud simtdantes, perfidi sunt. CiC. 
Flsistratos HomezI libr5s confusSs anteS slo disposuisse dldtar at 
nuno habemus. Cic. 

Remark.—^ called, qui dlcitor, YOoStUTt qaem Yocant ; abave-mmtioned, qaea 
antes, snprS diximus. 

672. Future Participle (Active), — Tlie Future Participle is a verbal 
adjective, denoting capability and tendency, chiefly employed in the oUer 
language with sum, lam, as a periphrastic tense. In later Latin, it is used 
freely, just as the Present and Perfect Participles, to express subordinate 

Peculiar is the free use of it in Sentences of Design, and especially no- 
ticeable the compactness gained by the employment of it in Conditional 

673. In later Latin, the Future Participle (Active) is used to 
represent subordinate ftlations : 

1. Time When: 

Tiberius tr^ecturus (cum tr^ectums esset) RhSnmn commeStum non 
transmlsit. Suet. WJien Tiberius was about to cross the Wdne^ Tie did not 
send over the provisions. 

2. Cause Why: 

Deridicul5 fiiit senex foedissimae adulatidnis tantum iniamiS usoms, 
Tac. a butt of ridicule was t7ie okl man, as infamy was the only gain hs 
would make by his foul fawning, 

Antiochus securus erat de bell5 R5mano tanquam n5n transiturls is 
Asiam Romanls. (604, R 2.) 

3. Purpose: 

Maroboduns mlsit legStds ad Tiberium 5rStur5i auzUia. TA.C. (544. 
R 2.) 

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BsvABK.— The Present FMtlclple is sometimes nsed In a similar sense, but the Pv> 
poee ift only an inference : 

L6g§tl Y6n6nint nlintiaiitM AiiM qaoqae elritstat lollieitirt Lit. JOwoifB 
came with the announoemerU that the tUUetcf Asia (Minor) also wer€ tampered vfith, 

4. Condition and Concession * 

1.) Protasis. 

DSditQxIs sS Hannibal! fhiiiie aocersendnm RSmSnSmm praaaidinm? 
Lit. If they had been ready to mrrender to Hannibal^ wnUd they hate Jiad 
to send for a Roman garrison t (=81 dSditOrl fiiissent, 0. R. si dSditoil 

2.) Apodosis. 

Quationt arma, mptflrl imperiom nX dilcantnr. Tag. They clash their 
arms, ready to break orders^ if they be not led forward, 

Iiibrnm mid ezigenti tibi, miatums etil nSn exigiasSa. Plin. £p. 1 
haw sent you the book^ as you exacted U^ aWiough I Humid liave seat it even 
(f you Iiad not exacted it, 


674. The Latin language allows greater freedom in the ar- 
rangement of words than the English. This freedom is, of 
course, due to its greater wealth of inflections. 

675. Grammatical arrangement has for its object clearness. 
Rhetorical arrangement has for its objects Emphasis and 


1. Emphasis is produced 1. By reversing the ordinary position. 

2. By iipproximation of similars or opposites. 
8. By separation. 

In all sentences beginning and end are emphatic points. In long sen* 
lenccs Ihc means as well as the extremes are the points of emphasis. 

2. Bhythm.^-'i&xjLQli depends on the rhythmical order of words, for 
which tlie treatises of the ancients are to be consulted. Especially avoided 
arc poetic rhythms. So, for example, the dactyl and spondee, or close of 
an hexameter at the end of a period. 

676. Rule I. — The most simple arrangement of a sentence 
is as follows: 

1. The Subject and its Modifiers. 

2. The Modifiers of the Predicate. 

3. The Predicate Proper or Verb. 

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1. DionyiiiM tynuintis, 2. Sjiicilsli «iqnilsiui Coiintlil pamdm, 
8. docSbat Cic. (668.) 
Rhetorical positions : 
Potent^t sequitur invidia. Qunrr. (479.) 
Ndbit n5n latiBfacit ipsa DSmosthenii. CiC (556. 11. 1.) 
Descriptiis eratpopnlus RdmSnns censfi, ordlnibni, astatflms. CtfL 
IntrS moenia Buut hostSs. Salt«. 

Rem ABK.— The modiAers of the predicate stand In the order of their importanoe. ThB 
ioMowlw^ arr tugemcnt is common : 
1. Place, Time, Cante. or Means. 

5. Indirect Object. 
8. Direct Object. 
4. Adverb. 

6. Verb. 

677. EuLE II. — ^Inten-ogativc Sentences begin with the in- 
terrogative, subordinate clauses with the leading particle or 
relative : 

Qnifl eum dlligat quern metuat 7 Cio. (631.) 

Postquam Oaesar penrenit obaidSs poposcit Caes. (563.) 

81 aplrituin dudt vivit Oic. (597.) 

Qui tim§re d§sierint Sditse incipient Tag. (569.) 

Rlietorical position : 

NStilram si sequimur ducem, nunquam aborrSbimus. CiC. (597.) 

De f uteris xSbym etal semper difficile est dioere, tamen interdumcon 
JecturS possis aooSdere. CiC. (606.) 

Oato mirSixl si aJCbat quod n5n rideret haruspez, haruspicem com 
vidisset. Cic. (569.) 

678. Rule XXL — ^An Adjective or dependent GenitiTe fol- 
lows the word to which it belongs: 

TorquStus filium suum necSri Jussit Sall. (540.) 

Sensum ocul5rum praecipit animus. Quint. (540.) 

Rhetorical positions : 

Hannibalem sul cIvSs 9 civitate ijecerunt Cia (295, R. 1.) 

Isocxatis queritur pltLs hcndris corporum quam animdrum vixtfitibai 
darL Quint. (542, R.) 

Agar, cum mult5s ann5s requiivit, uberiSres efferre firngSs solet. Ci& 

Vereor n§ parum hic liber mellis et absinthil multum habSre videfr 
tor. Quint. (553.) 

Rbxabks.— 1. Many expressions liave become fixed formtilae: So tlttefli praptf 
lames, and the like : see SS4 : 

Faoinus est vinoin olvem BOminnm. Cia (Sas.) 

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% The ^emoiiflttratiTe pmnonna r^gnlarly precf do : 

Vereor nS hie liber absinthil mnltoa liabSre yideStur. Qunrr. (50f .) 

Rhetorioil po:iitiun : 

BeoordSre tempos illud* oum pater Cllrio maerens jacSbat in lectO. Cio. (583.) 

8. New modifiers of either elument may be inserted, prefixed, or added : 

CatOnem yidl in bibliotbScS sedentem moltls circnmfdsum StOicOnim librli. 

Cxo. (586.) 

Saepe magna indolM YirtfLtis prinsqnam relpflblicae prOdesie potniitet ex* 

stinctafoit Cic. (579.) 

At vidfite hominis intoleribllem audficiam. Cic. (490.) 
AristldSf Interfoit pngnae nSv&U apnd Salamlnem. Nep. (34ff.) 

679. EuLE IV. — ^Adverbs are commonly put next to their 
Terb, and before it when it ends a sentence, and immediately 
before their adjectiye or adverb : 

Z5n5nem cum AthSnIs essetn audigbam freqnenter . . . CiC. (586.) 
N$mo oratdrem admXratus est quod LatXne loqnerdtor. Cio. (543 ) 
Viz cmquam persuadebatur Graeci^ omnX cessurOa R5mSn5s. LiY. 

(546, R 2.) 

^808 interdum ita repents erumpit at eum cupientet tenSre nequo- 

Smus. Cic (611.) 
Rhetorical positions : 

Kram bene Ennius initiom dixit insaniae. Cic. (441.) 
Saepe magna iudolSs virtutis priosquam relpublicae prddesae pota- 

iaaet ezstincU fuit Cic. (579.) 

lievARKs.— 1. FerS. paene, propOt nsnally follow: 

N6mo ferS saltat sSbrins nisi forte insSnit Cio. (599, R. 4.) 

2. Kegativcs always precede, see 44T. 

680. EuLE V. — Prepositions regularly precede their case, 

A rectS conacientiS transversum unguem n5n oportet discidere. CiC. 


Rexauks.— 1. On Yersus, tonus and the regular postposition of cum in combinatioa 
with the Personal Prouonns and ihe Relative, see 414, R. 1. 

S. Monosyllabic prepositions ore not aufreqnently put between the Adjective ana 

Magna com eOrfi (401). 

Less frequently between the Genitive and SabstaotiYe; except when the relatlTO is 

8. Dissyllabic prepositions are sometimes put after their case (Anastrophfi), especial* 
fy after a relative or demonstrative : most frequently contri, inter, propter. So also 

4. The preposition may be separated from its case by a Genitive or an Adverb. 

Ad AppU Clandil senecttLtem ace6d6bat etiam nt caecns esset. Oia (558 ) 

ft. Monosyllabic prepositions such as eimit ez, dSi post, sometimes append the en- 

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elitlcs -qut« -Ye. -ne, as ez que ils, and from them, Utnally, however, tbe enditict ^ria 
the dei>endent substantive : In patriamqne redilt, (ind rdumed to hk wmUfff. 
On the position of peri see 415, R. 

681. Rule VL— Particles vary: 

Enim commouly takes the second, seldom the third place ; nam and 
aamque are regularly prepositiye. 

Zjiga in the syllogism precedes, elsewhere follows ; igitur is commonly 
second or third ; itaque regularly first 

Tamen is first, but may follow an emphatic word. 

Stiam usually precedes, quoque always follows. 

Quidem and demom (at length) follow the word to which they belong. 

682. Rule VII. — A word that belongs to more than one 
word regularly stands before them all, or after them all, some- 
times after the first (287) : 

Ariovistus respondit multls sSsS ndblUbus principibusque popnll 
R5mSnI gratum factunim. Gaes. (670, 9.) 

faocrates quexitur plus hon5ris corporum quam animdrum virtutibtti 
dart Quint. (542, R.) 

ZiOngum est mul5rmn perseqol utilitStSs et asinSmm. Cic. (246, R) 

683. Rule VIII. — ^Words of kindred or opposite meaning 
are often put side by side for the sake of complement or con ' 

Manus mannm lavat, One hand wctshes tlie otJier, 
Oato mlrai^ se Ig'ebat quod n5n ridaret haruspez, hanupicem cnn 
vidisset. Cic. (569.) 

£mit morte immortalitatem. Quint. (404.) 

684. Rule IX. — Contrasted Pairs.^When pairs are con- 
trasted, the second is put in the same order as the first, but 
often in inverse order. This inverse order is called Chiasmus,* 
or crosswise position, and gives alternate stress. The principle 
ifl of wide application. 

Same order : 

Fortuna vestra faoit ut Irae meae temperem. Lrv. (557.) 
Mftlo IS sapiens hostis metuat quam stultl cl-ves laudent LiT. (SMi 
P. 2.) 

• From the Greek letter X 
1. Fi 
3. eonsilinm -^ 1. demX. 

1. Forls y %. arma. 

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Averse order (Chiasmus) : 

Ante ▼idemtis (1) lalgiiF5tidii«m (2) qiuon fonimi (3) awdtfaww (IV 
SExV. (579.) 

Parvi sunt foils (1) azma (2) nisi est oonsilimn (2) domX (1). Cic. (412, 


685. A period is a compound sentence with one or more 
subordinate clauses, in which sentence the meaning is kept sus- 
pended to the close. 

686. Latin periods may be divided into two classes : 

1. Responsive or Apodotic, in which a Protasis has au 

2. Intercalary or Enthetic, in which the various it-ems are 
Inserted in their proper place between Subject and Predicata 

687. Care must be taken — 

1. To vary the clauses, so as to prevent too great uniformity 
of rhythm. 

2. To observe a certain proportion in the length of the 

The following passages may be cited as specimens of long 

Ut saepe homines aegrl morbO gravl, cum aestU febrtque jactantur, si 
aquam gelidam biberunt, prImO relevffrl videntur, deinde multO gravius 
vehementiusque afflictantur: sic lilc morbus, qui est la republics, rele- 
vStus isUus paenS, vehementius, vivis reliquls, iugravesceL Cic. (Apodotic) 

Catuvolcus, rex dimidiae partis EburOnum. qui UnS cum Ambiorige 
consilium inierat, aetste jam confectus, cum labOrem aut belli aut fugao 
ferre nOn posset, omnibus precibus detestatus Ambiorigem, qui ejus con- 
silil auctor fuisset, taxO, cajus magna in Gallia GermSniaque cCpia est, s8 
fizanimavit, Caes. (Enthetic.) 


688. Ellipsis is the omission of some integral part of the 
thought, such as the substantive of the adjective (195, R. 1), 
the copula of the predicate (200), the verb of the a4verb. 

Vnde domo ! 411, R. 2. 


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IteMAioL— When the enipds is iodeflnite, do not attempt to rapply it. Tke flgure h 
iMMh AbMed bf comm e out o w in the explanation of granunatical phenomena. 

689. Brachylogy (breviloqaentia) 18 a failure to repeat an 
element which is often to be supplied in a more or less modified 

Tarn fills msAi qpam foxmSsiisiiiui (= m) ▼•llem. Or. (316.) 

690. Zeugma or Sylldpsis is a junction of two words under 
the same regimen, or with the same modifier, although its 
common factor strictly applies but to one. 

Manns ac suppIioSs vScSs ad Tibarium tendene. TAa Stretching out 
kand$ and (uttering) ivppliant enet to Tiberius. 

691. Aposiopesis is a rhetorical breaking off before the close 
of the sentence, as in the famous Vergilian ttaOs ego 

692. Pleonasm is the use of superfluous words. 

693. Hyp^rbaton, or Trajection, is a violent displacement of 

Xifdia die per omnis t$ deSs 5r5. Hon. (415, It) 

694. Anacoldthon, or toant of sequencsy occurs when the 
scheme of a sentence is changed in its course. 

695. Hendiadys {?y did dvoiv) consists in giving an analy- 
sis instead of a complex, in putting two substantives connected 
by a copulative conjunction, instead of one substantive and 
an adjective or attributive genitive : 

▼ulgns at nmltitUdo, t?ie common herd, 
▼la et ratio, scietUifle method. 
VI et armla, by force of arm$. 

So two verbs may be translated by an adverb and a verb: foudl 
fogSrlque, to be utterly routed, 

696. Constructio Praegnans. So-called constmetio praegnaai 
is nothing but an extended application of the accusative of the 
Inner Object (Object Effected). The result is involved, i^ot 
distinctly stated. 

Zfadtium inttat. TAa He prowikes deetruetUm, (Ad ezitiiia izzltat) 

697 On Litotgs, see 448, K. 3. 

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Prosody treats of Quantity and Versification. 

Hkmark. — Prosody originally meant Accent Latin Accent fo rego. 
lated by Quantity, and as classic Latin veraification is also quantitative^ 
Prosody is loosely used of both quantity and versification. 


699. BuLE L — A syllable is said to be long hy nature when 
it contains a long vowel or diphthong: 0, vae, togds, saevae. 

Remark.— Every vowel sound followed by J is long. This is due 
lomeUmes to the broad sound of the J itself, sometimes to natural length 
of the vowel, sometimes to compensation (Qiytui from OSvius, p^ero for 
p«ijero). J does not make position in the compounds of Jngum, jfoke; 

700. EuLE IL— A syllable is said to be long hy positionvrheu 
a short vowel is followed by two or more consonants, or u 
double consonant : a rs, c o Unm, d i see, o a stra. 

Remarks.— •!. The consonants may be divided between two words: 
per mare, in t ezrls ; but when all the consonants are in the second word, 
the preceding short syllable commonly remains short : praemUl scrlbae. 

2. The natural length of a vowel bt^fore two consonants is often hard, 
iften impossible, to determine. Every vowel before nf and ns seems to 
have had a long sound. Other points are too much disputed to be intro- 
doced into an elementary treatise. With the clear and full pronunciation 
of tlie vowels, tlic difference between length by nature and lengtli by posi- 
tion was probably not so great as might be supposed. 

701. Rule III. — ^A syllable ending in a short vowel before a 
mate, followed by 1 or r, is common : tenS-brae. 

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M k 

«I; Un^ 


^^hiti i.«ndoc» 

jr oatniileof 
*• iiss^ "« pcoulU : 

lort proDon- 
ihe Oeroiid' 

in a simple 

ilUe, inbe, ktlfl^ 
eptUmt, M^li 


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llEMARKS. — 1. Tho syllable muRt end in a short yowel: iifti^-fragii% 
melll-flmui j but S b-rumpo, 5 b-U^iscor. 

2. In Qreek words, m and n are included ander this rule : T^-cmSssa, 

702. Rule IV. — ^Every diphthong, and every vowel derived 
from a diphthong, or cuntracted from other vowels, is long: 
laevns, condtldo (from daudo), inlqniu (from aequiu), oOgo 
(from coigo = con + ago). 

Exception.— Prae in composition is shortened before a vowel ; prae 

703. Rule V. — One simple vowel before another vowel- 
sound, or h, makes a short syllable: ddns, God; ptier, boy; 
nihil, nothing. 

ExcBPTiONB.— 1. a in the old Ckniti ve of the First Declension : waxSL 
2. e in -al of the Fiftli Declension, when a vowel pre- 
cedes : diSI, but fid«I. 
8. a and e before i in proper names in -Jos : QSL, 

4. i in the Genitive form -lus. Alteiins is often short- 

ened, perhaps even in prose : iiniua, nlUvia, nnlUns, 
tdUua, are found in poetry. In alXiu the i is never 
shortened (alltu for aliius). 

5. i in fio (for fuio) is long, except before r : fiO| but 

0. then, DiSna, 5h8, dins (= dlvus). 

7. Many Qreek words: ftSr, Manelftva, masimii 

M§d e a. 

A. Polysyllables 

704. Rule VI. — In words of more than one syllable, final 
a, e, and y are short ; i, o, and n are long. 

1. a is short: terrS, earth; d5nS, gifU; oapitS, heads. 
ESxCEPTiONS. — 1. Ablative of the First Declension : terrS. 

2. Vocative of words in fis (AenSft), and Greek Nomin- 
ative in a long (filectrS). 

8. Imperative of First Conjugation : amS. 

4. Most uninflectcd words : trIgintS, jnztS* but itS, 
qatt, ^ With patX {ffr ^MtMM), CMp. onvi 

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& e is short 

BxcEPnoKB -!• Ablative of the Fifth Declengion: dli. 

3. Impcratiye of Second Conjagation : rnoni (hat o«tS 

and occasionally otlier Iambic Imperatives). 
8. Most adverbs of Second I^eclension : recti (bat 1 
mali, infemi, sapemtf , saepi). 

4. Greek words in e long (7) : Tempi, meli. 

8. y is always short, except in contracted forms : misj^ (Dative 1 

4. i is long : domini, ^glntl, audi 

£xcEPnoN&— 1. Greeic Dative si: Tr5a^ 

2. Greek Nominatives, sln&pl Vocatives, Fail; Da- 

tives Sing, (rarely) BCnSidL 

3. qoas!, nisi, ciU (wlien a dissyllable). 

4. i is common in mihl, tibX, sibX, iU, ubL 

Observe the compounds : ibidam, ibique, ublque, ublnam, uUvia, ubl 
ennqae, nicubl ; (utX, but) uUnam, utiqua, sIcixtL 

5. o is long : bond, tQt5. 

Exceptions.—!. Common in Nominatives of pro]>cr names, and occa- 
sionally in common nouns : ScIpiS, virgS. 
2. Common in verbal forms, but more rarely outside of 
the Present Tense or in verbs with long penults : 
■ciS, patS, TolS ; estS, crid8. The short pronun- 
ciation extended sometimes even to the Gerund • 
8. o is short in mod6, cit6, du6, ocUS, egtt, illio5, tauaJH^ 

and in many other words (in later poetry). 

d u is always long : oomH, fraotfi, andltfi. 

705. BuLE VIL — All final syllables that end in a simple 
consonant other than s are short 

Exceptions. — 1. Slic, liin, and many Greek nouns. 

8. The adverbs and oblique cases of ilUc, ill&c, ifttio, 

ifltac, can hardly be cousideicd exceptions, as >o ii 

for -ce, and is merely enclitic. 
8. Oompoands of par : dispar, impir. 
4. Bif pBtOtf and their compouuds. 

706. Rule VIIL— Of final syllables in s: as, m, os, are long 
is, OS, ys, short. 

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1. M is long : AenSSi, lenrai, amfii. 

ExcBPTiOKB.— 1. Greek nouns in Ss, 2[dis : ArcSs, AicKdis. 

2. Greek Accusative Plural, Third Declension; hirOfti 

2L es is long : rigis, diSs, mones. 

Bkoeptiokb.— L Nominative Singular Tlilrd Declension, when tlie 
Genitive has «tis, Xtis, Xdis : seg^^ mllte, obsfa; 
but abiSs, ariSs, pariSs. 

2. Ck>mpounds of <s, be : adte, pot^a 

8. penXs (Preposition). 

i. Greek words in 4n (eS) : Nominative Plural, Arcadii) 
Vocative, Demosthenes; Neuter, cacoethte. 

8. oa is long : dads, nepds. 

EzcBFnoN&— 1. Oomptts, imp6s, ez68. 

2. Greek words in 6s (o$) : mai^ 

4. is is short : oanXs, legXs. 

Exceptions.— 1. Dative and Ablative Plural . terrls, bonis. 

2. Accusative Plural of the Third Declension : omnls = 

8. In the Nominative of sundry words, increasing long 
in the Gonitivc : Qnirls, Qoirltis. 

4. Second Person Sinu^ular Present Indicative Active 
Fourth Conjugation: audls. 

6. In tlie verbal forms from vis, sis, fis, ani^vells; 
n5-lls, mi-Hs, ad-sIs, cale-fis. 

0. In the Second Person Singular Future Perfect In- 
dicative and Perfect Subjunctive, Is is common; 

6. OS is short : sarviis, corriis. 

KzcBPnoNS.— 1 Gen. Sin., Nom. and Ace. Plural, Fouith Declention : 
cuxros. / 

^. Nominative Tliird Declension, when the (Jenitive has 
a long u : virtus, virtfitls ; incus, inciidis : teUos, 
8. In Greek words with a long (ovS) ; tripfis, Sapphns ; 
but OedipSs and poljrpiks. 

6. yiis short : cnlamj^. 

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707. SuLE IX. — ^All monosyllables that end in a vowel are 
long : ft, dft, mfi, dfi, hi, H, 0, do, ta. 

Except the enclitics : -qnX, -t<, -nS, -c<, -U, -pi^, .pU. 

708. BuLE X. — Declined or conjugated monosyllables that 
end in a consonant follow the rules given : dfts, lUs, acis, dftt, 
fldt, Is, Id, quls, his, quls, qnOs. 

bio, thU one, is sometimes short; die and dilo have the quantity of their 
nrbs ; es, ^. is short 

709. EuLE XL — Monosyllabic Nominatives of Substantives 
and Adjectives are long when they end in a consonant, even if 
the stem-syllable be short: Os, mOs, vfir, aOl, fUr, pltis; Iftr (Iftris), 
pss (pMis), hos (b5vis), p&r (pftris). 

Exceptions.— vir and lac, os (ossis), mel ; 
Also cor, yas (vadis), feL 

710. BuLE XII. — Monosyllabic particles that end in a con- 
sonant are short : &n, ds. In, ndc, p6r, t6r. 

Excepting in and n5n and quln ) 

And also cr2s and c{ir and sin ; 

A]9> the Adverbs in c : hic, h^ hSo, sic. 

Quantity op Stem-Syllables. 

711. BuLE XIII. — ^The quantity of stem-syllables, when not 
determined by the general rules, is fixed by the usage of the 
poets (long or short by authority). 

Remarks. — 1. The changes of quantity in the formation of tense^tems 
have been set forth in the conjugation of the verb, (158, 2.) 

2. The occasional differences in the quantity of the stem syllable-s, 
which spring from the same radical, can only be explained by reference 
lo the history of each word, and cannot be given here. 

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fido (feido). 


ISZ, Ugi8. 


ddco (douco). 








Inceo (loQceo). 









Quantity in Compounds. 

712. Rule XIV. — Compounds generally keep the qnantitj 
of their constituent parts: (cede), ante-cddo, de-oedo, prO-eedo, 
(caedo), oocldo (o&do), ocddo. 

Remakkb. — 1. Of the inseparable prefixes, dx, sS, and t8, are long, r8, 
short : dldooo, sddnoo^ Tdcors, rSduco. Excbitions : di in (Usertiu is 
short ; in dirimo cUr stands for dis. 

2. N< is short, except in nedum, nemo (ne-hemo), nequam, nSqnl- 
qnam, nSqnSquam, neqtdtia, neve, nScuhi, necunde. 

3. R< is sometimes lengthened ; the following letter is then doubled in 
many texts : rel(l)igio, rel(l)iquiae, rep(p)erit, re(t)tulit ; compare reddo. 
Re is for red, bnt, except in perfect stems and in dac^lic poetry, there is 
no compensation. 

4. Pr5 is shortened in many words, especially before f : prbfugio, prttfii- 
gOB, pir5fimdus, pr5fiteor, prbfarl, prbfanns, prbficiscor, prbcella, prScul, 
pir5nep58. The older language shortens less frequently than the later. 
In Greek words pro (ftpo) is generally short : pr5pheta. 

5. The second part of the compound is sometimes shortened : ^jj^ro, 
(from Jure), cogi^tus, agnltus (from ndtns). Notice the quantity in the 
compounds of -dicus : fSXidl cus, verid ions (dico), and innilba, prOniiba 

6. Mechanical rules, more minute than those given above, might bo 
multiplied indefinitely, but they are all open to so many exceptions as to 
be of little practical value. A con-ect pronunciation of Latin cannot of 
acquired except by constant practice, under the direction of a competent 
teacher, or by a diligent study of the Latin poets, and consequently of 
Latin versification. 

Figures of Peosody. 

713. Poetry often preserves the older forms of language, aud 
perpetuates peculiarities of pronunciation, both of which are too 
frequently set down to poetic licence. 

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714. Hiatus and Elision. — Hiatns is the meeting of two 
rowels in separate syllables, which meeting produces an almost 
continnous opening (yawning) of the vocal tube. In the l)Ocly 
of a word this hiatus, or yawning, is avoided sometimes by con- 
traction, often by shortening the first vowel (13). 

In poetry, when one word ends with a vowel and another 
begins with a vowel, or h, the first vowel is elided. Elision is 
not a total omission, but rather a hurried half-pronunciation. 

a e 

feliz iin(a} aiit(e) alias PriameSa virgo.— Ybrg. 

In like manner m f nal (a faint nasal sound) is elided with its short 
vowel before a vowel or h (Ecthlipm), 
n Q e 

Moiurtr(um), horrend(um), inform(e) ingens cni himan ademptam.— 


ExcBPnoK& — After a vowel or m final, the word eat, m, drops its o 
and Joins the preceding syllable. 

Si rizas t nbi in pulsas ego Tapnlo tantum. — Juv. 
Aetemaa quoniam poenas in morte timendum 8 1. — Lucn. 

Rsv ARKS.— 1. The Hiatns Is sometimes allowed : a. In the Arsis, chieflj when the flrsl 
Towel is long; 6, in the Thesis, when a long vowel is shortened ; tf, before a period 

a. Stant et juniperl (A) et castaneae (A) hirtntaa. Vkbo. 

b, CrSdimns 1 an qui (A) amant ipsi sibi lomnia fingant 1 Vsbo 
e. Fromissam eripui genero. (A) Arma impia inmpsi. Vkbo. 

S. Monosyllabic inteijection^ are not elided. 
8. On the elision of e in -ne 1 soe 456, R. 3. 

7i6. DiastoU. — Many final syllables, which were originally 
long, are restored to their rights by the weight of the Arsis, 
^'his is called Diastole. 

Hostis est QzOr invita quae ad virom nnptom datnr. — ^Plaut. 
Z>iimmod5 morata recte veniat dotatast satis. — ^Plaut. 
Pectoribus inhiang spirantia consulit ezta.— Yero. 
Perrupit Acheronta Herculeus labor. — HoR. 

Sometimes, however, Diastole arises from the necessities of tho verse 
(as in proper names), or is owing to a pause (Punctuation). 
Nee quas Pzlamides in aquosis vallibus Idae. — Ov. 
Desine plnra puer — et quod nunc instat agamus.— Vbbo. 

RsMARXS.— 1. Scholars are not agreed on all these points. 

1 Notice especially -qnS : 

SIdenuinS ventiqne nooent avidaeque volneret. Or. 


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716. SystoU. — Long syllables which had begun to shorten in 
prose, are shortened (Systold). 

Obstupui itet^rantqae comae vox fkacibos haesit. — Ybro. 
B tenra iiuigii(um) alterlns ipeotare laborem — LucR. 
UnXns ad certam fonnam primordia rerum. — ^Lucn. 
Nullins addiotus Jnrare in verba magiatii. — ^Hor. 

Bbxauks.— 1. Many regtrd the short pennlt of the Perf. in Btotflnint dadinuit* •■ 
arlglnid (DRDBO in ineaipUonn). 

%. In earlier poetry (e. g, Plantnt), many nyllablet otherwise long by posittcn art 
bortened : So Ille« and its fonns Igt6i more rarely Ipsa. Also IndAt ttnda* and others. 

717. Hardening. — The vowels i and n assert their half-con- 
sonant nature (Hardening): &bj6t6, (&bidt6}, gfinvft (g^ntift), 
tfinvlft (tdntiift). 

FltlTjornm rex ZSridanna camposqiie per omnei. — ^Vbbg. 
Nam quae 1 8 n t i a aunt hiscendist nuUa poteitas. — LucR. 

718. Dialysis, — The consonants j and v assert their half- 
^owel nature (Di&lysis): diflsOltio (dissolvo), O&Itis (Gftjiu^ from 

Adulteretur et columba mil uc— Hon. 

719. SyncopL — Short vowels are dropped between conson- 
antSy as often in prose (Syncop6) : cal&cio for caIe£Eudo. 

Templorum poiitor templorum sancte r e p oi t o r. — Ov. 

Quiddam magnum addena unum me 8urpite(= surriuite) mortL— 


720. Tmesis, — Compound words are separated into their 
parts (Tmesis). 

Quo me ounque rapit tempestas deferor hospes. — UoR. 

REiiARK.~The earlier poets carry Tmesis mnch ftirther in nnwiae emulation of the 
Greek. Celebrated i§ :— 

8axo cere oomminuit brum. Ennius. 

721. Synizesis. — ^Vowels are connected by a slar (Synizesis), 
as often in the living language : deinde, d^oeps. 

Quid Caciam roger anne rogem ? quid dAnde rogabo?— Or. 

So even when h intervenes, as dehinc : 

Surnm ad n9 Zephymmque vooat, dehino talia £atnr. YsRa. 

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RiXABK.— Synisetfit (aeUttng tog^th&fi Is alto oiHed Synaer6f if (UMug U>gtikm*u M 
opposed to Diaereais (5) ; bot SynserwU properlj meant eomlrcuMtmy an in oOgo (for 
MigO). and nimo (ror nehemo). SjDaloepJia it a general term embracing all methoda 
of avoiding Hiatus. 

722. Peculiarities of S. — In the older poetry, final % preceded 
by a short vowel, is dropped before a consonant 

fa somnii vidit priii(8) quim Mun (= earn) diMoere o6epit. — Enioub. 
Often in Lucretius. 

RjcMABK.— In oomic poetry, a thort final tyllable in b blends with tit, and tometlmet 
wjth M : opuBt (= opuB est) ; simili't (= BimiliB es). 


723. Rhythm. — Bhythm means harmonious movement. In 
language, Rhythm is marked by the stress of voice (Accent). 
The accented part is called the Arsis; the unaccented, the 
Thesis. The Rhythmical Accent is called the Ictus {blow, beat). 

Rrmark. — Besides the dominant Ictus, there is a subordinate or second- 
ary Ictus, just as there is a dominant and a secondary Accent in words. 

724. Metre, — ^Rhythm, when represented in language, is em- 
bodied in Metre (Measure), A Metre is a system of syllables 
standing in a determined order. 

725. Unit of Measure. — The Unit of Measure is the short 
syllable: Mora, Tempu (Time), ^. 

The value in music is J^ = i. 

The long - is the double of the short 

The value in music is J = i. 

BsKAiOL— Any qnantity that cannot be meatored by the ttandard unit it called 

726. Resolution and Contraction. — In somo veraes, two short 
syllables may be used instead of a long (Resolution), or a long 
instead of two short (Contraction). 

RoBolution, ^^ # #. Contraction, J\j # J. 

727. Feet. — As elements of musical strains. Metres are called 

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As elements of yerses, Metres are called Feet. 
As musical strains are composed of equal bars, so yerses are 
oomposed of equal feet, marked as in music, thus | • 

Rbmarx. — Theoretically, the number of metres is unrestricted; prac- 
tically, only those metres are important that serve to embody the prin- 
•jipal rhythms. 

728. Names of the Feet. — The feet in use are the following : 
Febt of Turbb Times. 


— v-» 




w — 



KJ \J \^ 



Febt of Four Times. 


—' \j \j 




\j\j ^ 






J J 

Feet of Fivk Times. 


— v-» — 


J J'J 

Fkst PaedD, 

'— \^ \^ \j 



Fourth Paedn, 

\j\j\j ^ 




v-» — — 



— — v/ 



Feet of Six Times. 


— o *-r 



Idnicns S min5rl, 

\j\j^ " 












\y — W — 



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KsifABK.— Other feet are put down in Latin GrammarA, bnt thej do not oceor in 
Latin versii, if in any, radi an : 

First Epitrito, 
Second Epitrite, 
Third Epitrite, 
Foorth Epitrite* 

\j rdlSgSrllnt 

-v^ 6Ug6bSnt. 

w -. i6l6gArInt. 

^ eOU6gl8tit. 

Second FaeOn, 
Third FaeOn, 


v^ v> 10g6bSrIt. 


v/-v>w ISgintlbfts. 
v>v^-w 16glt0t6. 

729. Ascending and Descending Rhythms, — Bhythms are 
divided into ascending aud descending. If the Aiijis follows, 
the Rhythm is called ascending ; if it precedes, descending. So 
the Tix)chee has a descending, the Iambus an ascending, rhythm. 

Ascending rhythms may become descending by Anacrusis. 

When the Thesis precedes the Arsis, it is cut off and called 
an Anacrusis {upward stroke, signal-heat). So the Iambus is re- 
garded as an Anacrustic Ti*ochee, the Anapaest as an Anacrus- 
tic Dactyl, the lonicus a miuoiT as an Anacrustic lonicus a 
majorL The sign of the Anacrusis is: . 

730. Names of Rhythms,^^\\yi\imH are commonly called 
after their principal metrical representative. So the Trochaic 
Rhythm, the Anapaestic Rhythm, the Iambic Rhythm, the 
Dactylic Rhythm, the Ionic Rhythm. 

731. Classes of Rhythms. — In Latin, the musical element of 
versification is subordinate, and the principles of Greek rhythm 
have but a limited application. 

The Greek classes are based on the relation of Arsis to Thesis. 

I. Equal Class^ in wliich the Arsis is equal to the Thesis {yiyoi idor). 
This may be called the Dactylico- Anapaestic class. 

II. Unequal Class, in which tlie Arsis is double of the Thesis {yevoi 

This may be called the Trochaico-Iambic class. 

III. Quinquepartite or Paeonian Class {Five-eighths dass\ of which the 
Cretic and Bacchlus arc the chief representatives {yivoi ^ptioXior). 

732. Rhythmical Series. — A Rhythmical Series is an unin- 
teiTupted succession of rhythmical feet, and takes its name from 
the number of feet that compose it. 

Monopody = one foot 
Dipody = two feet. 
Tripody = three feet 

Tetrapody = four feet. 
Pentapody = five feet 
Hexapody = six feet 

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Bbsabki^— 1. Th« DIpody it the ordinarj unit of measiire (-meter) in Trocbaic, Iam- 
bic, end Anapaestic verae. In tbeae rtiTtiiint a monometer contains two feet, a dimeter 
Ibor, a trimeter six, a tetrameter eight 

tf. There are limits to the extension of scries. 

In Latin, four feet is the limit of the Dactylic, six of the Trochaic and Iambic aeries. 
All beyond these are componnda. 

733. Equality of the Feet.—l&Yeij rhythmical series is com- 
posed of equal parts. To restore this equality, when it is vio- 
lated by language, there are four methods : 

1. Syllaba Anceps. 

2. Catalexis. 
8. Protraction. 
4 Correption. 

734. Syllaba Anceps. — ^The final syllable of a series or verae 
may be short or long indifPerently. It may be short when the 
metre demands a long; long when the metre demands a short 
Such a syllable is called a Syllaba Anceps. 

735. Catalexis and Pause.— A complete series is called Aca- 
talectic ; an incomplete series is called Gatalectic. A series or 
verse is said to be Catalectic in syllabam^ in dusyllahum, in 
trisyllahum, according to the number of syllables in the cata- 
lectic foot 

M\j\j \ jL\j\j \ M Trimeter dactylictu eatalietietu in MyUabani, 
m\jkj\jl\j\j\m\j Trimeter daciyUeus eataiicUetu in disigUdbunu 

The time is made up by Pause. 

The omission of one mora is marked 


'* " two morae •• 


736. Protraction and Syncopi. — Protraction {rovtJD consists 
in drawing out a long syllable beyond its normal quantity. It 
occurs in the body of a verse, and serves to make up for the 
omission of one or more theses, which omission is called Syn- 

737. Correption. — Correption is the shortening of a syllable 
to suit the measure. 

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80 fli =: two short syllables with the ralne of one. 
80 the ordinary (heavy) dactyl is — w w = 4 J Jj 

The light (irrational) dactyl is -v/w = 3 (li+i+1) j,;J J 

Rbxabk.— Under this head, notice the ft^qnent nee of the Irrational long in Trochaic 
and Iambic yerscs, and in Auacrosis. Tlie irrational long i« marked > , 

The foUowmg line illustrates all the points mentioned : 

a be b e b a 4 

-> I -v/w I u. I ^x^ |l-| -v/w I -w I -^. 

Nnllam | Vare aa- 1 ora | vite pri- 1 ns | sererit | arbo | -rem. HoR. 

a. Irrational trochee, b. Light dactyl, e, Syncop^ and Protraction, d. Syllaha 
ancepa. e, Cataiexis. 

738. Verse, — A Simple Rhythm is one that consists of a 
simple series. 

A Compound Bhythm is one that consists of two or more 

A Verse is a simple or compound rhythmical series, which 
forms a distinct and separate unit. The end of a verse is 
marked — 

1. By closing with a full word. Two verses cannot divide a word be* 
tween them. 

2. By the SyUaba Aneeps^ which can stand unconditionally. 

8. By the Hiatus, ». «., the verse may end with a vowel, though the next 
verse l)cgin with one. 

Bbxabk.— Occasionalljr, one verse Is mn into another by EUsfon. This is called 
SyaaphSa (6vvd<peia), It is a violation of the ftmdamental Uw,and ia not to be imi- 
tated. Vkro. Aen. L, 832-8, 448-9 ; iL, 746^ 

739. Methods of Comhining Verses.^— ThQ same verse may be 
repeated throughout without recurring groups. So the Heroic 
Hexameter, the Iambic Trimeter (Linear Composition). Or the 
same verse or different verses maybe groui)ed in pairs (distich s), 
triplets (tristichs), fours (tetrastichs). Beyond these simple 
stanzas Latin versification seldom ventured. 

Larger groups of series are called Systems. 
Larger groups of verses are called Strophes, a name some- 
times attached to the Horatian stanzas. 

740. Union of Language with Rhythm. — When embodied in 
language, rhythm has to deal with rhythmical groups already 

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U,. coiMideoM .»a •»""."' ° „r ,hicb would »,»«<■ f" " t 

^„,|.g to modern pr.»» r.rW«*-T»^^„ „e.m 

742. Conflict of Yvoraj^ Caesura. ^*^** . , n,^ ^f a 

jSoot aii r-foo' g;ves -^^^^^ in the nuddle of 
wmoiBion produced by the ena 

veriO-foot, and is marked t- j^ for a more 

vigorou. effort, partly top ,.^ai.»»4««°' 

«»««. U ia oallod • Mascuim 

^^^^^...^c— -•-•' ^ord-foot coined^ 
..^^. . ... .....vk.^l thus: !- 

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745. Recitation. — ^When the word-foot runs over into the 
next yei'se-footy a more energetic recitation is required, in order 
to })reserye the sense^ and hence the multiplication of Caesurae 
lends rigor to the verse. 

SnuLBX.— The ordinirj mode of scanniog, or singing: ont the elements of a 
witiiont reference to dgniflcatioB, cannot be too strongly condemned, as, 
XFnasa, luivio, tinml* lamspe, rareia, luteml 

Trochaic Ehythms. 

746. The Trochaic Rhythm is a descending rhythm, in which 
the arsis is double of the thesis. It is represented — 

By the Trochee : je. v/; 

By the Tribrach : 4,\j\j\ and, at the eud of a series. 

By the Spondee : je. -, or rather the irrational Trochee, - >. 

Kexarks.— 1. Anapaests are rare. Dactyls are need only in proper names. Both arc 
of conrse irrational. In the earlier poets, however, the treatment of the Trochaic yerse 
is very free. 

2. Trochaic-meters, heing compounded of dipodles (ditrochael), have f instead of } 
tirae (798). The second trochee of each dipody (-meter) may he irrational on the principle 
of syllaba ancepa. Hence the rale : 

747. Trochaic-meters admit the snbstitntion of a long for 
the short of the even places. 

1. Trochaic Tripody (IthyphaUic). 

B&saren biconxis. — Atil. Fort. .£. w | — w | — w 

2. Trochaic Tetrapody {Cataieciic). 

Aula divitem manet. — Hob. jt«-»|— v/|— v-»|-^ 

8. Trochaic Dimeter, a. Aeaialectie ; b. Catalectic 
a, ViVe laetm quiaqne vivis. je.v/|— >|.£.v/|— ' 

5. Vitaparvom m^ns est. — Anthol. Lat. jt«-»|— >|x.vy|— a 
4. Trochaic Dimeter with Anacrusis {Alcaic), 

8i fr^ctos illab&tur orbis.— Hon. ^:^v/|->|ji.w|-C 

748. 6. Trochaic Tetrameter Aeaialectie (OctSnarins). 

Parce jam camoena vati parce jam ■aor6 fdrori — Sbbyius. 

Remark.— This verse and the following are compounds. The OctOnSriui is com* 
ponnded of two Dimeters acatalectic ; hence regular Diaeresis after the Dimeter ; freely 
handled in comedy ; Hiatns in the Diaeresis ; Monotonoas, on account of the division 
into two eqnal parts. It occurs occasionally in Plantns and Terence. 

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?erba dum tint, yerum li ad rtm I ooaftreiitw, TapmlaUt Tn. 
Sine modo et modeitia inm I line bono jnro atqne honoro. Plaut. 
Petulant prOterro iracnndo I animo indomito ineogitato. Plaut. 

749. 6. Trochaic Tetrameter Catalectic (Septon&riiu). 

Oral amet qui mmquam amavit | quique amavit oraa amet PsRTie. 

Tu me auoxis magi* qnam honoris | ■ervavisti gratia. Ennius. 
Vapulare ^o te vehementer | jnbeo : ne me tarritei. PlAUT. 

RBNARK.~The Trochaic Tetrameter (so called by eminence) is of frequent occarrenco 
ii. comic poetry. It is compoanded of Dimeter •¥ Dimeter Catalectic. Hiatus is oftMi 
found at the break. 

Manibn* purit eapito oporto I ibi eontinno eontonat. Plaut. 

Iambic Rhythms. 

750. The Iambic Rhythm is an ascending rhythm, in whieli 
tlie arsis is double of the thesis. It is represented 

By the Iambus : w x.; 

By tlie Tribrach x \jsif\j\ 

By tlie Spondee : - x. (in -meters) ; 

By the Dactyl i — 4^\j (sometimes) ; and 

By the Anapaest: v/ w je.. 

RBiiAHK.~Of course, Spondee, DactyU and Anapaest, are all irrational. The Spondoi 
s . > , the Anapaest, = \^ w > * ^nd the Dactyl, = -w w. 

751. Iambic -meters admit substitution of a long for the 

short of the odd feet 

Rbnarr.— Begarding the Iambus as an Anaemstic Trochee, the same rale and reaeoa 
hold for the substitution in the one, as in the other (746, B. 1^ 

752. 7. Iambic Dimeter. 

Usual Scfume, Anacrwtie Scheme, 

Inanit aestaosios \j m\j ^sj ^\j ^ \j :je.v/| — wi^wi^^ 

Imbres nivesqne com* 

Videre properantes 

domom ^ x.\^^\j ^jl\j^ > : ^w|ww>|x\/|« a 

Ast ego vicissim li- 

saro. Hob. — %£r<^\^ > : ^v/v/L>|^ wi.. * 

BniABK.— According to the Anaemstic Scheme, the Iambic Dimeter Acitelectoi Js a 
Trochaic Dimeter Catalectic with Anacrusis. 

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753. 8. Iambic IHmeier CataUctxe. 

Mea renidet in domo lacunar sjM\j^\^ji\j^\jM\j 

Regnmqoe pneris neo aatelles OroL Hob. .^www.xw.w^vf 

Anacrustic Scheme: ^:-w|->|-w|-vy|i— |«y^ (with SyHi 

764. 9. Iambic Trimeter Acatakctic (Sfinftriiis). 

Snifl et ipaa f Roma vizibos mit w-£.cw-£.w-wxw. 

Ben me per urbem t nam podet tanti 

mali .» JL v/ i— _ jc v^ «. .. ^ w. 

Deripere lunamf vodbos possim meia .s2rwv/ u.\j ^w. 

InfamJB Helenae t Oaitor o£fenana 

vioen ~je.v/v/w — ^i^w — ^•^w* 

Optat qnietem f Pelopis infidi pater ^^sj ^ww -£.w — 

Alitibua atque f oanibos homicidam 

Hectorem .^v/w^w^wwv^vy — -e-w — 

Veotabor humezis \ tone ego inimicia 

eqnes — x.v/vyw.^v/v/w — ^w — 

Pavidumqoe leporem et f advenam 

laqueo gmem. Hob. \j\jm \j\j yj\ju.\^^\j%jM\j^ 

• Anacrotic Scheme : w:— w|_^|-v/|-'^|-.v/|— /^ 

Hbvabks.— 1. The Tamble Trimeter when kept pnre has i rapid aggressive movement 
Hence, it is thns used in lampoons and invectives. It admits the Spondee in the odd 
places (first, third, fifth foot) ; the Tribrach in any but the last ; the Dactyl in the first 
and third. The Anapaest Is rare. When carefully handled, the closing part of the verse 
is kept light, so as to preserve the character. Special stndy Is necessary to understand 
the tieatment of the comic Trimeter. 

S. Caesarae.— The principal caesura is the PentbemimenU, which flUls on the middle 
of the third foot {itBy^TjutUBprfi = 2^) <^"d is rarely wanting. Less important ts the 
Hepthemimeral {JBtp^tfiLitpie.piii = 8^)* which falls on the aiiddle of the fourth foot. 

Levis crepante t lympha t de lilit pede. Hob. 

Of coarse In the Anacrustic Scheme the Caesura of the ordinary scheme becomes 

Le : vii ere I pante I lympha I desi I lit pe I de. 

8. A break (Diaeresis) at the middle of tlie verce is avoided. Short particles, ^hich 
adhere closely to the foUowinsr word, do not constitnte exceptions. 

Laborioga neooohori XFlixei. Hon. 

Adnltoretiir eteolnmba milao. Hob. 

In Uke manner explain— 

Refartqne tanta grexjimieiu nbera Hoa. 

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76& 10. Trimeter lambieus Claudua (Choliaminu) ; Scaam 
(= Hohhler) HippOnactoiu. 

BSUier Oatulle desinas ineptire. Cat. \j jl^^\jm\^ ^sjaj:,^^ 

FuUere quondam candidi tibi soles. Cat. ^m\j je.v/-wx.xw 

Dominis parantur ista; serviunt vobis. 

Mart. w«u» je. w — wje.\^_w^x. w 

Rbmarx8.~1. In the CholUmbn? the rhythm it reTened it the cloee, by frattiiic * 
trochee or spondee in the sixth foot. The lighter the first pirt of the yeraet, the 
greater the surprise. It is intended to express comic anger, resentment, disappoint* 

S. The Anacmstic measurement is as follows : 

:— «-»|— ^1— v/|-.w|i— |.-vy. Trochaic Trimeter with Anacmls 
8yncop6 and Protraction. 

766. 11. Iambic Tetrameter Acatalectic (OctOnftriiu). 

Hio finis est iambe salve f vindicis doctor mail. Seryixjs. 
Te cnm secnri caudicali f praeficio provinciae. Plaut. 

Rbm ABic^This Terse occurs frequently in the comic poets, and is to be regarded as a 
eompound. It either divides Itself into equal parts at the end of the first Dimeter (witk 
Hiatus and Syllaba Anceps) or has a Caesura in the first Thesis of the third Dimeter. 

1. Troja, pstria, Pergamnm, I Priame, periisti senez. Plaut. 

Is porro me antem verberSt I inenrsat pugnis calcibus. Plact. ^ 

9. Facile omnes qunm yalemus recta I eonsilia aegrotis damus. Teb. 

757. 12. Iambic Tetrameter Catalectic (Septenftrins.) 

Remitte pallium mihi | meum quod involasti. Cat. 

Remarks.~1. This verse is to be regarded as a compound of Dimeter -f Dimeter Ca* 
taectic : hence, re^lar Diaeresis after the first Dimeter : 
With Syllaba Anceps : 

Si abdnxeris celabltnr I itidem nt eelata adhao est Plaut. 
With Hiatus : 

Bed si tibi viginti minae I argenti profenmtnr. Plaitt. 
t. It may be measured anacmstically : 

Dactylic Ehythms. 

768. The Dactylic Ehythm is a descending rhythm, in which 
the Arsis is equal to the Thesis (2 = 2). 
The Dactylic Rhythm is represented by the Dactyl : ^ w w. 
Often, also, by the Spondee : -^ — 

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▼BBSiFicinoN. 857 

A Dactylic yerse of one Dactyl is called a Monometcr; of two, 
ft Dimeter ; of thre*?, a Trimeter; of four, a Tetrameter ; of five^ 
ft Pentameter ; of six. an Hexameter. 

769. 13. Dactylic Dimeter {Adonic). 

Termit urbem. Hob. ^\j\jju)i 

RiMABK.—Thoogh genenlly measured tbas, thif ^trw6 to property logioed l c, and wll 
recur under that head. 

760. 14. Dictylic Trimeter Catalectic in Syllabam. 
Pnlvis et ambra snmiift. Hob. ^sjsj\jm 

15. Dactylic Tetrameter Catalectic in Disayllabum. 

Aut ZIpheson bimazisve Ooxinthi M\j\\jjLsj^jUyj 

O fortes pcjoraque passi jc^.jlwv^xG 

Mensorem oohibent Archyta. Hob. jcjiwv/x.x3 

16. Dactylic Tetrameter Acatalectic (Akmamue), 

Nnno deoet waX viridi nitidum caput u.\j\jju\j\ju.\jsjjl>^ w 

Pallida mors aequo pulsat pede msj\j jl^j,^u.\j\j 

Vitae summa brevis spem nos vetat jc^wwx..£.wv/ 
Occurs only in combination. 

Heroic Hexameter. 

761. 17. S.UI, I mCZ I x3"v. I iww I M^^l I -c- 


t Vt ftigiiuit aquilas t timiditiima I turba eolumbae. Or. 
1 At tuba tcorribili t sonitu t procnl I aere eanoro. Vaao. 

8. Qnadrupedante patrem t sonita I qaatit I nngnla eampnm. 


4 Cam medio eeleres t revolant I ezaeqnore mergi. Ykro. \ 

9. Yastias ininrgens t deoimae I mit tlmpetas nndae. Ov. > Four Dactyla 

6. £t reboat raaoam t reglo t cita I barbara I bombnm. Luor. ) 

7. Kata meta terram t genibus t sammisia petebat Luor. \ 

(L Inter eanetantei t eeeidit t moribanda minlstroi. '^ns. >• Three Dac^l?. 
•. Ve tnrbata Yolent t rapidis t ladibrla yentls. Yeiw. ) 

10. Yenaqae in obnixos t argentar I comaa vasto. Yero. ) -^ DactTia. 
U. Proeetsit longe t flammantia I moenia mandi. Lucb. ) ^ ** 

IS. Portam vi malta t conyerso I oardiae torqaet Y«rg. ) ^ DactyL 

lA Toetam aagastam ingent t eentam sublime ooltmmis. Yxbo. \ ^ 

lA OUi respondit t Bex Albal Longal. Ehniub. ].No pactyl 

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Uh Ami leres oertM t lento t dueimt argento. Ybbo. « 

IC Sunt apnd Infernoi t totmllia formoiarTim. Prop. i spondaic Vcnes. 

*7. Airiaeqae Alpai t etnobifer I Appenninus. Ot. ) 

lA Proeubuit Tiridi- 1 que injitore I oonipiottor— lus. Yum. > MonoqrllAbie 
It PannriuntmontMtnaicetarlridieidiu-miii. Hob. | eading. 

10 •»- Oslo 8 )PeDth0m.and 

M. Xoeo laporoilio t oliyoii I tramitii nndam. Ybbo. ^ BdooHc 

tt iBsigntrnptetatotTimmttotadirolaboroo. Ykm. [MlH^i"^ 

9L £t nigrao violao t gunt I et yaeeinia I nigra. Ybbo. { Split in half. 

H Oparf if I battia I longis I campm I splendet et borrot. Bn. i Shirered. 

04. Qnamyis sint sub aqua inb aqua maledioere tentant. Or. -{a - sound. 

tL He me adsxun qni feci in me oonyertite fermm. Yaao. <{ e - noand. 

10. IHoeiasoi nndoi laniabant dentibus artuo. Ykbg. i s • roand. 

Rbxarks.— 1. Tbe Heroic Hexameter is composed of two dactylic trfpodiea, the 
■econd of which ends in a spondee. Spondees may be snbstltnted for the dnctyl in the 
irst fonr feet ; in the fifth foot, only when a special effect is to be produced. Such verf>ei 
are called Spondaic The longest hexameter contains five dactyls and one spondee (or 
trochee)— in alU seventeen syllubles ; the shortest in use, five spondees and one dactyl— 
In all, thirteen syllables. This variety in the len^h of the verse, combined with the 
great number of caesural pauses, gives the Hexameter pecuhar advantages for continuous 

S. The two reigutng Ictuses are the first and fourth, and the pauses are so arrangfed as 
to give speci-il prominence to them— the fln»t by the pause at the end of tbe preceding 
Terse, the fourth by pause:* within the verc^c, both before and after the arsis. 

S. The principal Caesura in Latin poetry is the PerUhemimerol (Sji)* ^ ^m in the arsis 
of the third foot, or masculine caesura uf the third foot. The next is the feminine cae- 
anra of the third foot, the so-called Third TVochee^ which is less used among the Romans 
than among the Greeks ; then the Hephthemimeral (8X) in the arsis of the fonrih foot 
As Latin poetry is largely rhetorical, aud the caesura is of more importance for recitatioi 
than foi singing, the Roman poets are very exact in the observance oi these pauses. 

4. The Diaeresis which is most carefully avoided is the one after the third foot, 
especially if that foot ends in a spondee (2«), and the verse is thereby split in half. 

Examples are found occasionally, and if the regular caesura precedes, the verse Is not 
positively faulty. 

Hit lacrinds vitam t damns I — et miseresclmna nltro. Ysito. 

It is abi>miiiable when no other caesura proper is combined with it. 

Poeni I perrortentes 1 omnia I circnmennant. Ennivs. 

On the other hand, the Bnculic tetrnpody, or pause at the end of the fourth fbot di- 
vides the verse into proportionate parts (16 and 8 mortMe or S to 1), and gives a gracelbl 
trochaic movement to the hexameter. Tt is often sought after. 

Ite domnm satnrae I yenit Heipema I Ite oapeUae. Ysm. 

ft. Much of the beaut^of the Hexameter depends on the selection and ai ia nge m eat 

• of the words considered as metrical elements. The examples given above have bevn 

chosen with especial reference to the picturesque effect of the verse. Monosyllables at 

the end of the Hexameter denote surprise ; anapaestic words, rapid movement, and tbs 


Again, the Hexameter maybe lowered to a conversational tone by large masses of 
apoodees, and free handling of the caesora. Compare the Hexameters of Horace in the 
Odea with those in the SaUrea. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 

Jf. SJ \J JL. \^ S^ J, 



782. 18. Elegiac Pentameter {Oatalectic Trimeter repeated). 

£i dolor fn lacrimiui | v^rterat ^mne 

merCim. Tib. ^v/wxv/w- 

M< legal 6t leot6 | canniiie d6ctiii 

amSt. Ov. u.\j\ju.^ju 

At nuno bSrbaxi^i | griTndU habere 

nihil. Ov. M^jLsayjjL 

O^ncesstlm waMi, | llge redibit iter. 

Prop. jl^jl^m 

The Elegiac Pentameter occurs on!y as a clausula to the Heroic Hex- 
ftOMSter, with which it forms the Elegiac Distich. 
8aepe ego tentavi curas depellere vino 

At dolor in lacrimas | verterat onine menun. Tib. 
Ingenium quondam fiierat pretiosioa auro 

At nuno barbaries | grandis habere nihiL Or. 
Par erat inferior versus : risisse Oupido 

Dicitur atqne unum | surripuisse padem. Ov. 
8aepe ego cum dominae dulces a limine dnro 
Agnosoo voces | haeo negat esse domL Tib. 

Rb«ark8.~1. The Elegiac Pentameter con8i«ts of two Catalectle Trimeters or Pun- 
tliemiacrs, the first of which admits spondees, the second does not Tliere is a filed 
Diaeresis in the middle of the veri>e, as martced al>ove. The Pentameter derives its name 

from the old measurement: „ ^ ^^^ \j w, ,w vy — , w v-^ — ; and the name is a 

eonvenient one. because the verse cousiists of 2)4 -f %}i Dactyls. The Eieglac Distich is 
Bted in sentimental, am.itory, epigrammatic poetry. 

1 The musical measurement of the Pentameter is as follows : 

This shows why neither Syllsba Anceps nor Iliatns is allowed at the Diaeresis, and 

esplains the preference for length by nature at that point. 

8b As the Latin language is heavier thun the Oruelc, the Roman lightens the close of 

the Pentameter as much as possible. The Ovidian Distich of the best period sbowi 

p«ftt mechanical exactness. Almost every pentameter ends in a dissyllable, and elision 

Is avoided. 

Anapaestic Khythms. 

763. The Anapaestic Rhythm is an ascending rhythm, in 
which the arsis is to the thesis as 2 to 2. It is represented — 

By the Anapaest : v/ ^ ^ ; or 

By the Spondee : - ^ ; or 

By the Dactyl : ^^^. 

The Anapaestic -meter consists of two feet. The measure it 
little nsed among the Bomans. 

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19. Dimeter CaUilieticus (Paroemiacus). 

Volucer pede corpore pfiloher vyvyx.ww-%/wx%ir 

lingui catus ore canoms .^w\^.s/w<«>w 

Verum memorare magis quam ^ x.\j k^^^js^''-^ 

Funotfim laudare deceMt. AusON. — ^ ^y^u.\u 

20. Dimeter Aeatalietus. 

Venient annis | saacnla teris wwx. ^v/.~ 

Quibus 6ceanu8 | vino^a rerom \j\j ^^^ y£,\j^^ 

Iiaxet et ingens | pateat tellns ^ytf\j v/wx.« 

Tethysque novos | detegat orbes ^jl\j\j ^v/~ — 

Neo ut terriB | nltima Thule. Sbn. Trao. .^ ytf\^ 

Syllaba Anceps is rare. 

Bbmarks.— Latin anapaests, as fonnd in later writers, are mere metrical imitations off 
the Greek anapaests, and do not correspond to their original in oontenta. The Gre^ 
anapaest was an anacmstic dactylic measore or march (in J time). Hence the use ol 
Panse to bring oat the foar bars. 

Paroemiacns: Anaerwtic Scheme, 

Voluoer pede eorporo pnlolier k/\j:^^\j | ^sj\j \ |- 


Dimeter Acataleetns : Anaerustk Scheme. 

Qnibns Ooeanus Tineiila remm v/w:~v/v/ | | v/v^. j — 

The Theses or the last feet are supplied by the Anacmsis of tlie following vene. 


764. The Logaoedic Rhythm is a pecaliar form of the tro- 
chaic rhythm in which the thesis has a stronger secondary ictua 
than the ordinary trochee. 

Instead of the trochee, the light dactyl may be employed. 
This light or cyclical dactyl is represented in morae by 1^,1^, 1; 

in music, by J.'J J = A, ^^y, i. 

When dactyls are employed, the trochee preceding is called a 
Basis, or tread. This trochee may be irrational -> (so-called 
spondee). If the basis is double, the second is almost always 
irrational in Latin poetry. The basis is commonly marked X 
Instead of the trochee, an iambus is sometimes prefixed. Ana- 
crusis and Syncope are also found. 

Remarks.— 1. Logaoedic comes from A.o^o5, prostf, and a 01^7, tong^ becaTise the 
rhythms seem to vary as In prose. 

f . Dactyls are not necessarily employed. No. 4 (Alcaic ennea^Uabte) Is logaoedic 

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YSBSlFlOATlOir. 861 

Okk Dactyl. 

th Adonic (SeeNo.lS.) xwv/-w 

Tferoit urbttBL Hob. -vw | -w | 

22. AriiiopJutnio (CfhoriaiMe). a w w -. w « w» 

Lydia dib p«r omiiM. Hos. -vw | -. w 1 1— | --^ 

766. OiiTB Dactyl, with Basis. 

2S. Pherecratian. 

Nigris a^nora v6itii. Hob. -> | -^^ 1 1- 1 -^ 

24. Olj^eanie, 
£mirabitiir ^lioliBi. Hob. -> | -v^w | -w | — y^ 

25. Pfta2^i0e&in {BendeeasyUabie). 
Paster m6rtni]8 ^st meae pnellaa. 
▲rid£ mode pumice ezpohtam 
Tuae Iiesbia lint latis Bnperqne. Gat. — > ) • ■ 

RBaABK.~Tiie sparioas Phalaeccan admlU the Spondee — > in plioe of tke 4ae||l 
Qaat Tidi Tulta tamon itrena. Cat. 

766. One Dactyl, with Double Basis. 

26. Sappkie {ffendecasylkUne). Iv/.'L^fww.w-.v/ 
Andi«t Gives f acnisse fenmiiL Hob. -cf| .> | — to9| -.w| .w 
Bdubx.— The Greek measaro (Catuxxus) It .v^ | .> | -vw | ..v/ | .. # 

767. One Dactyl with Double Basis akd Akacbusi& 

27. Alcaic (OreaUr) BmdeeasyUdbic, C»ilv/-''-|^^v/. w. 
VidteiitalU|8tetniveclaididiun ^:.vy | .> | -vw | .w | . A 
Sorlote n^ Jam | sfistin^nt ontis. Hob. 

BsxABS.— The second iMiele alwiys a spondee in Horsosu 

768. Two Dactyls. 

ftS, Alcaic( Lesser) or DectuyUabie, a wv/^ »>%/•%/ — ^ 

V^rtere fdaeribas liiumphos. Hon. -vw | .* w I . w | ~ %# 


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In all these, the Dactyl has a diminished value. Moie questionable if 
the l<^gaoedic character of the Qreater Archilochian. 

769. 29. ArcliilocMan (Greater) = Dactyl. Tetr. and Troch. 
Tripody. _ _ 

Solvitor acris hiems grata vice | v«rit at Favoni Hob. 

RcxABK.~If meaetored logaoedically, the two shorts of the dactyl mast be reduced tB 
raloe to one (oo = \^), and the logaoedlc scheme Is 

Logaoedic tctrapody -i- Logaoedlc tetrapody with Syncop^. 

770. Clioriamhic Rhythms, — ^When a logaoedic series iw syn- 
copated, apparent choriambi arise. What is I -^^^ I ^ I seems 
to be - ^^ v> _. Genuine choriambi do not exist in Latin. 

30. Asd^piadian (Lesser), -^- -cww-jl^v^-w — 
Maecenas atavis | edite 

regibus. Hob. ->|-wv^|i— |-wx^|-wI- 

81. Asd^naddaniOreater), -*- j:.x^w_^v>vy-jE.ww-w — 
Nullam Vare sacra | vite 

prius I severis arbo- 

rem.HoR. -> | ->.v^ | u. | ->.v^ | u-|-vv/ | - w | ^^ 

82. Sapphic ( OrecUer). -^^ -*- jc^x^--c\-rv/ — v/ — 3 
Te decs ore Sybarin | cur 

properas amando. 

HOR. -v^ I -> I '^*^^ \ t— | -ww | _w | k» ) -^ 

88. Pridpian {Olyconic + 

Pheretfatian), — *— je.\^w — v^-. | Ljlww.w 

Hone lucom tibl dedico | 
oonsecroque Pziape. 
Cat. -> I -vsy I -. w I u. I _> I -vv I u. I . ^ 

Cbetic and Bacchic Ehythms. 

771. These passionate rhythms are found occasionally in the 
comic poets. They both belong to the Quinquepartite or Five- 
Eighths class. 

1. The distribution of the Creticus is 3 + 2 morac. 

'rhe metrical value of the Creticus i8 ~ v.^ . ( AmphimacerX 

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Seocmd long resolved ^\j\/\j Paeon Primus. 
FInt long resolred w w v/ . Paeon Quartos. 

84. Tetrameter OaiaUeiictu. jc wxx v/xx wxx. 
Da iiii(hi) hoc mel meum ii me ama« saadM. PuLUT. 

85. Tetrameter Aeatalietue, x v/^^w^ a w-«-x va 
Ex bonis pessnmi «t fraudtilentlMiiiiii. Pla^itt. 

2. The BacchTus has the following measnro twx.l-|-2-l-2 morae 
( ^J J ), or if the descendhig form — v/ be regarded as the normal one 
8 + 2 + 1 morae (J J ^). 

86. Baeoliic Tetrameter. 

QuibasneolooiistQlln* nee spas parata v/a.v^x.v/x-.v^xG 
mserloMrdior nulla meat f eminamm w yftj .v/x..v/jcv^x3 

loKio Bhythm. 

772. The louio lUiythm is represented by lonicus & m9j5rl 

^~^jyj J J J/ Fof ^^6 lonicus & major! maybe substituted 
the Ditrochaeus -v/.w. This is called An&clasis (breaking' 

The verse is commonly anacrustic, so that it begins Trith tiie 
thesis ^^ i — . Such verses are called lonici & minOrL 

The second long has a strong secondary ictus. 

773. 37. An Ionic System is found in Hobaoe, Od. iiL 13. 
It consists of two periods, the first being made up of two di- 
podiesy the second of two tripodies. 

lonieua A mindri teheme : 

BUseramm est neqne amori \j \j m ^ \j \j jl ^l 

dare Indnm neqne dnld wv/x.v/w^.| 

mala vino lavere ant ezanimari wv/a.v/wx.v^v^x«.| 

metoentes patmae verbera lingnae wv/x..ww-fc.wwx.| 

Bnictis H mi^drf scheme : 


I. i 




u. ; 


Digitized by LjOOQ IC 

864 YXRsiriOATioir. 

Rbmabks.— The Roman nMMmto refer t9 periodi, Vu Anbte to ibe number of 
feet or bare, the dou indicate the end of a line. 

ThelOnicos ie an excited measnre, and aerrei to express the frenxj of distress as 
well as the madness of trtamph. 

774. 38. Tetrameter Catalecttc. 

The Galliambic Terse (Tetrameter Catalectic) is found in a fomoui 
poem by Catxtllus (Ixiii). 

OreKaoiy ScJmM : 

Without Anaclasis : ww^-.wv/.£..v/w^«.v/v-<> 

With Anaclasis : w^ v/-tv/-fc«v/wxw^ wx. 

AnaaruiUe Sehetne : 

Without Anaclasis: vyw:-.-.vw | ^^\yjsj | ...wv |i^^| 


With Anaclasis: v/w:— | ^.fw^ | ^sj^sj | i-J— | 


The Anaclastic form is the more common. The Anaemsis may be contracted (I times 

The frequent resolutions and conversions give this yerse a pecoUafty wild chaiaetst. 

HI •arum omnia adirem foibtmda 

latibula v/wx.v/wa.-v^w^v/vrwwwi 

Quo BOB dooot oitalU oelarara tii- 

pndiia ^x wxw^.w v/^v/ J\/v/x 

Baque ut domnm Oyboboa telig«re 

lasiulae v/v/-c>v/xv^x.ww.£.w^wx 

8np«r alU veotns Attis oeleri rate 

Jam Jam dole! quod ^ Jam Jam- 

que paenitet ^u.\^u.\jm^^x.sjms^^ 

775. Verses Compounded of Iambi Am) Daottls. 

89. 1. lambdegus. lanUfk IXmeier and IkKtjfUo FBrUh9mimeri$, 
Tn Tina Torquato more | oonsnle 

preasa meo. Hob. 3 x vr . 3 ^ v/ ^|^ w w x 

Or as two verses : 

'* : -w i - ^ I -w I - ^ I 
\j * \j * A 

-^ ^ I -.^%/ I --I 

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▼SfiSIFlCATIOV. 305 


40. 2. Elegiambui {Daeti^ FnUkemimtH$ and lawkU Dimeter. 
Doitnet imiiaribiis | o«rt«r« tiibmo- 

tuspador. Hob. xwwxwwf |3xw. Z^y^± 




Saturnian Vbrsb. 

777. The Satnmian verse is an old Italian rhythm which 
oocnrs in the earlier monnments of Latin literature. It divides 
itself into two parts, with three Arses in each :— 

The qtiein vxu in her pdrlar^ 
Edting bread and Mney. 

Bab^t malott M«Ul]l Na^vio po^« 
Itorum triumpiiui In urbom Ri^matn ridiit 
Boello magni dirimindo regibus sabigondii. 

778. Ltbio Metres of Uobace. 

L AflclCpiadSan Strophe No. 1. Lesser AsclSpiadSaa Verae (Ko. 901 
vepeatcd in tetrastichs. 

^~. X. \^ sj ^\m \j \j ^ \j ^ 

Orthus: -> | -w^ | u. | -v/w | « w | .. | | 

.>|^w|t-|-vv^| -^1 -^1 


II. Asclepiadean Strophe No. 2. GlycOaeus (No. 24) and Lesser 
Aadepiadean (No. 30) alternating^, and so forming tetrastichs. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 

Or thus: 


_>|^vl — 1-^1 


Ic Od. I 3, 13, 19, 86 ; iU »,15, 19, 24, 25. 28 ; h. 1. & 

UL Ascleriiadean Strophe No. 3. Three Lesser Asciepiadean Yeraeii 
Mowed by a Qlyconic (Nos. 80 and 34). 

.|^wl-v.|_. i 

«?*_ .c w w .|jC v/ w . %,/. .> I -uw 

-v/ - 


In Od. L 6, 15, 24, 33; SL 12; iii. 10. 10; iv. 

IV. Asciepiadean Strophe No. 4. Two Lesser Asciepiadean Versef 
(No. 30), a Pberecratean (No. 23), and a Glyconic (No. 24). 

«.*_ M\J\U ^\JL \J\J ^ \J ^ I, «> |-«^>^ |l |-WV/ I — w I — »| I*^ 

..\, X v/ ^ — W 

• — »-aI 

II. _>|^w|._|-^| 


lu Od. i. 5, 14, 21, 23 ; ui. 7, 13 ; iv. 313. 

y. Asciepiadean Strophe No. 6. Greater Asciepiadean (No. 81), ra 
peated in fours. 



_> |-vw |u. 

InOd.i.ll, 18- It. 10. 




,w -l-uw I -.w I .i.^1 

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VL Sapphic Strophe. Throe Lesser Sapphics (No. 20), and an Adonic 
(Ko. 21), which is merely a clansola. In No. 26 Horace regaUily breaki 
the Dactyl. 

IwJL-xtv/w-w.w -w I -> I -t** I -v/ I -v/| ' 

In Od. i. 2, 10, 12, 20, 22, 25, 80, 82, 88 ; ii. 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 16 ; iU. 8» 11, 
14, 18, 20, 22, 27; iv. 2. 6, 11 ; Carmen SaeimlSre. 

Word divided at the end of the third yerse; Od, i. 2, 19; 25, 11 ; a 


yil. Lesser Sapphic Strophe. Aristophanic (No. 22), and Qrcatei 
Sapphic (No. 82) Two pairs are combined into a tetrastich. 

X w v/_ w _ ^ 

Or Urns: 

-uv/ I -w |t-| -^1 4 

-vw I -v/ I I- I -^1 4 

In Od. i. a 

VUL Alcaic Strophe. Two Alcaic verses of eleven syllables (No. 27) 
one of nine (No. 4), and one of ten (No. 28). 

■ I ^ ' v-» ' ' A • 


\j ' vy ' • '^ TT 

v-xw-u/xw-.^ II. > ..^ I .> I .^1 ^1 i 

In Od. L 9, 16, 17,26, 27, 29, 81, 34, 35, 87 ; ii. 1, 8, 5, 7, 9, 11, 18, 14, 15 
17. 19, 20: ill 1, 3. 8, 4, 5. 6, 17, 21, 23, 26, 29; iv. 4, 9, 15. 17. 

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IX. Archiloohian Strophe No. 1. Hexameter <Ko. 17), and Lesser 
ilrcliaochiati (No. 14), two pairs to a tetrastich* 

- J"v. I - J^ I - t -- I -Jv. I ^w^ I ^. 

^ \J \J I M \J \J I JL 

Or thus : 

- vTv. I «v7v. I - t --- I --"^ I -WW I .« I i 

A • 

— wv-»|— ww| I 

In Od. iy. 7. 

X. Archiiochian Strophe No. 2. A Dactylic Hexameter (Ko. 17), and 
an lamhelegns (No. 89). 

Or thus : ^ _ 

.WW I -v7w I -WW I .v7w I -vTw I .- I 

> : -w I -> I -w I - ^ I 
w ' w ' ' A 

-WW I -WW I -^ I 

Epod. 18. 

XI. Archilochiau Strophe No. 8. An lumhic Trimeter (No. 0), M» 
lowed by an Elegiambus (No. 40). 

WXw— Wa.W — WX.W- 

Epod 11.. 


-WW I -WW I -^^ I 

^ : -w I --^ I -w I « I 


XII. Archiloohian Strophe No. 4. Greater Archilochian (No. 29), and 
I'rimeter Iambic Catalectic (No. 8). Two pairs combined to form a te 


Od. i. 4. 

RsMARK.~ThU verse Is soroctlmet considered u logaoedic, or, better, trochaic 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 




>:_w|_>|_v|_„|^|_^| « 

XTTT. A.lcinanian Strophe. Dactylic Hexameter (No. 17). followod bf 
CAta]ectic Dactylic Tetrameter (No. 15). 

InOd.i. 7,28. Epod. 13. 

BiMABX.— The Tetnunettr may be considered ecatelectic with a tpondee in the 
loorth place. 

XrV. Iambic Trimeter repeated (No. 9). 

In Epod. 17. 

XV. Iambic Strophe. Iambic Trimeter (No. 9), and Dimeter (No. 7) 

\j * \j * ■ v/ ' 'A 

In Epod. 1-10. 

XVI. Pythiambic Strophe No. 1. Dactylic Hexameter No. 17 (V<»Bai 
P^fthius), and Iambic Dimeter (No. 7). 

SJ Jt, \J m^ SJ JL \J ^ 

Epod. 14, 18. 

XVII. Pythiambic Strophe No. 2. Dactylic Hexameter (No. 17), and 
lamliic Trimeter (No. 9). 

Epod. Id 


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XVUL Trochaic Strophe. Oatalectic Trochaic Dimeter (No. 8), and 
• Catalectic Iambic Trimeter (No. 8). Two pairs make a teUaiitich* 

X, w» w ^ v/ « 

InOdii. 18. 

XIX. Ionic System. 
InOd.iii.l2. (See No. 87.) 

779. Index of Hobatian Odes akd. Metres. 

Book. Ods. Mxtbk. 

I. 1 i. 

2 .. vi. 

8 il. 

4 xii. 

5 iv. 

6 iii. 

7 xiii. 

8 vii. 

9 viii. 

10 vi. 

11 V. 

13 vi. 

13 ii. 

14... iv. 

15 iil 

16 viil. 

17 viii. 

18 V. 

19 ii. 

20 A vi. 

21 iv. 

22 vi. 

28 iv. 

24 iii. 

26 vi. 

26 viii. 

27 viii. 

28 xiil 

29 viii. 

80 vi. 

81 viii. 

83 vi. 

83 iii. 

84 viii. 

85 viii. 

86 ii. 

87 viii. 

88 vl 

Book. Ook. IDriib. 

II. 1 viii. 

2 vi. 

8 viii. 

4 vi. 

5 viii. 

6 vi. 

7..... viii. 

8 vi. 

9...^ viii. 

10. vi. 

11 viii. 

12 iii. 

. 13 viii. 

14 viii. 

15 viii. 

16 vi. 

17 viii. 

18 xviii. 

19 viii. 

20 viii. 

III. 1 viii. 

2 viii. 

8 viii. 

4 viii. 

5 viii. 

6 viii. 

7 iv. 

8 vi. 

9 ii. 

10 iii. 

11 vi. 

12 xix. 

13 iv. 

14 vi. 

15 ii. 

16 iii. 

17 viii. 

Book. Odb. Mxtbb, 

IIL 18 vi 

19.....^.;^;. it 

20 vi. 

21 viii. 

22 vi. 

28 viii. 

24 it 

25 ii. 

26.......... viil 

27 vL 

28 iL 

29 viit 

30.. L 

IV. 1 it 

2.. vi. 

8 ii. 

4 viii^ 

5 iil 

6... vL 

7 iT. 

8 I 

9 viii, 

10 V. 

11 Vi. 

12 iii. 

18 iv. 

14 vi-*. 

15 viil. 

Carmen Saeculftro. vi 
Epc>d. 1-10 XV 

11 xL 

12 xiii. 

13 X. 

14 xvl 

15 xvl 

16 xvil 

17 xir 

Digitized by (^OOQ IC 


780. By the formation of words is meant the way in whicli 
stems are made of roots, new stems of old, and in which words 
are compounded. 

781. All roots of the Latin language are monosyllabic. 
They can only be ascertained by scientific analysis. 

782. Words are either simple or compomid, 

A simple word is one that is formed from a single root : sOl, 
sun ; stfi-re, stand, stay. 

A compound word is one that is made up of two or more 
roots : sol-stiti-um, sun-staying, solstice. 


783. Simple words are partly primitive, partly derivative. 
Primitive words come from a verb-stem, hence called verbals : 
duc-s (dux), leader, st. dtic (dUco). See 152, II. Derivative 
words are formed from a noun-stem ; hence called denomina- 
tives : vetu»-tai, age, from vetes- ( N. vetus), old. 

784. Nouns are generally formed by means of a suffix. A 
suffix is an addition to a stem which serves to define its mean- 
ing or show its relations. So from the verbal-stem scrib- 
(scrlbo, / write) comes scrip-tor, writ-er ; 8crip-tio(n), writ-ing. 

Remabks.— 1. Some primitive nouns are formed without suflizes : greg-lt SP^6X, 
fioek. So also compounds : oomi-cen, horn-blower (from can-). 

1. Stem-vowel unchanged: duo-j^ocf, duo-i (dnx)^ leader; nao-, Xri//, nao-i (nex), 
HlUng, Also in composition : eoigug-l, COiguz, spouse. 

n. stem-vowel lengthened, especially before gutturals: lUc-f light; lCLc-68, lights; rtg-, 
rule; r8g-8s, rftlers (kings) ; vdc-, call; v9o-68, calls (voices). 

HI. Reduplicated words : car-cer, ioi/; mAT-moTf marble; mur-mnr, mt/rmur. 

2. Consonant-stems before consonant suflixes undergo the usual changes. See 51. So 

* In response to the request of numerous intelligent teachers and in deference to their 
Judgment, I have appended this chapter on the Formation of Words, which I have adapted 
from the EUnuniargrammatik der lateinischen Si)racJie^ by Alois Vanicek. 


Digitized by LjOOQ IC 


lerib-tor becomes teriptort icrlb-tio, leriptio ; rtg-i, rw-i (rtx)— Stems are some 
times extended by a vowel: Tal-i-dns, strong; doe-u-mentiim, pra^; sometiipes 
change the stem-vowel: teg-, aHMv*, toga, toga, tng-tiritUII, AkC. 

8. Vowel-stems often lengthen the final vowel» verbal stems always : aen-, sharpen ; 
acti-men, sharp party point. 

The final vowel often disappears before the snffix : opta-, choose ; opt-io, choice, 

I. Suffixes for the Formation of Substantives. 

785. -&(o). 

Nom. u-s, a, u-m. 

M. coqu-u-g, cook; Inp-u-g, tM^y Ind-u-g, game, 

P. lUIM^ ihe-violf; fag'tk^ flight: Names of trees in -us, pir-u^n^peaar-tree 

N. vax-vL-m^ gM ; mead-vL-m^fauU : Fruits, pir-u-m, pear. 

Rbxabks.— Notice the designation of Agents, masc. (especially in componnds): 
lerlb-a, writer; agri-eola« land-fiUer (husbandmem) : also passive substantives i iadi- 
gen-a, born vnlhin {neUive}. Fern, formations of this sort are rare : tlbl-«ia-at Jlx^*^^ 

a -t 

M. orb4-8, circle; piac-'i-a, fish; torr^imB^ fire^frand. 

N. av4-8, Hrd; n&v-i-s, ship; ov4.8, sheep. 

N. (68) con-clav^, roam; mar-e, sea; rSt-e, net. 

Remarks. — ^i^n (i+On) forms fcmhiines chiefly: oomintlii-io, communUy; rebell*i<K 
revolt; peU-io»Arrii»' (masc.). 

8. ia (id). Nom. iu-s, ia, iu-m. 
M. gen-iu-8, genius; glad-iu-s, sword; noc-^in-n^ fdlow. 
P. pluv^a, rcUn ; Ub-ia, fife, flute ; von-ia, indulgence. 

So a]so nouns of the Fifth Declension (comp. 69^ B. 8) : ac-ie-s, 
edge; ser-ie-s, row; spec-ie-s, appearance. * 

N. col-Ioqu-iu-m, eonvereation ; iol'Va-m^ leaf; od-iu-m, luxte. 

Remabks.—I. -JO-n (iO+n) forms feminines chiefly : leg-io, legion, ; opln-io, opinion. 
Masc.: pfLg-io, dagger. 

8 6jo- (aeo), lo, -lk> -io, are nsed to form Gentile names (OentQia) : Poiiip-l||llS| 
Lnccaeus, LCLcejus, LUclus, Llicius. 
8. ea is also f onnd : coohl-6a« snaU. 

4. -u. 

M. arc-u«8, how; curr-u-s, ehari<Jt; grad-u-s, titep. 
F. ac-a-8, needle; man-u-s, hand; querc-u-s, oak. 
N. %eirXi^ frost; gen-u, knee. 

Remark — The suffix -o often alternates with -u. (See the heterodites 
in 77.) 

5. -vo -uo. Nom. vu-s, v-a, u-m, uu-8, ua, uu-m. 

Primitives: M. eq-uu-s, 7u^««; F. aUvu-a^ bellg ; N. ar-iru-m^ JieM. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 


Derimtives : M. cor.vtt-g, itag; patr-utus, unele (faiher^i broths). P. 
JSn*aa, gate, 

Remabk. — -vo is sometimes weakened into -vi : peLvi-s, basin, 

6. -bro. Nom. ber, bra, bru-ta (bra, bnum indicates the InUr urn ent)i 
-bola bola, bolu-m. 

M. fa-ber, teright; Miiloi*ber, name of Vnkan. 
F. doU[*lnra, eelt; U-bra, balance; tar-e-bra, borer, wimble. 
K. cn-bm-m, neee.—'DeriwHee : candSlft-bm-m, eandleetiekt lamp» 

P. fi[-bala, icAe; fi-bnla (figw), brootk ; sa-bula, awl, 
N. pS-balu«m,/<x2(20r/ sta-bulu-m, 9MI, 

7. a) -CO. Nom. cu-s, oa (deritatite eekdom primitive), 
-S-ca, -I-ca, ii-ca. 

H.Jo-oa-8,jM^/ lo-ou-s (old Lat sUo-cus), |)^a<^y medi-ca-s, pA^MVurn. 
F. esca (for ed-ca, fr. ado, eat}, bait; ped-'i'CSL^ fetter, 
do-Soa, eewer; ver-bSn-Jfica, vervain. 
lect-Ica, litter; urt-Ica, nettle ; vSs-Ica, bladder. 
Sr-nca, caterpillar; verr-iica, wart. 

b) -ic. Nom. ec-s, ex (masc. except names of plants). 
M. SLp'OiLf point; cort-ez, bark; v«:t-ax, whirl. 

F. n-e^ holm-oak. 

Derivative : F. imbr-az (sold, masc.)* gutter-tile. 

c) -c. 

-S-c, S-c, -I-c, -d-c. Nom. ac-s (ax), ec-s (ex), ic-s (iz), oc-s (ox). 

F. fom-ax,y^mace/ Um-toLf snail, 

M. verr-ex, wether. F. r&d-ix, root, 

F. cel-o^ yacht. 

Derivativei : com-ix, crow; cotum-ix, qtiail. 

d) -culo. Nom. culu-s, cula, colu-m. 

-cello, -ciUo (= culu-lo). Nom. cella-s, cella, cellu-m (DiminutlTes). 
M. amni-culu-s, streamlet; ^dn-cvln'^ floweret ; frStor-colu-s, UtUe 
brother, dear brother, 

F. nSvi-cula, little ship ; 5ratiun-cula, short speech. 
N. cor-culu-m (for cord-c.), {dear) heart; m&iiis-calii-m, little gift, 
M. pSni-ciUu-s, -m (pSni-cellu-s, -m), painter's bruth. 

Rem ARKS.—l. Notice especially the irrcgalar formations : 

a) aTU-n-culus, unde (mother's brot/ier) ; bomun-culaSi maniHn. 

b) arbus-<mla, little tree, shrub ; doma-n-cula, little house. 

2. The dimioatives follow as a rnle the gender of the word from which they arc formed, 
bat from ealz (regularly fern.) comca oale-alu-a, pebble. So ourri-cula-m, oomrn^ tt, 
eurra-s (maec.), rSna-n-oola-t, f r. tlakAyfrog. 

e) -cro, -cialo. N. cru-m, culu-m — Instr ument, Locality. 
laTS-orupm, bath ; sepul-cm-iii, gra/oe. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 


ba-culu-Bi; tcalking-atick ; p6-culu-m, drinking-cup ; veh-i-culu-m, wiu 

f) -ci-no-io. Kom. ci-n'-iu-m (Action, Event), 
latr5-ciniu-m, highway robbery ; UrS-ciniu-m, service a8 a recruit. 
8. -di or d(i). Norn, -s (See 54 B., 59 R. 3). 

-di-on = di-n. do (Feminine Abstract s). 

frau-s, cheatery ; lau-s, praise ; meroS-g, pay. 
aJb-^'do, tohiten^s ; dako^S-dOf stoeetness ; pingorS^o, fatness. 
cnp'l'dOf desire ; l6nn-I-do,/mr/ UJ^l'dOi lust. 

Rbmabks.— 1. d<i) sometimes forms concretes : hfirii, Aeir ; peenSt shtep, 
2. DeHvativet : Y^Lt^L-do^ leech ; tattll-do, tortoise. 

9. -gio-n = gi-n. Nom. -go. Feminine Abstracts (sometimes 

im-S-go, likeness; vor-S-go, swaUow, guif; cSl-I-go, thick darkness; 
or-i-go, origin; ^««ra-go, rust; alb-n-go, triteness, 
10. -lo. Nom. lu-8, la, lorn. 

-i-lo, u-lo. Nom. -ilu-s, ilu-m ; -ulu-s, uU, nln-m, Inst rumen t. 
-S-la (-ella), regolarlj Action, 

M. disci-pu-lu-s, learner, scholar; mS-lu-s, mast; pl-la (fr. pag), pil- 
lar ; scS-lae (novad-Mk^rounds, ladder. 

N. bal-lu-m,toar; eiL-wa-pla'-m^ pattern ; fi-lu-m (fig-), thread. 
M. slb-i-lu-s, hissing ; N. cae-lu-m ( = cavi-lu-m, hoUow), heaven. 
M. ang-u-lu-Sj <k>r7ter; cap-u-lu-s, Aaiutto; oc-u-lu-s, <;y6. 
F. rSg-u-la; rule; speo-ola, look-^mt ; tSg-ola, tile. 
N. cing-u-lu-m; girdle; jac-u-lu-mjjaue/m/ spec-u-lu-m, mirror. 
Concretes : cand-§-la, candle ; ci-cind-S-laj glouhworm. 
b) Diminutiyes : 

-olo, -olo : olo, after c, i, v ; else ulo. Nom. olu-8,ola,ola-m,iilu-8,et<x 
-alio 1 ella-8, alia, ellu-m. 

-illo V =-r.(u)lo, .n-(u)lo, -1-ulo or -ul-(u)lo. illu-B, ilia, iUn-m. 
-ullo I ullu-s, alia, ullu-nL 

-olla =r 5n-ala. 

M. tili'Ohi'S^littleso7i, F. fili-ola,{. dauglUer. K. praedi-olu-m, I. farm. 
rSg-olu-s, chief. vdc-ula, voice. grSn-olu-m, grain. 

agel-lu-s, I. field. tabel-la, tablet. ca8tel-lu-m,/ore. 

catel-lu-s, puppy cistel-la, casket, capitel-lu-m, head. 

(pet dog). 
Oatul-lu-s = Catdnulu-s, corol-la, wreath. 
c)'VL Nom. -U-8. 

-i Ji, ^-11, -e-li, I-IL -iU-s, etc. 

M. cau-li-s, stalk; F. strig-i-li-s (£r. string-o), serap-er. 
oan-S-li-s, canal. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


N. animal from animiU-i- (See 58). 

F. cardu-S-li-8, linnet, 

M. aed-I-li-8, aediCs, N. cub-Me, eoaeli ; lad-I-le, seat, 

Rkmabk.— -ill develops stUI further into -tf-lio-t S-lioft ; Aur-lli-us, eoBtmn-ili-a, 


11. a) -mo. Nom. -mn-f, -ma, -mu-m. 

\ -m5-n, •m5-n4o. Nom. -mo j -m5iiiib>m, -mdnia. 

\ M. an-i-mu-g, gpirit; cul-ma-s, cal-a^mu-i, italk; ffi-mu-s, unoke, 
F. 0-ma, fame ; flam-ma (for flag-ma^ oomp. flag-ro), for-ma, ehape, 
N. ar-ma (75 B), pd-mu-m,/n^i<. 

M. pul-mo, lung ; ler-mo, eUscaune; ti-mo, pole {of a charioC), 
N. Derwaiioes : mStr-i-m5niu-m, marriage ; teiti-m5niu-m, wUneu, 
F. wX'i'VLbsdai^nourUhment ; qa6i>4-m5nia, complaint Deriyat.: &cri- 
mdnia, tartness, 
b) -min. Nom. -men, Aetivitjf, Be suit s of Action, 
-men-to. -men-tu-m, Instrument, Means. 
-min-o. -minu-s, mnu-s, -mina, -mna. 

N. ag-man, train; flft-man, ri9&r; liil-man (for fdlg-m), lightning, 
al-i-manta-m, nouri^ment; mon-i-menta-m (monnm.), monument; 
tor-menta-m (for torqid-m.), torture, 

M. tar-minn-t, boundary (oomp. tra-ns)} al-a-mna-8,/(7«f«r son, 

F. td'XX'mnsif foster-daughter ; col-n-mna, eo^ttmn / H'WinsL, tooman. 

Remark.— -men and men-tn-m are often formed from the same radical. In that 
case -mentn-m is the more common ; teg-n-men, teg-n-mentn-m, coveting, Obsenre: 
•••men (neat.), simen-tif (fem.>, seed. 

6)-mit Nom. me-e. 

M. £^me8(fov-m. comp. fov-ao), y%i«{/ U-me-s, cross-path; pal-me-i, 
shoot of a tine. 

d) -mala Nom. -muln-e. 

M. cu-mulu-B, heap; £R-mulu-B, Mroon^/ eti-mnlu-s (for itig-m. ; comp. 
«itingno, 160 b), ffo<*^ 

12. a) -no. Nom. aiu-e, -na, nu-m. [sleep, 
M. ivaC'Toxt^ oven ; pug^u-'n, fist; som-nu-e (foriop-nns; comp. lop-or), 
N. Derivat,: eilo-ina-m, amber. 

F. oi-na (for cod-, c#s-na), meal ; lH-na, wool; lu-na (luo-na), moon. 
N. d5-nu-m,^yt; grft-nn-m, grain; sig-nn-m, sign, 
b) -on, -en. Nom. -o, -en. Gen. -in-is. 
-in-a -inu-s, -ina, inu-m. 

M. card-o, hinge ; marg-o, rim ; ord-o, row, 
F. a-8perg.o, sprinkling; grand-o, ha/U; Tirg-o, maid, 
M. pact-en, eof»& ; N. gltlt-en, (fiue; ingn-en, groin, 
M. as-inu-B, ass; dom-inu-e, lord, 
F. pSg-ina, page; pat-ina, dish. Derivat, : fiso-ina, basket. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 


e) -5n. Nom. o. The PrimUites signif^r the Ag ent, es. 

-5n«o. -5nu-t, 5na. x>eciall7 the Pennon Employed. 

-5n-io. 6n-ia-in. Trade, 

M. com*bib-o (fettaw* drinker), boon companion; ^d-o, eater; {mtmo-o 
(= praevoc-o)j crier, herald. 

Derivatives: aquil-o, north wind; oexdmA-o^ captain; GrSbr*0| hornet. 

M. col-^joxi^ KttUr ; patr-dna-s, jxilnm. 

F. ool-5na, eettler; mfitr^nai lady ; BaU-Saa) geddeee qf foar. 

d) -ino. Norn, -ina, -$nQ*m. 
-Ino. -I&n^t, -Inai -lau-iii. 
-utto. -anu-i, -ihuL 

F. oatrina, cA^iwi ; ▼arb-Saa, draoM. 
Deritat. : cantU-Sna, «9n^. 

N. ▼en*8iiu«m, pc^iMm. 

M. catpIniM^ dish ; pulv-Inut, cushion, 

F. (Locality, Relation, Condition, Act ion)', rsLp^Xkk^fopine; 
m-Iaa| nUn^—DefiwHiees : diaoipl'dna, diedpline ; medio-Iaa, medi' 
cine ; offio-Ina (for opific^ fOorJMop ; yall-bia, hen ; riy-Ina, queen, 

N. Derivatives : lup-Inu-m, lupine ; aaHnu-in, ecM-^eUat. 

M. Nept-iiau-a, Neptune, F. fort-nna, luck*, 

e) -ni. K. nio, 

M. fi-ni-g (fid-nil : comp. findo), end; igridrn^fire ; pfi-ni-s, hread, 

f) -no. Nom. -nu-a,-na. 

M. Bi-nu-i,/<7^, &0Mm». F. ma-nu-s, Zutiul. N. oOK*ti%hofn. 
18. a) TO- Nom. -r, -m-s, -ra, -ru-m. 

-ero. -er, -era-i, ^^ra, -eru-m. 

i^r. er. Gen. •er-ia. 

M. Mg^^e-x^ field; cap.^-r, goat; mu-m-s, waU. 

F. lau-ru-a, laurel; cap-ra, she-goat; sar-ra (=:aec + ra, from aeoo^ 
cut), taw. 

M. flag*m-m, whip ; lab-ni-m, lip. 

M. gen-er, wn-inAaw ; pn^er, hoy ; nom-aro-a, numiber* 

F. cam-era, vault; hed-era, ivy. N. Jfig-eriMn, measure oflamd. 

M. ana^r, goose ; lat-er, 5n^. F. moU-er, %Mman, 

N. ac^r, maple; var (&. vaa^r), spring. 

verb-er-a, stripes. 
b) -ri Nom. -r (Gen. ri-s). 
.arL -ar (Gen. &.ri4i). 

4uria 4Uriu^ (a, .u-m). The masc denotes especially 

Artis an s and Tradesmen, the fern. Trades, the neut. Localities. 
M. imb.^^ (59, B. 2). 
N. calcar, spur ; ez^m-p-l-ar, pattern ; palvln-ar, {sacred) couch. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 


M. argent-Srin-s, maneif-ehang&r. F. argmit-ftria, tUvrn'-mine, bank. 
N. aeita-Sxi-lun, /fi^/ grftn-Arin-m, dtanary ; Bimin-Aria-iii, M^d- 

e) -er-na. 

-er-to. Kom. -ertu-s, -erta. 

-nr-no. -iima-B, -umu-m. 

F. cav-ema, eaee ; loc-ema, lamp ; Ub-ama, 9kop. 
M. lao-ertu-t, arm, M. F. lac-ertu-S| -erta, l^M/HL, 
M. alb-urnu-s, f€hUe-fish; lab-umu-m, laburnum, 
11 a) -as. Nom. -us (Gen. : or-U, er-la). Neatera. See 49. 

corp-ua, body (Gen. : oorpor-iaj gen-iiS| kind (Gen. : yen«r[= 


b) 58. Nom. -or.. Gen. 5r-i8: Maieuline Ab$traet$. 
ang-or, anguith; ool-or, color; hon-or, etc. 
Notice Nom. -5s t fl58, m5s, r58 (comp. 50). 
e) -5r-a : Aur*5ra, F15r-a. 
15. a) -to. Nom. -tu-s, -ta (aa), -tu-m. 

-S-to. -S-tn-m forms coUectiyes (Den»e Orowth$), 

So does -tu-m. 
M. dig-i-tu-s, ^n^«r/ hor-ta-s, garden / lec-tu-s, b^d, 
F. has-ta, gpear; por-ta, gate; am-i-ta, aun^/ noxa (noo-ta, noo-sa)| 

N. In-tumj mud; scnt-um, Meld; tec-tum, roof, 

frutic-S-tn-m, copse; murt-S-tum, myrtle grove; Tirgnl-ta-in, brush- 
Jb) -ti. Nom. -U-8 (si-s). 

-ti-o. -tia, -tiu-m. Abstracts (deiiYhtiye), 

-ti-5n. -ti5(si6). Fern. Abstracts. 

H. Ins-ti-s (fad.t)| cudgel; pos-ti-s, post; vec-ti-s, lever. Ck>mmon : 
hos-ti-s, enemy, 

F. ou-ti-B (for scu-ti-s; comp. sontu-m), ekin; mes-sis (for met-tisj 
comp. met-o, 188), harvest, 

avSri-tia, (riMiru;ey AmiAiSi^ hardness ; iOMiX-MLSi, justice ; sagni-tia, 

dfiriUS-s, segni-tiS-s, 69, R. 3. 
N. servi-tiu-m, bondage. Primitives: ini-tiu-m, &e^n7i»n^/ spa- 
tiu<m, spoM, 

F. amb-i-ti6, arnbition; co-gni-ti$, knouHedge ; imitS-ti6, imita- 

con-fn-sid (fiid), confusion ; oc-cSs-iS (cad), occasion, 

Remabk.— -ti, usually ft-ti, I-ti (6-ti)i forms derivatives indicating: Home^Origin; 
Camari (Camar-ti-i),' o/'Cam^mim; Arplnfi-i (ArpIn-ftti-i),(2r'<i'7<Mtfm;8ainnI-8 
tiSamnlti-i), pfSamnium, 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 


e) -t (shortened from -to, -tfy. 

M. den-s (Gen. dent-is), tooth; fon-g, fountain; mon-s, mountain; 
pon-s, bridge. Derivatives: eque-s, horsetnan ; pede-s, footman. 

P. ar-3, art; co-hor-s, cohort; for-s, chance; mor-s, death; par-n^part; 
8or-B, lot; gen-a, kin; men-Sf mind. 

Remark.— E and i often precede : M. gurg-OI <gnrg-i-ti-l), whirlpool; mll-ei (mil- 
i-ti-8), «^^i^; popl-es (popl-i-ti-s), ham; F. merg-ai (mvrgi-XX'n), sheaf ; seg-ei 

(leg-e ti-8), crop (comp. mo-0). 

d) -to. Nom. -ta-g (su-s), Action, Result. 
-fi-to. 4[-ta-8. Derivatives of Office. 

M. adven-tn-s, arrival; onr-su-s, course; or-tn-s, ridng. 

constd-S-tu-s, eonsuMip; mTigiMtr-SL-ivL-at magistracy ; ■•n-S-tn-i, 

e) -tS-ti. Nom. -t5-«, 1 Derivative 
-ta-ti. -tu-s, > Feminine 
-tn-d-cn. .til.d-6. Gen. -in-is j Abstracts. 

-tS-s: aequSli-tS-s, equality; ctvi-tA-Mf dtizenship ; digai-iSL-u^ dig- 
nity; vW-tS-a, <rtt<A; anzie-tS-s, anxiety; pie-tSL'S, piety ; fau^ul-ta-s, 
ability; miyes-tS-s, majesty; tempea-lSi'Sf iDeat?ier. 

-t^-s : only juven-tn-s, yoiUh ; seneo-tfL-s, old age ; servi-tn-s, 
slavery ; ▼ir-tu-s, wrfu«. 

.tu-d6: aegri-tndS, «teitne«« of heart ; l&ti-tndS, (r^ocI^A/ molti. 
tnd$, multitude. 

f) -ter. Nom. -ter., 1 Primitives. 
-t5r. -tor(sor), V 

-trio. -trix. ^ Agent. ^ 

psi'tvr^ father {feeder); mS-ter, m4)ther. 
ar-bi-ter, umpire (ft. ad, up to, and ba, step). 
amS-tor, lover; auc-tor, author; leo-tor, reader; vic-tor, van- 

Derivatives: gladiS-tor, swordsman ; vini-tor, vine-dresser. 

Remabks.— 1. Words in -tor form no feminines except ex-pnlsor, expul-trix, ex- 
peUer; tonsor (fr. tond.)t tons-trix, barber. 

2. The feminine of various words in -tor is lost : audl-tor, hearer; llberS-tor. mon-i- 

g) -tur-a (snra) — Fu net ion, Offi c e. 

-tri-na. Nom. -trinaj -trinu-m, Action, Place of Action. 

-t6r-io. -t5riu-m, Locality. 

F. cul.tuxAf cultivation ; dictai'tursk, dictatorsJiip ; pic-tur9kj painting. 

doc-trlna (doctor), instruction ; su-trlna (sutor), shoemaker's shop. 
N. pis-trlnu-m, pounding (tread) mill (f r. pistor, baker) ; tez-trlnu-m, 
weaver^ s shop (fr. teztor). 

audl-tSrin-m, auditory ; ten-t9ria-m (fr. tend, stretchy tent. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 


A) -tra. Norn. tru-iii,-tro. Imtrumeni. 

N. arS-tru-m, plottgh ; olaut-tru-m (fr. claud, thtU)^ bar; roa-tru-m 
(fr. r5d, gnaw\ beak, 

F. feiie8-tra,irin<2(Hr/ malc-irtL^ mUking-pail. 

IL Suffixes for the Fokmation of Adjectives. 

786. 1) -a (o). Norn, -u-a, -a, -u-m. 

fer-u-s, savage; &d'VL'»f faithful ; vSr-u-a, trtie, 
bene-vol-u-aj well-wiMng ; male-dio-u-a, evU-speaking, 

2) -i. Norn. -i-B, -e. 

dolc-i-s, sweet; rad-i-S| rough; aimil-i-a, like, 

Rrmabk.— I is often not original, but weakened from o : im-beUi*a, uti- 
wirUke; in-ermi-a, unarmed, 

8) -ia(io). Nom. -iu-a, 4a, -in-m. 
-eo. -eu-8, -ea, -eu-m. 

•z-im-iu-a (f r. am, 1G9), taken out {distinguished) ; pluv-iu-a, rainy. 

a) Of Persons: imperStSr-iu-a, belonging to a general; aorSr-iu-a, 

5) Of Families, Places, and Races: (ISz) OomSI-ia, 
Ooiinth-in-a, Thr&c-iu-a ; Qall-ia (terra). 

argent-eu-s, sUter^n) ; aur-eu-s, golden; plumb-en-a, leaden. 

4) -u. 

The u stems haye become i stems (-u-i, -▼•!): bre-vi-a (for breg-ni-a), 
short; fpcsi'^'%f heavy; le-vi-a (for leg-ui-i), light; aoft-vi-a (auad), sweet; 
ten-ni-a, tJUn, 

5) -vo, -uo. Nom. -vu-a, -va, -vn-m j -uu-a, etc. 
cnr-vu-a, crooked; par-vu-a, small; aal-vn-a, whole, safe, 
ard-nn-a, steep ; conapic-uu-s, eonspietums ; vac-uu-s, empty, 

Rbmarks.— 1. Another form is -lyo ; Orad-Iyn-t, Mars; noc-ans, noe-Iyns, injurious. 
2. Derivatives: aett-Iyn-t, ^timiner.; f9St-t7U-»f festive, witty. 

6. b) -bro, -brL Nom. -bar (Gen. brl-a); -bri-a. See 92, 

-bilL -bili-a, -bila. Passive Meaning. 
orS-ber (-bra, -bmm), crowded, 

cele-ber (-bria, -bra), populous; aaln-ber, healthy; Septem-ber, etc. 
l{iga-bri-s, 97umr9^t^; mulie-bri.s, loomanisA. 
amS-bili-s, lovable; fle-bili-s, lamentable; miaera-bili-a, pitiful; 
m5-bili-8 (mov), movable ; vand-ibili-s, to be sold. 

7. a) -CO. Nom. -ca-s,-ca,-ctt-m. DeriyatiyesseldomPrimitiyes. 

•I-oo. -Icu-a, -lea, -Icu-m. 

caa-cua, very old; primitive; par-cu-s, sparing; pan-cu-a, little. 
anli-oa-8, belonging to the court; beUi-cn-a, pertaining to war; 
cSwirOxis^ cinic 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 


mm-lcnrBf friendly; apr-icn s, sunny; pod-Icu-s, sliamefaeed, m&desi. 
tmt-lcU'B, front; post-Iou-g, rtf«r. 

b) -culo. Nom. -culn-s, cula, culu-m. 

&cri-culu-s, somewhat sJiarp ; especially from the compar.. as 
dfUius-culu-a, rather too hard, 

c) -cro, -cri. Kom. -cer (Qen. -cris), -cri-s« 

slAcvty alert ; volu-cer, JIee<. Deriiioiiw : m^^o^ri-u^ middling , 

d) -Sci. Nom. ez* Tendency to. 
-Ici, •5oL iz, ox. 

aud-az, hold ; fug-ax, quick to run ; rap-ax, greedy, 

atr-oxj savage; iear-on^ fierce ; ▼il-ox, swift; — fil-ix, happy, 

e) -Sceo. Nom. -Scen-s, etc Property^ Likeness, 

•Ida -Icia-a, etc., added especially to the stems of Perf. 

Part. Pass. 
anrndin-icen-Si reedy ; crSt-iceu-s, chalky, 

advant-Iciu-s, from strange parts : sup-posit-Iciu-s, supposititious, 

f) -icic. Nom. -iciu-s, -icia, -iciu-m. Material, Property, 
later-iciu-s, made of brick ; strSment-iciu-s, made of straw. 
aedll-iciu-s, patr-iciu-s, tribun-iciu-8| belonging to aedile, patrieian^ 


8. -do (-di). Primitives, regularly from yerb-stems in >e (IL Conjug.) 
>ndo. Oerund and Gerundive. 

•bu-ndo, Action, 

-cu-ndo, Capacity, Inclination, 

SLV'i'du-a, greedy ; csd-i-du-n^ warm ; cmad-i-dum^ shining. 

nu-du-8 (for nug-du-s), naked; rap-i-du-Sf rushing, rapid; Tiri-di-s, 

cuncta-bundu-s, lingering ; minitS-bundu*8, threatening ; trem-e- 
bundu-8, trembling. 

£l-cundu-s, of ready speech ; Jn-cundu-s ( Juv in Jnv>Sr«), pleasant ; 
verS-cundu-s, modest, shy. 

Remark. — Bnnd-o is from the root fa ; -cn-ndo is an extension of co, 

9. a) -lo (ilo). Nom. -lu-s, -la, lu-m. 

>ulo. -ulus, -ula, -ulum. Repeated Action. 

-ilL -ills, e. Passive Capacity. 

amp-lu-s, amp^^/ ntib-ilu-s, cloudy. 

crSd-uluHi, quick to believe; quer^uln-s, complaining ; sM-ulu-s, sedu- 

agili-S) readily moved, quick; doo-il-is, teathMe; frag-lli-i, break 
able, frail. 

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b) Diininiitiyes : olo, -ulo, -olio, -iUo, -nllo. Comp. 785, 7 e. 
aiire<^la-8, brig?U golden ; alb-nlu-B, whUM ; mis-ella-B, poor (lUUe) ; 

pns-iUn-i, little, wee ; tdln-a (fr. nnu-la-a), any at all, 
e) -i-li, .4.ri Nom. -Ui-., .Sri-.) jy,^,^i,,,^ 

^-11, -I-U. -«U.i, UiB) 

aequ-W-M, equal; mort-fili-a, mortal; ▼irgin-fili-i, virginal. 

anzili-Sri-t, helpful; tingiilfiri>i, unique ; vulg-^ri-s, common- 

crfld-Sli-i, cruel; patm-51i-i, uncle's (Jather^s hrotker'i). 

clT-Ui-i, einl; host-Ui-t, hoMe; ▼ir-Ui-i, manly. 

10. -mo. Nom. mu-i, *ma, - mu-m. 

Primitive : al-mu-i, fo^ering, kindly ; fir-mu-s, firm ; Umu-i, oth 

Derivative : patr-X-mu-s, m&tr-i-mni, trith faiiher, with mother 

11. a) -no. Nom. -nu-s, -na, -nn-m: forms Primitives smd Derivatives : 
denotes Bel a ti on, Material; is added to local comparatiyes and 
adyerbs ; forms Distributives, see 95. 

dig-nu-8, worthy; mag-nu-s, mighty, greai ; pli-nu-s,/^^. 
dior-nu-s, daily ; fr&ter-nu-s, brotherly ; mater-nu s, motherly, 
SLCWC'XiVL'n^ of maple ; Vd^-mx-Uy of holm-oak; quer-nu-s (for quarc-n), 

eH'ter-nn-n^ outer ; in-ter-nu-s, inner; prd-nu-n, forward, prone. 

Remark.— Adjectives denoting Jfa t trial have also -nto (= n'-60); a9-nea*8 (from 
^m-yiff-azen; fUg-aeu-i, qaer-Beat. 

b) -Sno. Nom. Snu-s, a, u-m. Derivatives : Property, Origin. 
-an' eo, -Sno, -Inc. Nom. &nea-s, etc. Primitives and Derivatives. 
ante-meridl-finu-s, belonging to forenoon ; hum-Snu-s, /iuman / urb- 

Snn-8, city, urbane. 

con-8ent-&neu-8, agreeing with ; sub-terr-aneu-s, subterranean. 

6g-enQ-8, needy ; ser.fou-s, elea/r ; ali-Snn-s, strange. 

gen-Q-Xnu-s, native, genuine. 

agn-Inu-s, of a lamb; Umin-lnU'Sf feminine ; mascnl-Inu-s, mascu^ 
line; Fldrent-Inu-s, Lat-Inu-s. 

c) -ni. Nom. -ni-s, -ne. 

lm-m&-ni-8 (mftnn-s, Old Lat. = good)^ monstrous ; seg-ni-s, lazy. 

12. a) -ro. Nom. -r, -ru-s ; -ra, -m-m. 

-ere, -arc; -er, -ur (Gen. -or-is, -ur-is). 
a«f-e-r, in-teg-e-r, plg-e-r, puloh-e-r (31). 
cl3.ra-8, clear; gna-m-s, knowing; ob-scu-m-s, dark. 
lacker, Ub-er, mis-er, ten-er (32) for lac-em-s, etc. 
hil-aru-8, lively ; nb-er, rich ; cic-ur, tame. 
b) -aro, •ero. Nom. -am-s, -eru-s, etc. 

am-ftru-8, Wtt^ ; av-aru-s, avaricious; sev-eru-s, strict. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 


e) -ri (weakened from -ro). Nom. -e-r. (Cton. -ri-s.) 
Sio-e-r^ sharp ; pnUe'r, rotten, (See 83.) 
adven-Sriu-M, adeene : balne-Sriu-a, hdonging to the both; 
ftriu-8, neeeeectry ; and adjectiyes derived from numbers, prIm-Sriu-a. 
18. a) -to (-80). Nom. -tu-i, -ta, -tu-m (au-s, etc.). 
Tliis ending forms the stem of the perfect participle passive (supine 
stem) and many adjectiyes which are either original participles or deriyed 
from substantiyes : 

Frimitivee: ap-tu-i, JU; cel-su-s, hflif; oer-tn<4, sure; cuno-tn-s ( = 
co-Junc*tu-8, joined together\ aU; rao-tn-i, right. 

Derivatives : fiinea-tu^ ruinous; honea-tu-s, honorable; Jua-tu-a, jtMf/ 
r5bu8-tu-8, strong, 

Adjectiyes with passiye significations (formed like participles) : 
actUefi-tu-8, barbed; hnx^^'ta-n^ bearded ; dentS-tu-s, toothed; crlnl-tn-8| 
majied, locked^ aatil-tu-s, ^p; nfisil-tu-s, toeU provided in the matter of nose, 
b) -tL Nom. -ti-a, -te. Primitives (rare), 
-t (for -to, -ti). Primitives and Derivatives. 
for-ti-8, brave; mI-ti-8, mUd; tria-ti-s, sad. 

locupU-8, rich; superste-aj dlv-e-a, rich, heh-e^ dull; ter-a-a, 
Participles: frequen-8,prflden-8(=pr5-Tid6n8,j>ru<{enO$repen-8, sudden. 
e) -ento. Nom. -entu-s, a, u-m (rare). 

-lenta -lentu-s, a, u-m, indicates Fulness, 

cru-entu.8, bloodp ; fraud-u-lentu-a (frau^iful) flraudulent; op-ii* 
lentu-s, with abundant means ; sanguin-o-lentu-a, bloodg. 

d) -tico. Nom. -ticu-s, a, u-m. Appurtenance (derivatives). 
aqn&-tiou^s, aquatic, toater- ; domes-ticu-a, domestic, house* ; loaM' 

ticu-s, rvMCy country-. 

Primitive : vSna-ticu-s, hunting, 

e) tiU. Nom. -tiU-a (-sUi-s). Ck>mp. -bill, -ilL 
Primitives: Capacity and Resulting Condition. 
Derivatives: Appurtenance, Medium, Property, 

duc-tili-8, ductile; fic-tili-s, capable of being moulded, of day; fna-iU^i 
{fad\ fusible, molten. 

aquS-tili^a, belonging to the water, water-; plumS-tili-a (embroidered^ 
like feathers, 

f) -tino, -temo, -tumo. Nom. -tinu-s, etc. Time. 

craM'tixm-Uf of to-morrow; di^-tixm-Bj protracted; pris-tinu-a, pristine, 
ae-temu-g (for aevi-ter., eternal); hes-temu-s, of yesterday, 
— ^tur-nu-s (for noct-U^by night, 

Nom. -tlnu-s, a, u-m. Place or Time. 

lInu-8, inner, intestine. 

tlnu-a, of early morning; ▼eaper-Unu-a, ofe^^ening. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 


h) -tri. Nmn. iri-s, ter. BelatUm, 

bi-mes-tri-B = (bi-mena-tri-s, men-8i8),/(>r two months, 
eques-ter (for equit-ter), equestrian ; pedes^er (for pedit-ter), pe^ 

Similar formations : oampes-ter, champaign; terres-tri-a, of the earth, 

») -emi (for enti). Nom. ensi-s. Locality, Whence? Where? 
circ-ensi-s, castr-ensi-s, for-ensi-s (from circu-i, castra, fom-m). 
Sioili-ensi-s (Slo-ilia). Similar formations : Athfo-i-ensi-s, Oorinth- 
i-enBi4i, but : Oann-ensi-s (Athenae, Oorinthns, Oannae). 
k) -080 (for ontio). Nom. -dsu-s, a, u-m. Fu Iness. 

2jaixn!-ofSf3trny spirited ; iormrQworn^ shapely ; ^Itnrbwk-n^fuU of glory, 
hoas^ul; iimbr-08tt-8, shady; Terb-dsii-s, wordy, 

Rexark.— Stems in -iOn (Nom. io), lose On: fiicti-Osa-i, partisan^ factious; 
religi-Qau-s, rtligUmt ; inpentiti-Oia-B, ng^rsiitiout. 

III. Derivative Verbs. 

787. A.— Verbalia (derived from Verb-stems) : 

1. JFrequentatives or Intensives, denoting Repeated or 
Intense Action. These verbs end in -tire (-saro), -titare (-gitSre), 
and follow the snpine stem (perfect passive form). 

a) cantare, sing; comp. cano (cantiim): cursire, run to and fro; comp. 
cnrro (cumum) : dictare, dictate; comp. dlco (dictum) ; dormlt^e, be 
sleepy; comp. dormio (dormitum): habitare, ^^p, dwell; comp. habeo 
(habitum): pollioitarX, promise freely; comp. poUiceor (pollicitus) : 
pnlsSre, beat; comp. pello (pulsum). 

b) cantitare (cantSre), dictitSre (dictare), cursitSre (cnrsSre). 

Rbxarks.— 1. The simple verb presapposed by the freqnentative or intensive is often 
ontof use: gus-tJkre, taste ; iiOr-tSxl^ exhort. The frequentative or intensive in -t&re 
is often out of use : actitfire» repecUedljf or zealously agitate (no actire), from ago, 
actum : lectitSre, read car^Uy (no leet&re), from lego, lectnm* 

3. Sometimes the form -itfire is presupposed, instead of -tSr6,as agitfiro from ago ; 
or -itSre is found instead of -fitSro, as vocitSre, caU, from vooSre. Irregular is 
noscitSre, reoogniu, from nOsco, know. 

3. The verbs of the Fourth Conjugation form no frequentatlves except dormio, 
dormlto ; mllnio, fortify, mOnlto (rare) ; lalio, leap, saito', advenio, arHve, adven- 

2. Inchoatives. (See 153, V.) 

3. Desideratives denote Desire ot lendency. They are formed 
by means of the sofiELx -turio (-sorio): esurXre (for ed-t), to be sharp-set for 
eaUng, hungry; em-p-turire, to be all agog for buying, 

4 €ausa4ivesa^gmSy iheEffecting of iheOondition indicated 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 


by their original yerb. They are found mainly in the Second Conjugation, 
and are formed regularly by a change in the stem-vowel. 

Change: cadere,/aff; caedere,/^; liquSre, me^ (trans.); liquere, meU 
^intr.); men- (as in me-men-to), monere, remind; necare, kiU; nocere, he 
death to; pUiC^xe^ please ; pl2cSre, caiMe to be pleased, appease; sedere, 
sit ; nSdSxe, settle. 

No change: tigeref flee ; fagSirefput to fliglU; Jacere, i/irow; Jac§re, 
(lie) thrown ; pendere, (hang) weigh; pendSre, hang (intr,). 

5. Meditatives : (yerlw that look forward to an action). These end in 
-esso : arcesio, capessOi faoesao, incessp, lacesso (176, 4). 

788. B. Denomviatives (derived from noun-stems): 

a) acenr-ftre, heap up (from acervn-s) ; aestu-Sre, seethe (aeatn^s) ; 
cor5n-&re, wreathe (corSna) ; lev-fire^ Hghten (tov-i-s) ; macul-ire, he^ 
smirch (macula); ndmin-are, name (ndmin-is); oner-Sre, load (onus 

The Deponents signify Condition, Emp loyment : andll-Srl, he 
maid (ancilla) ; aqu-arl, he a drawer of toater (aqua) ; fur-§rl, thieve (fur) ; 
laet-&rl, he glad (laetu-a). 

h) alb-6re, he white (albu-s) ; fldr-dre, he in hloom (fids, flSris) ; frond- 
8re, he in leafifxoxkB^ frondi-s) ; l&o-ire (comp. luc-is). 

c) argu^ere (pe bright, sharp), prove; laed-ere, Aur^ / metu-ere, &« in 

d) custdd-Ire, guard (custSs, custdd-is) ; fin-Ire, end (fini-s) ; len-Ire^ 
soften (leni-s) ; vest-Ire, dotlie ; TesU-s. 

RsMARK.—l. The Denominatives of the First, Third, and Fourth Conjagattons arc regu- 
larly traniitivt^ those of the Second Conjugation are regularly InlransUive, 

2. These verbs are often found only in combination with prepositions : ah^und-Sre, riui 
over, abound (from unda, wave) ; ac-clU-ftret accuse (from eausa, case) ; ez-agger-irt, 
inU up (from agger) ; ez-itii^-Sre, root out (stirp-s) ; il-lOmin-Sre, illumine (from 
lamin. Nom. Itlmen). 


789. 1- Mun. 

By composition words are so put together that a new word 
is made with a signification of its own. The second word is 
regularly the fundamental word, the first the modifier. 

Composition is either ^roj^er or imi)roper, 

790. I.) In C7 <? mp o sit ion Im proper there are either tiaces of 
Gonstmction or the first part is stUl iniected : o-normiB = ox norma, intJt 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 


of aU rule; iSgls-lStor, latogiver ; SenStds-coiuraliiiiii, decree of the 

U,) Composition Proper, 

a) The stems in -a, -o, -u regularly weaken these yowels into -i 
before the consonants of the second part, which i may vanish : causi- 
dicns, pleader, lawyer (causa) ; signi-fer, standard-bearer (signu-m) ; 
comi-ger, horn-wearer (comfi) ; maupceps (manu- and cap-), one who takes 
in hand, contractor. The i-stems retun i or drop it : igni-vomu-s, Jfr^- 
wmiting (igni-s) ; naa-£ragu-8, shipwrecked (nfiyi-s). 

b) Vowel-stems drop their yowel before the yowel of the second part : 
magn-animu^ great-sotUed ; un-animu-s, of one mind. 

c) Consonant-stems either drop their consonants or add i : homi-cld-a, 
manslayer (Jtiomia'-) ; lapL-cId^ irtone-et^^r (lapid.) ; mStr-i^Id-a, fnof Aer- 
murderer, matricide. 

791. The first part of the compound may be a particle or adverb, a 
nonn or a verb (the last most rarely): ne-lar-iu-s, nefarious; vS-sSnu-s, 
mad, out of one^s sound senses ; di8c4-pala.8, scholar. The second part 
of the composition is a noun : tri-ann-iu-m, space of three years (annus) ; 
misezi-cor-s, tevder-Kearted (cord-). 

Bkm ABK.— From composition we must distingtiigh joxtapoBition. So a prcpoBition it 
brought into juxtaposition witli a nonn, or a noun with a nonn : ad-modom, to a degree, 
very; oh-Yinm^ in the way, meeling: fiMUsttuciUM,^i8^fr^tct: Ja-piter (better Jap- 
pitar), Father Jove ; sa-ove-taar-Ilia, offerings of swine, sheep, and buUe, 

792. 2. Verb, 

In Composition Improper the verb is Joined to a verb, sub- 
stantive or adverb. In Compo sition Proper the verb is combined 
with a preposition. 

793. I. Composition Improper. 

a) Verb with verb. This only takes place when the second part of the 
eompound is fiacio or fio (188, R.)- The first part of the compound is regu- 
larly an intransitive of the second conjugation : cale-facio, fio, warm, am 

b) Verb with substantive : anim-adverto = animum adverto, take 
notice; manu-mitto, set free; usu-capio, acquire by use. 

c) Verb with adjective: bene-dico, bless; male-dlco, curse; malo, 
n51o for mage (magis) volo, n5n volo, satis-facio, satitfy. 

794. II. Composition Proper. 

The verb combines with separable or inseparable prepositions. Comp. 
418, R. 3. 

a) With inseparable prepositions : amb^eo, go about ; am-plector, em- 
brace; an-held, pant; discurro, run apart; dir4mo, 169 and 712, R. ; 
por-tendo, Iiold forth, portend; red-do, give back; re^olvo, resolve; s^ 
lungo, separate. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 


b) With $eparabie prepoiUions: ab-eo, go amiy ; ad-eo, wim up; 
ante^urro, run in ctdvanee; com-p5no, put together ; de^orro, run 
down, finish a course; ez-c5dO| overstep; in-clado, shut in; ohndtco, 
draw over; per^^igro, v>ander through; post-habeo, keep in the back- 
ground; ptSLe^dSoo, predict; pmatermeo, pass by; prdd^^o^ go forth ; prae- 
video, foresee; aub^jicio, subject; aubter-lugio, ioithdraw; attper.4n2iii, 
remain over; trans-gredior, j>aM beyond, 

II. Signification of Compounds. 

795. Ck>mpoand substantiyes and adjectives are divided according to 
their signification into two main classes. 

796. 1. Denvative compounds. In these the second word is the prin- 
cipal word which is simply determined by the other, its signification not 
being altered. 

a) The first word is 1. an adjective : meri-diSs (for medl-dies = 
medius dies), midday; 2. an adverb: bene-ficus (well-doing), beneficent; 
male-ficus, evil-doing ; 3. a numeral ; ter-geminus, triple ; 4. a particle : 
diSi^onus, harsh-sounding; per-magnus, very large; in-dignus, unworthy; 
5. a verb-stem : horr-i-ficos, horrible {horror-stirring), 

b) The first word gives a case relation such as 1. the Acctisative: armi- 
%ex=9xia9L %exen^^ armoi'-bearer ; agri-cola =agrum colens (land4iUer\ 
husbandman ; 2. the Genitive : soli^titium = sdlis atatio (sun-staying)^ 
solstice; 3. Locative: sMeni^gensL (born elsewJiere), (dien; 4 Instrumental: 
tibi-cen = tibia csLuens^ fiute-player. 

797. 2. Attributive compounds : The second part, which is always a 
substantive, is so limited by the first that the two together form a new 
notion, which is applied to another word, not in their compound, as a 
quality or property. 

The first word is 1. a substantive: Sli.p$i, wing-footed, 2. an adjective ; 
magn.animu8, great-hearted ; 3. a numeral : bi-enni-um (i. e., apatium), 
9pace of two years, or 4 a particle : im-berbi-s, beardless. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



Thb names of the Roman months were originally adjectiyes. Tha 
Bubstantive mensia, months may or may not be expressed : (mensis) JSnn- 
firius, FebrnSrins, and so on. Before Augustus, the months July and 
August were called, not Jnlins and Augnstns, but QuintUis and SeztUis. 

The Romans counted backward from three points in the month, 
Calends (Kalendae), Nones (N5nae), and Ides (Idns), to which the names 
of the months are added as adjectives: Kalendae JfinuSriae, NSnae Feb- 
niSxiaeyldns Martiae. The Calends are the first day, the Nones the 
fifth, the Ides the thirteenth. In March, May, July, and October, the 
Nones and Ides are two days later. Or thus : 

In March, July, October, May, 
The Ides are on the 16th day, 
The Nones the 7th ; but all besides 
Haye two days less for Nones and Ides. 

In counting backward ("come next calends, next nones, next ides") 
the Romans used for '* the day before " prIdiS with tlie accus. prldiS 
kalendaa Jfinii9riSs, Dec. 81, prldiS ndnas Jan. = Jan. 4, prIdiS Id. Jin. 
= Jan. 13. 

Tlie longer interyals are expressed by ante diemtertinm, quartnm, etc., 
before the accusative, so that ante diem tertium kal. Jan. means '* two 
days before the calends of January ; '* ante diem quartum, or a. d. iv., or 
iv. kaL JSn., *' three days before," and so on. This remarkable combina- 
tion is treated as one word, so that it can be used with the prepositions 
•X and in : ex &ate diem iii. NdnSa JnniSs usque ad pridie kal. Septem* 
brea, from June 3 to August 31 ; differre aliquid in ante diem xv. kaL 
Nov., to postpone a matter to the ISth of October, 

Leap Year. — In leap year the intercalary day was counted between 
a. d. Ti kal. Mart and a. d. vii. kal. Bilart. It was called a. d. bis lez- 
tnm kal. Mart, so that a. d. vii. kal. Mart corresponded to our February 
23d, just as in the ordinary year. 

To TURN Roman Dates into English. 

For Nones and Ides,^L Add one to the date of the Nones and Ides, 
and subtract the given number. 

For (Mends.— II, Add two to the days of the preceding month, and 
subtract the given number. 

Examples : a. d. viii Id. Jan. (13 + l — 8) = Jan. 6; a. d. iv. Non 
Apr (5 + 1 - 4) = Apr. 2 ; a. d. xiv. Kal. Oct. (30 + 2 ~ 14) = Sept 18. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 


Th6 f!guw rtftr to th0 SmUodi. 

A, ab, abs, with ablative, 418 ; of 
agent,205,403;ofopig4O, 895; of 
part affected, 398, R. 1 :& t&rgd, 
ab oriente, d spatid, 888, R 2. 

Abhine, 400, R. 8. 

Ablative, syntax of, 888-409; of 
pbice where, 384-387; of place 
whence, 388-390 ; of attendance, 
391; of time when, 392-3; of 
origm, 895; of material, 896; of 
measure, 397-400, 566 ; of man- 
ner, 401 ; of quality, 403 ; of means, 
403 ; of price, 404 ; with sundry 
verbs, 405 ; of cause, 406 ; ablative 
absolute, 408, 409; prepositions 
with, 418, 419 ; abl. of gerund and 
gerundive, 432 ; of supine, 437. 

Absolute ablative, 408 ; restrictions 
of use, 409, R. 3. 

Absque, w. abl., 418. 

Abstract nouns in plural, 195, R. 
5 ; as attribute SLuimce versa, 357, 

AbiUor, 405, 428, R. 8. 

Ac, atque, 479, 646. 

Accidit, constr., 525, R. 8 

Accidity sequence after, 513, R. 2. 

Aeeingor, constr., 332^ R. 2. 

Acdpio^ with two datives, 350. 

Accusative, 327-340. Direct object, 
inner, outer object, 827 ; general 
view, 328; with active transitive 
verbs, 329; with verbs compd. 
with prepositions, 380; cognate, 
381 ; adverbial, 831, R. 8 ; of part 
affected, 332; double, 333, 834; 
of local object (terminal accusa- 
tive), 842, 4l0 ; of extent in space, 
835, 836, in lime, 337, 338 ; in ex- 

clamations and exclamatory ques- 
tions, 840; with inteijectious. 
840; with prepositions, 417; of 
infinitive, 424 ; of gerund, 426 ; of 
gerundive, 481; of supme, 436. 
Accusative and infinitive, 841, 

Accusing and acquitting, verbs o( 
—constr., 377. 

Ac si, 604. 

Action, stage of, 213; period of^ 

Active voice, 204; fbr passive, 205, 

Active genitive, 861. 

Ad, in compds. with ace., 880 ; with 
dat., 846. Preposition with ac- 
cus., 356, R 8, 417 ; whither, 342, 
R. 2; ad Vestae, 360, R. 8; w. 
gerund, 437, JX,2; ad, hence, 400, 

Adire aliquem, 830, R. 2. 

Adjective for sulistantive, 195, R. 
1-4. — Adjective predicate, 203; 
adj. attribute, 285-288; peculiar 
forms of, 289 folL; comparison 
of, 311 ; as adverb, 324, R. 6. Ad- 
jective sentences, 505. 

Adnominal genitive, 859. 

AdiUor, constr. 847. 

Advantage, dative of, 845. 

Adverbial accus., 881, R. 8 ; abl., 
401, R. 

Adverbial sentences, 507. 

Adverbs of qualiUr, place, extent 
with gen., 371, R. 4^ Compara- 
tive of constr., 399. Adverbs, 
440. Position of, 441. Negative 
adv., 442-450. Prepositions as 
adv., 416, R Adverbs of likeness 
and unhkeness with atque, 646 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



AdvenatlTe particles for copula- 

AdyersatiTe sentences, 48G-498. 

Adv&rstt8, w. accus., 85G, R. 2, 417. 

Aeffer, w. gen., 874, R 8. 

AemtUor, 847. 

AequlUis, 856, and R. 1. 

AeguHre^ 845, R 1. 

Aequl bofi^qus facia, 880, R 2. 

AesUmo, constr., 880, R 1. 

AffaUm, w. gen., 871, R 4 

Affection of tlie mind, 874, R 2. 

AffiniB, constr., 856, and R 1. 

AiffirmatlTe, indefinite, and general, 

Agent, abL of, w. d (oft), 205, 403 ; 
without d {ab), 205, R 2; dative 
of, 206, 853, 858. 

Agreement of predicate and sub- 
ject, 202, 281, 283 ; of attribute 
and substantive, 285, 286; of rela- 
tive and antecedent, 616. 

4io, 651, R 

AUinua, w. dat., 856; with gcn.^ 
356, R 1 ; w. abl., R 5. 

AU^U, aliqul, 801. 

AUter with atque, 646; with Hn^ 

Am-^n, 821. 

iUitM,806; with abl., 899, R 2; 
with atmUf 646. 

^«w,806. fitter— oiter, 821. 

AUuB, 836. 

Ambiguity in use of ace and inf., 
637, R 4 

Amidi^ constr., 856 and R 1. 

^n, 459,462. 

AnacolQthon, 694. 

Animij constr., 874, R 8. 

Anndn, 461. 

AnUf in compds., with ace, 830; w. 
dat, 846. Ante, w. ace, 417. A, 
in expressions of time, 400, R 8. 

Anteceaent, 615 ; repeated, 617; in- 
corporated, 618; attraction into, 
619; omission of, 623. 

AnUqtKtm, constr., 576 folL 

Aorist, 215. 

Apodosis, 590 ; omitted. 603 foil. 

Apodotic period, 686. 

AposiOpOsis, 691. 

Apposition, 319. Partitive (restrict- 
ive), 320. Distributive, 321 ;wi«i 
ndmen^ 822; to a sentence, 333. 

Predicative, 824. Apposition of 

antecedent incorporated, 618. 
Apud^ w. accus., 417. 
Arrangement of words, 674 foil.; of 

clauses, 685. 
As, 824, R 8. 
AitpergOy constr., 848. 
Asseverations, 255. 
^«8M, 879. 

As9uetu», w. abl., 403, R 2. 
Asyndeton, 475, 488. 
Attempted actions bv present, 218, 

R 2 ; by imperf, 224. 
Attendance, ablative of, 891. 
Atque, for guam, 811, B. 6. See oe. 
Atqul, 491. 
Attraction of pronoun, 202, R 5. At 

traction of names of persons, 822. 

Attraction of mood, 509, 665 ; w. 

quod, 541, R 2. Attraction of 

relative, 619 ; inverted, 619, R 2. 
Aut, 495. 
Autem, 486. 
'Ax, verbals in, w. gen., 874. 


Becoming, verbs of, 197. 
BeUl, 412, R 8. 
Beseeching, verbs of, 546. 
Bewaring, verbs of, 548. 
Bens emerCt f)indere, 880, R. 8. 
Bidding, verbs of, 345 and R L 
Bb-th, part of, 895. 
Bani eonnUo, 880, R 2. 
Brachylogy, 689. 

Oapitii and eapUe, 377, R 1. 

Captus, w. abl., 398. 

Cases, syntax of, 837-412; nom., 
194; voc, 194, R. 2 ; accus., 337- 
840; dat, 342-856; gen., 867- 
383; abl., 381-409; with prepo- 
sition, 417-419. 

Causd, gr&tia, tr. gen., 373, 407. 

Causal particles, 500 ; sentences, 538 

Causal participle, 669. 

Causation, verbs of, w. partic, 537 

Cause, abl. of. 406. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



iJapi^ with snbj. for imperat, 264. 

Cbtw, w. ace. and dat, 847 ; nd, ui^ 
548, R. 2. 

Celo, 883 and R 2. 

Ceterum, 493. 

Chiasmns, 684. 

Choosing, verbs of, 197, 884 

( Yrcd, dreHer^ w. accus., 417. 

(Hrcumf compds. w. ace., 830; aA 
cum, w. ace., 417. 

Circumdo, constr., 848. 

CU, citrd, w. accus., 417. 

Citations in abl., 885. 

Cities, names of, 41(M12. 

Clam, w. abl., 417, R. 1. 

Clauses, 474. 

CoeptuB 8umy 424, R. 1. 

Cognate accus., 831. 

OoffndiuSf constr., 856, R 1. 

Coincident action, 583. 

OoUocdre in, w. abl., 384, R 1. 

Com, eon, in compds., w. dat, 846. 

Combination of relative sentences, 

Oomitar, constr., 347. 

Cdmrnunieare, constr., 846, R 1. 

Communis^ 356, R 1. 

Comparative degree with quam^ 
811, 647 foil.; with abl., 399; 
with gen., 370. 

Comparative particles for copula- 
tives, 484. C. sentences, 645 foil. 

Comparison, 811 ; standard of, omit- 
ted, 312; of qualities, 814. 

Complementary final sentences, 544, 

Compos, w. gen., 873. 

Compound sentences, 192, 474. 

Compounds of preposit. with ace, 
330; w. two ace., 330, R 1; w. 
dat, 846. 

Conceiving, verbs of, 528. 

Concessive subjunctive, 257. Con- 
cessive sentences and conjunc- 
tions, 606. C. participles, 611, 

Concord of predicate, w. subj., 202, 
281; number, 281; gender, 282; 
of attribute, 285 ; common attri- 
bute, 286 ; of apposition, 819 ; of 
relative, 616. 

Concords, the three, 201. 

Condemning, verbs of, 377. 

Condition, resulting, 228, 233. 

Conditional sentences, 590-604; la 
gical, 597; ideal, 598; unreal 
599 ; incomplete, 600 ; in oRATit 
OBLIQUA, 659 full.; conditional 
participle, 670. 

Ckmdikere, constr., 878. 

Conjunctions; — Coordinate, copula- 
tive, 477-484; adversative, 485- 
498; disjunctive, 494-497 cau- 
sal, 500; illative, 501-604 ; siib 
ordinate, causal, 538; final, 543; 
temporal, 561 ; conditional, 591. 

Comcius, w. gen., 873, R. 5. 

ConMere in, 384, R 1. 

ConnUum est, w. inf., 429, R 8* 

Conatituere in, 884, R. 1. 

Comto, 878, 896. 

Comulo, 847, 880, R 2. 

ConUrucUo praegnans, 696. 

Contentus, w. abl., 373, R 1. 

Continuance, verbs of, 424. 

ContigU, sequence after, 513, R 2. 

Contra, as adv., 416, R; w. aca« 

Contrdrius, 856, R 1. 

Convenio, 847. 

Convicting, verbs of, 877. 

Coordinate conjunctions. See Con* 

Copula, 196 ; omitted, 200 ; agree- 
ment with predicate, 202, R. 1. 

Copulative conjunctions, 477-484 
inserted, 483; omitted, 475, 483. 

Copulative verbs, 197. 

Cdram, with abl., 418. 

Correlatives of si, 595. Correlatives 
of qui, 620. Correlatives, list o( 

Cum, prep., abl., with and without, 
891, 401 ; postposiUve, 414. R 1 ; 
with abl., 4ia 

Cum iquum) primum, 563; eum 
^constr.), 581 ; temporal, 582 ; co- 
incident action, 588; lapse of 
time, 582, R 8 ; conditional, 584 ; 
iterative, 585; historical, 586; 
causal, 587; concessive, adversa> 
tive, 588 ; eum^um, 589. 

'Cumque, compounds with, 24^ 

Cupidtu, w. gen., 878. 


Curd ut, 264. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



DAtiye, 848-856 ; w. transitive verbs, 
844; w. intrans. verbs, 845; w. 
oompd. verbs, 846; differs from 
accos., 847 ; witli verbs of giving 
and patting, 848 ; with esse, 849 ; 
of the object for which, 850 ; ethi- 
cal dat, 851 ; of agent, 853 ; with 
gerund, 858 ; of participles, 854 ; 
with derivative nouns, 855; with 
adjectives, 356. Dative of gerund, 

Dg, with abl., 418 ; for gen., 871, R 
5.877,R 2; of tune, 81>8, R ; of 
origin, 895 ; with abL of measure, 
898, Rl. 


Deedre, 845, R 1. 

Declarative mood, 246. 

Dieemo, 546, R 2. 

Difleere, 845, R 1. 

Difigere in, abi., 884, R 1. 

Definite price, 404. 

Delay, verbs of, 551. 

Demanding, verbs of, 546. 

Demonstratives, use of, 290-292. 

Deponent verbs, 211. 

Depriving, verbs of, 889. 

Derivative nouns with dat, 855. 

Design, sentences of, 544 foil. ; re* 
inresented, 544, R. 2. 

Desire, adj. of, w. gen., 878 ; verbs 
ot w. mfl, 582; w. partic, 587. 

Di9&ui ium, 424, R 1. 

DSspiro, w. ace., 829, R. 1. 

Desthiation, 877, R 8. 

Determinative pronouns, 298-298. 

Diterreo, constr., 548, R 1. 

Difference, abl. of, 400. 

2H, du, compounds with, 888, R 1. 

Dignar, 896, R 2. 

Dignust 878, R 8 ; 898, R 2. Dignus 
qui, 556, R 2. 

Direct discourse. 509. 

Direct object, 827. 

Direct question. 454. 

Disadvantage, dat of, 845. 

Disgust, adj. of, 878. 

Disjunctive conjunctions, 494-499. 

IH9p€ir;id5Q, R 1. 

Disproportion, 318. 

Distance, abl. of, 400, li. 2. 

DiMre, w. dat, 888, R. 1; with 

abl., 400, R 1, 2 ; with ace., 885. 
Distributives, 810. 
Dd, with two datives, 850. 
Doeeo, 888, 424, R 8. 
Doetus, constr., 408, R 2. 
DoUo, w. ace., 829, R 1 ; w. quod, 

542. ^ 

2>a». 401, Rl. 
Domd», doinum, 410. 
Ddnee. See Dum. 
Doubt verbs of, 551. 
i>fl60, with two dat, 850; with gen., 

DubUo an, 459, R 
Dubito, other constr., 551, R. 
Dwm, with pres., 220, R 1, 672 ; w 

ind., 571-573 ; with subj., 574. 

Dum, Dunvmodo, 575. 

B or ex, with abl., 417; for gen., 

371, R 4 ; of origfai, 895 ; ea^fugd,, 

888,R 2. 
Eooe, 840, R 2. 
Egeo, 889, R. 1. 

Ellipsis of substantive, 195, R 1. 
Ellipsis, 688. 
Kmo, 878. 

Emotion, verbs of, 406, 542. 
Sn, 840, R 2. 
End, verbs of, 424. 
Endeavor, verbs of, 546. 

Enumeration In abl.« 884. 
-&d,w.gen.,871, R 4. 
Ej»gli, w. accus., iB56, R 2, 417. 
Ergd, w. gen., 872. 
Ergd, conj., 504. 
Est qui, 684 
^, 584; e< ip96, 297,R 2; ei ngma^ 

482 ; et ndn, 482, R 1. 
Stenim, 500. 
Miam, 480. 
Ethical dative, 851 
Eticmsl, em, 605, 606. 
Exclamations, 340 ; with ace. and 

inf., 534; witii 1^^,560. 
Expers, w. gen,, 873. 
Exspectd/re, constr., 574. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 


Extent in space, 885, 886. 
External qualities, 402, R. 
Setrd, as an adverb, 416, R. ; with 
ace, 417. 

% Foe, in circumlocutions, 264 

Faeio, with gen., 865, Rl,878; w. 

inf., 627, R. 1 ; w. part, 687; w. 

subj., 667. 
Feeling, dat of, 851. 
Fearing, verbs of, 847, 652. 
i?^kto,845,R. 1,407. 
Filling, verbs of, 878, R 6, 889. 
Final sentences, 643 foil. 
Fine, abl. of. 877, R 1. 
i^, with two nom., 197 ; with two 

dat, 860 ; with abl., 896, R t 
Fitness, adjectives of, 856. 
FtdffUo, 888 and B. 2. 
Forbidding, verbs of, 845. 
Forgetting, verbs of, with gen., 375. 
Frequens, 824, R. 5. 
Frequentative. See Iterative. 
/^6<w«, with abl., 873, R. 1. 
Friendliness, adj. of, 856. 
Fnuyr, 406 ; fruendus, 428, R. 8. 
Fnh perf. partic. p£ss. with, 242. 
Fulness, acyectives of, 878. 
Fungor, 406 ; fungendus, 428, R. 8. 
Future, 234; periphrastic, 239; in 

subjunctive, 614 ; inf., 629. 
Future participle, 279. 
Future perfect, 236 foil. ; iterative 

use, 669. 
Futurum esse, fare ut, 240, 531. 
FatHtrumfume uU 240, R. 2, 659. 

of memonr, 875; with verbs of 
emotion, 876; w. Judicial verbs, 
877 ; with verbs of rating and 
buying, 878-880; gen. with tn- 
ierest and r^tfr^, 881, 882 » appa 
rent gen., 412 ; gen. of gerund 
and gerundive, 429. 

Gerund and gerundive, 426-482; 
gerundive for gerund, 428; after 
prepositions, 428, 488-4; geron- 
dive formation restricted, ^. R 
2, 8; genitive of, 429; dative 
of, 480 ; accus. of, 481 ; ablat of 

Qldrufr^ wiUi abl., 407. 

Qraiia, with gen., 872, 407. 

HabeOy w. perf. part pass., 230 ; with 

two dat, 850; with gen., 878; 

with inf., 424, R ; nihil Iidbeo quod 

and ndn habeo quid, 634. 
Habit, verbs of, 424. 
Happening, verbs of, 625, 658. 
Haud, 442. Hand sdo an, 459, R. 
Hendiadys, 695. 
Hei, 840, R. 2. 
ffeu, 840« 

J7l<;,290; of time, 892, R 4 
Historical tenses, 216.. Historical 

present, 220. Historical eum, 686. 
Hodiemus, 824, R 6. 
Hope, verbs of, 424, R a 
Eorrere, w. accus., 829, R 1. 

Qaudeo, w. abl., 407; w. inf., 533; 
w. qtiodf 642. 

Generic relative with ind^ 246, R 4. 

Genitive, 857-882 ; appositive gen., 
or gen. of specification, 359; pos- 
sess, gen., 360 ; active and passive, 
361-363 ; gen. of quality, 864 ; as 
a predicate, 865 ; partitive gen., 
866 foil. G. generis, dQ7,^,; gen. 
with prepositional substantives, 
872 ; with adj ., 878 ; with verbals 
and participles, 874; with verbs 

Ideal second person, 252, 267. Idea] 
. conditional sentence, 698. 
Idem, 296 ; predicative use of, 82i 

R 2 ; with dat, 866, R 6. 
Idaneus, with dat, 856; ^i, 550 

Igitar, 508. 
Jgndrtis, w. gen., 878. 
Ignorance, adjectives of, w. gen 

Illative conjunctions, 502-504. 
lUe, 292 ; of time, 892, R 4. 
Immemor, w. gen., 878. 
Impedio, oonstr., 648, 549. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



Imperatire, 250-269; tenses, 250- 
2G3; D^ativc, 263; periphrases 
for, 264; representatives of posi- 
tive imperalivc, 265 ; of negative, 
266; of positive and ne^tivc, 
267, 268 ; time of, 272; imperative 
in ordiio obUqua^ 655. 

Imperfect tense, indicative, 222 
foil.; subjunctive, 252; in se- 
quence of tenses, 517 ; in unreal 
conditional sentences, 599, 11. 2 ; 
used modally, 246, TL 2. 

Fmpero, w. inf., 532, IX, 1. 

Impersonal verbs, 199. 

Impertio^ 848. 

Imprimere in, abl., 884, R. 1. 

In, in compounds with ace., 880 ; 
with dat., 846. In, with abl. of 
place, 884, R. ; with ace., 418, R ; 
with ace and abl., 419. /n, with 
abl. of time, 898. 

Inclination, verbs of, 824. 

Incorporation of antecedents, 618. 

Indefinite perfect, 215; pronouns, 
800-806; antecedent, 623. 

Indicative mood, 246 ; for subjunc- 
tive, 599, R. 2. 8cc the different 
classes of sentences. 

Indigeo, constr., 889. R. 2. 

Indignus, w. abl., 873, It 3 ; 398, R. 
2. IndignuB qui, 550, R. 2. 

Indirect discourse. Siee draUocth 

Indirect object, 20S, 348. 

Indirect questions, 462. 

Induo, constr., 848. 

In eo€sseut,2iX, 

Infinitive, tenses of, 278 foil. 530; 
subject of, 841,526; as a noun, 
420, 422 ; as a sulject, 428 ; as an 
object, 424 ; as a predicate, 425 ; 
uccus. and inf, 526; ambiguity of 
accus. and inf., 527, R. 4 ; accus. 
and inf, with verbs of will and 
desire. 532; with verbs of erao- 
tion, 533 ; in exclamations, 534 ; 
accus. and in'', as a subject, 535 ; 
in lelat. sent., 688; historical, 650. 

Infra, as an adverb, 416, R. ; with 
accus., 417. 

Inquanif 651, R. 1. 

Inquiry, verbs of, 833. 

Inwnbere in, abl., 384, R. 

Instar, witli gen., 872. 

Initrmnent, abl. of, 205, 408. 

Inter, in compound with dat, 846. 
Inter, witli accus., 417 ; with ac- 
cus. for gen., 871, R. 4. Inter si, 
212. Inter of time. 893, R. 

Intercalary period, 686. 

Interest, constr., 381-882. 

Inteijections, 194, R. 8 ; with divers 
cases, 840. ^^ 

Interrogative sen tencesriBl-473 . 

Intrd, with accus., 417; of time, 
893, R. 

Intransitive ;erbs, 204, 845. 

Inverted attraction, 619, R. 2. 

Inmtus, 824, R. 6. 

£>w, use of, 297 foil. 

Ire, with supine, 436, R. 2. 

Islands, names of smaller, constr., 
410, 411, 412. 

Itaque, 502. 

Ita — ut, restrictive, 556, R. 5. 

Item, Uidem, 645. 

Iterative tenses, 568-9. 


Jubeo, constr., 582, R. 1 ; 546, R. 1. 

Jure, 898. 

Jusm, 407. 

Juvo, w. accus., 845, R. 1. 

Knowledge, acyectives of, 873 

Ldtus, constr., 886. 

Lige, 898. 

Letters, tenses in, 244; date, 411. 


Liber, 873, R. 4, lllfero, w. abl., 388. 

Librd, and in Ubrd, 885, R. 

Licere, constr., 878. 

Licet, constr., 535. R. 2, 609. 

Lilceness, adjectives of, 356; wftft 

Loedre, constr., 878. 
Locative, 412. 
Locd, 885. R 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



T/mgi, with superL, 8t7. 
Longus, w. accus., 830. 


Magis qitam, 814. 
Magnl^Mf^ magno, 880. 
MakinpfTVerbs of, with two accus., 

834; passive of, w. two nom., 

Male, emere, venders, 880, R. 8. 
Mdio, constr., 532, K. 8 ; 546, R. 8. 
Manner, abl. of, 401. 
Material, abl. of, 896. 
Mdiutinus, 824, R. 0. 
Measure, abl. of, 898-400 ; of diflTer- 

ence, 400. 
Medeor, w. dat., 845, R. 2; meden^ 

du8, 428, R 3. 
Melius^ w. indie, 246, R. 1. 
Memini, w. pres. inf., 277, R.; w. 

gen. 375. 
Memor, w. gen., 373. 
Memorid teneo, 277, R. 
Memory, verbs of constr., 375. 
Metuo, w. dat. and ace., 347. 
MUitiae, 412, R. 2. 
Mme, 308. 
MinoriSy 880. 
Minor, minus, without guam, 811, 

Mlrdrl, with accus., 329, R. 1. 
Mlrum quantum^ 469, R. 2. 
Misereor, miser esco, misei^et, w. gen., 

Mittere, w. two dat., 350. 
Moderor, with dat. and accus., 347. 
Modo, Yfiih subjunc, 575. 
Modo-modo, 484. 
Moneo, w. gen., 375 and R. 1 ; with 

ut, 546 ; with inf., 646, R. 2. 
Mood, attraction of, 509, 665. 
Moods, 245 ; indie, 246 foil. ; sub- 

junctive, 247 foil.; imperative, 

259 ; infinitive, 245, R 
i/(>m e«^, 365, R. 1. 
Moving cause, 407, R. 
Multiplication of subjects, 280 folL 
Multitude, noun of, 202, R. 1. 
Multo, with superlat., 317; 
Multus, with et, 483. 
MOio, constr.. 404, R. 

JVam, namque' 500. 

Name, dat. of, 822 ; gen. of, 359. 

Names of cities and small islaiida, 
constr., 410, 411,412. 

Naming, verbs of, with two accus., 

Hdttts, w. accus., 838 ; w. abl, 895. 


J\^e, with optative subj., 253; with 
imper. subj., 256, 266 ; with im- 
perat, 268, 264; with sentences 
of design, 643 ; of result, 566, R. 
4 ; ne, granted that, 610. 

Nearness, adjectives of, 856. 

JSTeeesse est, 5S5,n. 1,2. 

Necessity, expressed how, 246, R. 1. 

Necne, 461. 

Nee non, 448, R. 3. 

Mdum, 484, R. 2. 

Negative, of optative subjunctive, 
253; of imperative, 263; ncga- 
tives, 442 foil.; subdivision of, 
444 ; position of, 447 ; two nega- 
tives, 448. 

Nego, 446. 

Nemo, 804. 

Nempe, 600, R. 2. 

Neque, 482. Ne-quidem, 444, 484. 

Nesdo an,459,R. 

Nescio quis, qudmodo, with indic, 
469, R. 2. 

Neuter adjective as substantive, 
199, R. 4 ; as cognate accus., 831, 
R. 2 ; as adverb, R 8 ; with par- 
titive gen., 371. 


Nihil, 304; nihill, 379. 

Nisi and si non, 592 ; nisi and tusi 
si = only, 692, R. 2 ; nisi quod, R. 
3 ; nisi forte, R. 4. 

Nltor, with abl., 403, R 3. 

No, 473. 

Noll, wiih inf. for imperat., 264. 

Nolo, 632. 

Nomen est, 322. Nomen w. gen., 359. 

Nominative, 194 ; double, 196 ; nom. 
for accus., 527 R. 3 ; with inf , 52a 

Nun, 442; position of, 447; nan 
quod, 5^0,541, R 1. 

Non alius guam, 646, R 2. 

Non modo-sdlum Umfum, 484 

Nonne, 457. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



Mn poamm ndn^ 448, R. 1. 
A3« = ego, 195, li 7. 
Wiitri, nSstntm, 863 and R 
Nouns. See Substantive and Ad- 

mbo, with dat.. 845, R. 2. 
Jfullus, 801, 804 ; for nan, R. 2. 
Ifum, 458. 
Number, sinj^ular for plural, 105, R. 

7 and 8 ; agreement in, 202. 
Ifunc-^une, 484. 


O, with voc, 194, R. 2; w. accus., 

6 »5, 254, 603. 

Ob, in compds. with ace, 830; with 
dat., 846. 0&, w. accus., 417. 

Object, direct, 207; indirect, 208; 
iufin. as object, 424; object sen- 
tences, 523-537 ; witli quod, 525 ; 
witli ace. and inf., 526 foil. 

Object, for wliich, 850. 

Obligation expressed, 246, R. 1. 

Oblique cases, 827-408. 

Obliquity, partial, 509. 

OMlviscor, constr., 875, R. 1. 

Olere and redolere, w. accus., 329, R. 

Omitting, verbs of, 551. 

07nnes, 868. R. 2. 

Oplnidne, 899, R. 1. 

Oportet, 5a5, R. 1 ; 559, R. 1. 

Optative, subjunctive, 253. 

Opto, 424, R. 2 ; 546. 

Opus, 890. 

Ordtio oMlqua, 509, 651-666; moods 
in. 509, 658, 654; tenses in, 656 
foil. ; condit. sentences in, 659 ; 
pronouns in, 668 ; involved, 665-6. 

Ordinals for cardinals, 809. 

Ordine, 401,1^' 

Origin, abl. of, 395. 

Ortiis, 895. 


Paenitet, 876; paenitendus, 428, 

Pdr and dlspdr, consir,, 856, R. 1. 
Part, accus. of, 832. 
Fartic^ps, w. gen., 378. 

Participial clauses, interrogative ii., 

Participial sentences, 667 foil. 

Participles, tenses, 278-9 , w. geni- 
tive, 874; subordination by 
means of, 409, R.2; 667, R. 1 ; 
participle as substant., 488 ; as ad- 
ject, 489 ; after verbs of Perccp- 
tion and Representation, 527, R. 
1, 586 ; verbs of Causation and 
Desire. 587. 

Participation, adjectives of, 373. 

Partition in English, none in Latin, 
868, R. 1. 

Partitive genitive, 866-871. 

Partitive, use of attribute, 287, R. ; 
apposition, 821. 

Parum, w. gen., 871. 

PaiTl, 879. 

Passionate Question, 268. 

Passive voice, 205 ; passive of in- 
transitive verbs, 199, R; 205, 
208 ; passive genitive. 361. 

PeciUidris, constr., 356, R 1. 

Pedibus, 401, R 

Penes, w. accus., 417. 

Per, in compds. with ace, 880; ?)«r, 
with ace, 417 ; position, 415, R 
Per, of space, 835 ; of time, 887 , 
of manner, 401, R. 

Perceiving, verbs of, constr., 527, 

Perfect, pure, 227; historical, 231 • 
passive, 242; perfect in letters 
244; perfect subjunctive, poten- 
tial, 250 ; optative, 258 ; impera- 
tive, 256, 266, 2 ; time of, 271 ; 
in sequence, 511 ; in sentences of 
result, 518 ; perfect infin., 275 ; as 
representative of indie, 277, 580, 
R. ; perf. part. 278 ; after verbs of 
causation and desire, 537; con- 
cessive, 670. 

Period of action, 213. 

Periphrastic conjugation, 238-243; 
subj.; 514-516; 'infin., 531; in 
ordtio obliqua, 659. 

Perltus, w. gon., 878. 

Pei-mitto vt, 632, R. 1. 

Person, concord of, 202, 283. 

Personal pronoun omitted, 198 ; 
gen. of, 862 ; personal pronoun w 
gerundive, 429, R 1. 

Person interested, 206. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



BsmMeo, 845, K. 3; w. inC, 540, 

Pertamim eti, 876. 



Placing, verbs of, 88i R 1. 

Place, whither, 843, 410; where, 
884-387, 41d ; whence, 888 ; place, 
as cause, manner, or instrument, 

Ha/»tM. 373andR.2. 

Pluperfect, 283; indie, for subj., 
246, R 8; 599. R 8; iterative, 
569 ; pluper£ subj. as imperat of 
past. 266, R 8 ; in sequence, 517 ; 
iterative, 569, R 2 ; in conditional, 

Plural of abstracts, 195, R 5, 6 ; for 
smg., R 7. 

PlurSnl, 879. 

Pluris, 879. 

Plu8, without quam, 811, R 4. 

Pdne, w. accus., 417. 

Pdnere in, abl.. 884, R 1. 

Pmco, constr., 838 and R 2. 

Position of attribute, 287, 288 ; of 
preposition, 414 foil; of adverb, 
441 ; of negative, 447 foil. ; posi- 
tion, in interrogative sentences, 
470; of relative, 614. Sec 674 foil. 

Posse, for future, ^, R 8; 659, 

Possessive genitive, 860. 

Possessive pronouns, use of, 299; 
apposition with gen., 819. R2; 
for genitive, 363 ; with rifert and 
interest, 381 ; reflexive, 295, R 1, 
521, R 2. 

Possessor, dative of, 349. 

Possibility expressed, 246. R 1. 

B)st, in compounds with dat., 346 ; 
in expressioi^s of time, 400, R 3. 
Post, w. accus., 417. 

Pdst quam, 563-567. 

Postuh, constr., 333. R 2. 

Potential subjunctive, 250 foil., 519, 

Poteram, 246, R 2. 

Potior, constr., 405, and R. 8. 

Potius quam, 579, R., 647, R 4. 

Potnisse, for futurumfuisse ut, 659, 

Power expressed, 246, R 1 ; adjec- 
tives ot; 373. 

Ihxie, in compounds w. dat« 816 
with abl., 407, R,418. 

Praeditus, w. abl., 878, R 1. 

PraestSlor, constr., 847. 

Praeter, in compds., w. accus., 380. 

Praeter, w. accus., 417. 

Predicate, 192 ; predicative apposi- 
tion and attribution, 824. 

Prepositions. 418-419; origin of 
word, 418, R 8 ; position of. 414 
415 ; repetition and omission o^ 
416 ; adverbial, 416, R ; prep<v 
sitions w. ace, 417; with abl., 
418 ; with accus. and abl., 419 ; 
with gerundive, 428, 438-4 ; witli 
ace. and abl. gerund., 433-4. 

Present indicat., 218-221 ; of en- 
deavor, 218, R 2 ; for future, 219 ; 
for past, 220; with jam, jamcfw, 
jctmpi'idem, 2^1 ; present subjunc- 
tive, time of, 271 ; in sequence of 
tenses, 517; for future, 614; in 
conditional sentences, 598 ; pre- 
sent infinitive, 274 ; of contempo- 
raneous action, 529 ; present par- 
ticiple, 278. 

Preventing cause, 407, R 2 ; verl^s 
of, 548, 549. 

Price, gen. of, 378; abl. of, 404. 

PHmo, prlmum, 824, R 7. 

Principal clauses, 474. 

Prio7\ primus, as predicates, 324, R 
6, 7 ; w. gen., 870. 

Pnus quam, constr., 576-9. 

Prd, interjecUon, 840, R 2. 

Pro, in compounds, w. dat., 846. 

Prd, with abl., 418. Pro eo ut, 645, 

Prohibeo, constr., 548. 

Prolepsis, 470. 

Promise, verbs of, 424. R 2. 

Pronouns, 290-306 ; demonstrative, 
290-292 ; reflexive. 294, 520-^2 ; 
determinative, 293-298 ; possess- 
ive, 299 ; indefinite, 300-306 ; in 
dr&Ua obllqua, 663. 

Prope, w. accus., 417. 

Propius, constr., 356, R. 4. 

Proprius, 356, R 1. 

Propter, w. accus., 417. 

Protasis, 590 ; omitted, 252, R 1, 

Proximi, w. accus., 856, R 4. 

Prudens, as adv., 824, R. 5. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 




Pare perfect, 227. 

Puto, w. gen^ 878. 

Putting, yerbs of, constr.* 848, 884» 


Qua priUUnm e$, 618. R. 1. 

Qualification of subject, 284. 

Qudha, G45. 

Quality, gen. of, 864; ablative of, 

Qualities, two compared, 814. 

Quam. w. comparatives, 811, 647 ; 
w. superlatives, 817; quamprd, ut, 
qui, 813 ; quam qwd^ S25 ; quam 
«1, 604 ; quam omitted, 811, U. 4. 

Quamdiit, 570, 645. 

OuamvU, 608. 

Quando, qtianddquidem, 588. 

Quanquam^ 607. 

Quantl, 379, 380 ; quantui^ 645. 

Quasi, 604. 

'Que, 478. 

Questions. See Interrogative Sen- 

Qui, indef., 802. 

Out, 612 foil. See Relative. 

Quia, 538 ; non quia, 541, R. 1. 

Quieunque, 246, R. 4. 

Quldam, 300. 

Quidem, 292, R. 4. 


^i/i, in questions, 268 ; gu in, 550 ; 
after verbs of omitting, eta, 551 ; 
for qui ndn, 556 ; ndn quin, 541, 
R. 1 ; 635. 

Quis, indef., 302. 

Ouiftpiam, 303. 

Qaiiquam, 304. 

Quitque, 305 ; ii^ quisque, 645, R. 2. 

QtiMgtfi9, w. ind.. 246, R 4. 

Qud, measure of difference, 400 ; = 
that thoreby, 545; quo quisque, 
645, R. 2. 

Quoad, with gen., 871, R. 4 ; constr., 

Quod, in object sentences, 525 ; in 
causal sentences, 538-541 ; w. 
verbs of emotion, 542 foil. ; niti 
quod, 592, R. 8 ; quodA, ubi, 612, 


QuominM, fiiA 

Ouoniam, 538 foil 

Quoque, 481. 

Quot, w. gen., 868, R.; correkt, 

Quoties, 569 ; correl., 645. 
Quotquot, w. ind., 246, R. 4. 
^tf um. See euuL 

Rating, verbs of, constr., 878» 

Reciprocal relations, 212. 

Reeordor, 875, R. 2. 

Heciiso, constr., 548, R 1. 

i2ftfi20, 834, R. 

Bifert, constr., 881, 382. 

ReferiuB, constr., 873, K. 1. 

Reflexive pronoun, 294 ; in subor 
dinate sentences, 520-522. 

Refraining, verbs of, 551. 

Refusing, verbs of, 548. 

Relative sentences, 506, 612 foil. ; 
relative, position of, 614^ con- 
cord of, 616 ; attraction of, 619 ; 
correlatives of, 620 ; relative 
clause, position of, 622 ; tenses in, 
624, 625: moods in, 626 foil.; 
ind., 626 foil. ; subj., 639 foil. ; in 
oratio obliqua, 630 ; by attraction, 
631 ; when qui = ut is, 632-634 ; 
when qui = cum is, 636 ; accus. 
rel. and inf., 638 ; combination of 
relative sentences, 639 ; relative 
in ordiio obtiqua, 658, R. 1 and 2 ; 
relative represented by participle, 

EeUnquo, with two datives, 850. 

Remaining, verbs of, 197. 

Remembering, verbs of, 375. 

Reminding, verbs of, 375. 

Beminiscor, 375 and R. 2. 

Repeated action. See Iterative. 

Representatives of imperative, 265- 

Representation, verbs of, with par- 
ticiple. 536. 

Requiring, verbs of, 333. 

Bes, use of; 195, R. 4. 

Resisting, verbs of, 345. 

Restriction to the comparative 

Restrictive apposition. 320. 

Result, subjunctive of, 553 foil.; 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



exceptional sequence in sentences 

of result, 513. 
ttcsolve, verbs of, 424, and R 2. , 
Rhetorical questions, 453. R. 2 ; in 

ordtio oUiqua, 654, R. 
Rtdeo, vr. accus., 329, R 1. 
Rocjdta, 407. 

Jture, 410, Ul; rfi«,410. 
liarh 412. 


5iw^. 350. R. 1. 

Sacrifice, 403, R. 2. 

SatM, w. gen., 371. • 

Saying, verl)s of, constr., 529, 530. 

Mens, 324. R. 6. 

Seat of feeling, 374, R. 3. 

i^d -487. 

Seeming, verbs of, 197. 

Sentences, simple, 192 ; expanded, 
280; compound, coordinate and 
subordinate, 474 ; copulative, 477 
fbll. i adversative, 480 foil. ; dis- 
junctive, 495 foil. ; causal. 500 ; 
illative, 502; object, 523 foil.; 
causal, 538 foil ; final, 543 foil. ; 
consecutive, 553 foil. ; temporal, 

• 662 foil. ; conditional, 590 foil. ; 
concessive, 605 foil. ; relative, 
612 foil. ; comparative, 641 foil. ; 
abridged, 648 foil. 

Separation, abl. of, 388. 
Sequence of tenses, 510 foil. 
' 8^u. See Sive. 

• Showing, verbs of, with two nom., 

197; with two accus., 334; with 
accns. and in fin;, 526-529. 

a. wiiether, 462; if, 591. 

Sign of conditional omitted, 600. 

Sikntio, 401, R 

Slmilis, constr., 356, R 1. 

Simple sentences, 195; expanded, 

• 280foll. 
^mul — simul, 484 
Simulae, 563. 

?*n (minus, aecus^ aliter), 593. 

tfi non, 592. 

Sine, with abl., 418; not used with 

gerund, 434. 
Singular for plural, 195, R 7 and 8. 
Sino, w. accus. and inf., 424, R. 3 ; 

without ut, 546, R 3. 
Sitio, with accus., 329, R. 1. 

8ive~^ve, 498, 499. 

Space, extent in, 335, 336. 

Spe, comparative with, 899, R 1. 

Specification, genitive of, 359. 

Specific characteristic, 357. 

Stage of action, 213. 

Standard of comparison omitted, 


Statito in, w. abl., 384, R 1. 

Sto, constr., 378; with aN., 403. 

Shdtitiae est, 965,11. 

Sub, in compounds with ace, 330 ■ 
with dat., 846 ; with ace. and abl* 
419 ; comp., 413, R. 

Subject, the forms of, 195 ; objec 
for, 470; accus. subj. of infin.,- 
526, R ; subject omitted, 527, R. 
2 ; 532, R 3 ; nom. subj. for ac- 
cus., 528. 

Subjective genitive, 361. 

Subjunctive, 247; ideal and unreal 
248 ; potential, 250 ; optative, 253 ; 
in asseverations, 255 ; as impera- 
tive, 256 ; as concessive, 257. 

Subjunctive, future, how represent- 
ed, 514. See different classes of 

Subllmis, 324, R 6. 

Subordinate clauses, 474. 

Subordination by means of partici- 
ple, 409, R. 2. 

Substuntiva mobiUa, 202. 

Substantive, agreement of attribute 
with, 285 foil.; substantive sen- 
tences, 507. 

Subter, in compounds with accus., 
330 ; with ace. and abl., 419. 

Sul. See Reflexive. 

Sum, with dat., 349, 350 ; w. dative 
of gerund, 430 ; with predicative 
genitive, 365. 

Sunt qui, 634. 

Super, in compounds with ace, 
330; with dat., 346; super, with 
ace, and abl., 419. 

Superlative, 316 ; strengthieued, 317 i 
with gen., 370. 

Supine, 435-437 ; accus. 436 ; ablal., 

Supplico, w. dat, 345, R 2, 

Supra, as adv., 416, R. ; with accus. 

Sutts, use of, 294, 299, R 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



Sifnesis, 202, R. 1. 
Bjntax, defined, 192. 

Tranellive verbs, 204, { 
Tum-^eumt 582. 
3\im— <M«», 484. 
Tuus, 209, R. 

I'able of temporal relations, 217. 

Taedet, 370. 

Taking, verbs of, 334. 

Talis, 645. 

Tamdiu, 645. 

Tanien, 493. 

TaTii^tel, 606. 

7lim ^i^m, to?7» ^'wam «l, 604. 

Tanil, 380 ; to/i^e^m abest uU 556, 
R 1 ; tantus, 645. 

Teaching, verbs of, 333. 

Tempero, constr., 347. 

Temporal conjunctions for copula- 
tive, 484 ; conjunctions, 561 ; tem- 
poral relations, table of, 217. 

Temjms eat, 429, li. 3. 

Tendency, sentences of, 553 foil. 

Teneo, w. perf. part, pass., 230. 

Tenses, 213 foil. : number of, 214 ; 
present, 218-221; perfect pure, 
227-230: historical, 231 ; imper- 
fect, 222 foil. ; pluperfect, 233 ; fu- 
ture, 234-5 ; future perfect. 236-7 ; 
periphrastic, 238; active, 239; 
passive, 240-243 ; in letters, 244 ; 
tenses of indicative, 270 ; subjunc- 
tive, 271; imperative, 272; in- 
finitive, 273 foil. ; participle, 278 ; 
sequence of tenses, 510 foil.; 
dependent infinitive, 529 foil., 
iterative, 568, 569; in ordtio ob- 
llqua, 656 foil. 

Tentis, position. 414, R. ; with abl 
and gen., 418. 

Thinking, verbs of, 197 ; with ac- 
cus. and inf., 526-529. 

Time, accus. of, 337-8 ; abl. of, 392, 
393 ; with t/i,393; with ante^ pod^ 
abhinc, 400. R. 3 ; participle, 608. 

Timeoy w. dat, 347. 

Toties, 645. 

Tottis, of space, 386; of time, 392, R. 2. 

Towns, names of, 410-412. 

2Va7i«, in compounds, w. accus., 

330 ; with two accus., 330, R. 2, 

2 ; w. accus., 417. 
Transient qualities. 402, R 1. 

Ubi, w. gen., 871, R.4; of time, 

Ultra, as adv., 416, R. ; with accus., 

Unreal conditional sentence, 599. 
tfnu9, unus omnium, with superlat^ 

Unus, how translated, 324, R. 5; 

unus qui, 633. 
Urging, verbs of; 546. 
Usus, 390, 559. 
Ut—ita, concessive, 484. 
Ut utl, design, 545 ; tendency, 554 ; 

ut omitted, 546, R. 3 ; 647, R. 4. 
Vt qui, 627, R., 636; ut, of cause, 

645, R. 4. 
Ut, in exclamatory questions, 660. 
Ut non, 543 ; 556, R 6. 
Ut si, 604. 

Ut quisque—ita. 645, R. 2. 
Uter, 315, R. 
UUirque, 370, R. 2. 
Utinam, 254. 

Ctor, 405 ; uiendus, 428, R. a 
Ut prlmum, 563. 
Utrum, 400, 461, R. 


Vacdre, 347. 

Vacuus, constr., 888. 

Fatf.340. R2. 

Value, gen. of, 378 


Vel, with superl, 817 ; vel, 496. 

Vel—vel, 496. 

VeUe, for future, 240, R. 3 ; velU sibi 

351, R 
Velut, velutsl, 604. 
Vendo, 378. 
Veneo, 378. 

Venio, with two dat., 350. 
Venit in mentem, 375. R 3 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 

400 nn>sx of sTirrAx 

7erb, ydpea, actire, 204; paasire, Voleni, 824, R 6; voUnH, 854, B. 1. 
205 ; reflexiye, 209 ; deponent, Vdo, 582, and R 4; 540. mnd H. a 
211; tenses, 213 foil; moods, Vdtl damndri, Sn, IL ^ 
245 foil See Voice, Mood, Tense. F&c, with gen., 859. 

Verbal nouns, sequence after, 518. 

Verbum, w. gen., 359. 

Vereor, 424, 552 ; w. dat, 347. W. 

Vera, 489. 

Versus^ position, 414; w. accus., Want, verbs of, 889 ; adj. of, 878, and 
417. R 1 ; 889, R 2. 

Viruniy 488. ' Warning, verbs of. 546 

Verto, w. two dat, 350. Whither? 842, 410. 

Vescor, 405 ; f)e9eendu$, 428, R 8. Wishhig, verbs o^ 532, 546. 

Vespertlnus, 324, R. 5. 

Vestri testrum, 362, R 

Veto, w. ace, 345, R 1; with inC, Y. 

424. R. 3. Yes, 47a 

Vid et rations, 401, R Yieldiug, verbs of, w. dat, 84^ 

Videre nl, 552, R 2. 

n«tarmi«, 401.R 

Fliw, w. abl., 405, R 8. Z. 

focaUve, 194, R a 

f oioe, acdve, 204 ; paKsive, 206. Zengma, 090. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 

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Digitized by LjOOQ IC